Ge’ez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model      Authors :         †Desta      Berihu,       ‡Sebsibe         Hailemariam...
Outline:       1.Introduction       2.Motivation and Objective       3.Ge’ez Verbs morphology       4.Classification of Ge...
1. IntroductionEthiopia is one of the ancient countries in the world.It has : a well-defined history of more than three t...
Introduction…   Ge’ez is the classical language of Ethiopia. It is the language where majority of the Ethiopian literature...
2. Motivation and objective    Motivation:       The potential resources on the subject of the knowledge, philosophy     ...
3) Ge’ez Verbs morphology    Morphology is the study of the way words are built up from smaller    meaning-bearing units, ...
4) Classification of Ge’ez verbs    Ethiopian scholars classify verbs on the basis of criteria    typically:      geminat...
Classification …    Three criteria are used in this study to cluster Ge’ez verbs:      a) based on object indication:     ...
Classification …         Every original root of Ge’ez comprises of three firm alphabets          [Dillmann, 1899].       ...
Classification …             Table 1: below depicts the list of the ‘head’ verbs.03/12/2011                  Geez Verbs Mo...
5) Ge’ez verb formation             Figure-2 verb formation process in Ge’ez.                   Geez Verbs Morphology and ...
6) Verbal Stems  According to the Ethiopian scholars, verbal stems (አዕማድ /a^∂mad/) are the  pillars or bases of verbs that...
Verbal Stems…   Each of the tense-moods do have five stem types [see Table-3]        Table-3: The five stem types for each...
7) Declaration Model for Ge’ez verbs    We use the word ‘declaration’ for the process of finding all the    inflected (sur...
Figure-4: Example of declarationprocess for finding all possible surfaceverbs of the perfective category stems            ...
8) Assimilation and Phonological changes occurred          during the verb formation process   Phonological and assimilati...
Assimilation and Phonological changes …03/12/2011   Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model   17
Assimilation and Phonological changes …    Table-5: Assimilation of a verb ፈተወ /fätäwä/ (he wanted) with ወ /wä/ at its end...
Assimilation and Phonological changes                …      Table-6: Vowel changes occurred when OMS are attached right af...
Assimilation and Phonological changes …03/12/2011   Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model   20
Assimilation and Phonological changes …      Table-7: Vowel changes occurred when OMS are attached after circumfixes03/12/...
9) Conclusion    Ge’ez verbs, alike the other Semitic languages, do have prosodic non-    concatenatative morphology.    I...
ንሴብሐክሙ                  ነመስግነኩም                እናመሰግናችኋለን               [=We Thank you]             desta4us@gmail.com    ...
See Complete Declaration Result             Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration03/12/2011                               ...
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Ge'ez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model

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Ge'ez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model

  1. 1. Ge’ez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model Authors : †Desta Berihu, ‡Sebsibe Hailemariam, *Zeradawit Adhana† ‡ *School of Computing and Electrical Engineering, Department of computer science, Department of Ge’ez Language, Institute of Technology, College of Natural Science, Holy Trinity Theological College, Bahir Dar University Addis Ababa University Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church
  2. 2. Outline: 1.Introduction 2.Motivation and Objective 3.Ge’ez Verbs morphology 4.Classification of Ge’ez Verbs 5.Ge’ez Verbs formation 6.Verbal Stems 7. Declaration Model for Ge’ez verbs 8.Assimilation and Phonological changes 9.Conclusion03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 2
  3. 3. 1. IntroductionEthiopia is one of the ancient countries in the world.It has : a well-defined history of more than three thousand years [Lule, 1986]; an ancient ,well-organized and indigenous educational system; its own language (Ge’ez) with its alphabets and number system [Dillmann,1899]; ancient manuscripts [historical, ethical, religious… manuscripts andchronicles]; arts (q∂ne); calendar ; hymns; and varies heritages, etc. These all are found being written in Ge’ez language!!
