Jessica hegoas


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Jessica hegoas

  1. 1. The Role of Gender in Child Discipline Jessica Hegoas Sociology 235 Erica Dixon
  2. 2. Why I am interested in this topic… <ul><li>I am the mother of two young children and I believe in positive parenting approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>I have also studied the negative effects of corporal punishment in children in other classes that I have had. </li></ul><ul><li>This course has deepened my level of understanding regarding this topic as the role of gender is discussed in parenting. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background… <ul><li>There have been many studies showing the effects of corporal punishment as a method for discipline in child-rearing. One sociologist, Murray Strauss, is credited for doing extensive research on this topic. He suggests that an overwhelming amount of such discipline is carried out by males and that “the actual or implicit threat of physical coercion is one of many factors underlying male dominance in the family” (Kimmel, 189). This statement also inspired me to conduct further research on this topic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background… <ul><li>In a publishing from the Journal of Family Violence by psychologist Laura McKee and her colleagues, from the University of Vermont, Dartmouth Medical Center, and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have asked, “Do rates of harsh verbal and physical discipline differ by gender of parent and child?,” (McKee et al. 188). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background… <ul><li>The participants in the aforementioned article were recruited from pediatric hospitals in New England and consisted of married parents with children totaling 2,582 child/parent dyads. Demographic data was collected after families completed a number of survey questions constructed to evaluate positive parenting, warmth, appropriate discipline, harsh verbal and physical discipline, and overall youth externalizing of symptoms (McKee et al., 189-190). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background… <ul><li>Their preliminary results showed that there was a significant difference in using harsh physical discipline between mothers and fathers when it came to punishing boys, but similar levels when it came to punishing girls. Furthermore, the study concluded that there was a great deal of externalizing behavior problems such as aggression and depression associated with fathers’ harsh verbal and physical discipline even (McKee et al., 196). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hypothesis… <ul><li>In conducting my research regarding the role of gender in child discipline I predicted that in two-parent American households consisting of a mother and a father there will be a greater incidence of corporal punishment and verbal punishment carried out by fathers than by mothers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methods & Participants <ul><li>I decided to model my research based on other previous studies where participants fill out a survey indicating whether or not they use certain methods of discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>I interviewed a total of 11 families which equaled 22 surveys, one from each mother and one from each father. </li></ul><ul><li>My participants were two-parent households from my neighborhood, South Puget Sound Community College, and the Moms Club of Yelm. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Participant Demographics <ul><li>My participants included six military families and five civilian families. </li></ul><ul><li>The ethnical diversity of my study included eight Caucasian families, one white/African American interracial couple, an Asian/Pacific Islander couple, and a Hispanic couple. </li></ul><ul><li>I estimated that the socio-economical background of my participants were mostly low middle class. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Results… <ul><li>I asked questions regarding the preferred method or methods of discipline; however, I also asked questions about family dynamics within their households. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sample of questions… <ul><li>Who is the head of your household? </li></ul><ul><li>Who makes most of the decisions when it comes to disciplining the children? </li></ul><ul><li>Circle which statement you agree with the most: </li></ul><ul><li>I spank my child(ren) when they misbehave, it’s the only way they will listen. </li></ul><ul><li>I spank my child(ren), but only in an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>I spank my child(ren), but my spouse does not. </li></ul><ul><li>I do not spank my children, but my spouse does. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither I nor my spouse has ever spanked our child(ren) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results… <ul><li>I created a data table based on the responses of the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>For each response that indicated that they preferred to use “spanking” or “shouting” as methods of discipline I assigned a point for violent discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>For each participant that claimed their spouse used any of these methods I also assigned a point in the appropriate category. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results… <ul><li>By assigning points to violent discipline such as shouting or spanking I found that women totaled 10 points for each response that indicated violence and men totaled 12 points for each response that indicated violence. </li></ul><ul><li>These points were carried over from their own responses as well as what their spouses indicated their behavior demonstrates and then I separated the responses by verbal and physical violence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusions… <ul><li>I was very surprised to find that while men showed more of an inclination to use intense forms of physical discipline, women were more likely to use intense verbal discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>The results supported my original hypothesis regarding corporal punishment, but not regarding verbal punishment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions… <ul><li>The limitations of this research were that participants may not have given me an entirely honest view of what actually takes place within their household. </li></ul><ul><li>If I were to conduct this study again I would perhaps ask children to answer survey questions. In addition, I might have gone to a park and recorded data from directly observing parent behavior instead of conducting a survey. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References… <ul><li>Kimmel, M. S. (2011). Chapter 6: The Gendered Family. In The gendered society (pp. 189-190). New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>McKee, L., Roland, E., Coffelt, N., Olson, A. L., Forehand, R., Massari, C., ... Zens, M. S. (2007). Harsh Discipline and Child Problem Behaviors: The Roles of Positive Parenting and Gender. Journal of Family Violence , 22 (1573-2851), 187-196. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9070-6 </li></ul>