  4. 4. Introduction… Ge’ez is the classical language of Ethiopia. It is the language where majority of the Ethiopian literatures andmanuscripts are written in. For Example: The Ethiopian collection in the British Library comprises more than 800 manuscripts written in Ge’ez dating from the 15th to the 20th centuries [see http://en.academic.ru].03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 4
  5. 5. 2. Motivation and objective Motivation: The potential resources on the subject of the knowledge, philosophy and culture of Ethiopia are found being written in this ancient language. Nevertheless, the current generation, except some scholars in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church (EOTC), seems to be ignorant of these resources because of lack of efforts in making the language operational and in exploiting its usage with scientific approaches. Specific bjectives of this paper  Reporting on the first complete account of Ge’ez verbs morphology by exploring the verb formation process  Designing a declaration model which helps to find all possible surface verbs of a given lexeme in Ge’ez Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration03/12/2011 5 Model
  6. 6. 3) Ge’ez Verbs morphology Morphology is the study of the way words are built up from smaller meaning-bearing units, called morphemes. Morpheme is the building block from which a word is made up from [Jurasfsky and Martine, 2006]. Ge’ez verbs exhibit the typical Semitic non-linear word formation with intercalation (inter-digitation) of roots with vocalic patterns. Verbs are morphologically the most complex POS in Ge’ez, with more than 1370 inflectional forms.03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 6
  7. 7. 4) Classification of Ge’ez verbs Ethiopian scholars classify verbs on the basis of criteria typically:  gemination and non-gemination  number and position of radicals  positions of gutturals and semi-vowels  conjugation patterns  stems of the verbs Classification by foreign scholars is based on:  Stems of the verbs  Number of radicals of a root03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 7
  8. 8. Classification … Three criteria are used in this study to cluster Ge’ez verbs: a) based on object indication:  transitive, intransitive and copula verbs. b) based on number of radicals Tri-radical, quadri-radical, and multi-radical [Dillmann, 1899] Tri-radical roots are composed of three radicals and are those which best answer to the Semitic root-forming tendency [Dillmann, 1899:125]. There seems to exist, however, roots possessing only two radicals like:03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 8
  9. 9. Classification …  Every original root of Ge’ez comprises of three firm alphabets [Dillmann, 1899].  Roots with more than four radicals are not at all common in Ge’ez [Dillmann, 1899:122-123]. Result of Researcher’s survey on the Ge’ez-Amharic dictionary by Liqähruyan Bälay Mäkonän [2000] c) based on ‘heads’ and ‘troops’  by taking their CV-template as a basic unit .[Kidanä Wäld, 1948:61], [Zäradawit, 1996:181], [Afäwärq, 1988:159], [Ludolf, 1699], [Lambdine, 1978], [Dillmann, 1899] and Leslau [1987:VI].03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 9
  10. 10. Classification … Table 1: below depicts the list of the ‘head’ verbs.03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 10
  11. 11. 5) Ge’ez verb formation Figure-2 verb formation process in Ge’ez. Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration03/12/2011 11 Model
  12. 12. 6) Verbal Stems According to the Ethiopian scholars, verbal stems (አዕማድ /a^∂mad/) are the pillars or bases of verbs that support the conjugation patterns of verbs. Different scholars say differently regarding to verbal stems. This study assumes the five stem patterns identified by the Ethiopian scholars: perfective, causative, causative-reciprocal, reflexive, and reciprocal stem [Zäradawit, 1996].03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 12
  13. 13. Verbal Stems… Each of the tense-moods do have five stem types [see Table-3] Table-3: The five stem types for each of the seven tense-moods conjugation patterns03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 13
  14. 14. 7) Declaration Model for Ge’ez verbs We use the word ‘declaration’ for the process of finding all the inflected (surface) forms of a lexeme of a given Ge’ez verb . The declaration process starts from the third person singular masculine (3psm) form of the verb. It passes through three independent phases [see Figure-3]: Figure-3: Declaration model for Ge’ez verbs03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 14
  15. 15. Figure-4: Example of declarationprocess for finding all possible surfaceverbs of the perfective category stems 15
  16. 16. 8) Assimilation and Phonological changes occurred during the verb formation process Phonological and assimilation effects are seen at the boundaries of the morphemes during the concatenation process. Two possible occurrences of assimilation effects are observed in verbs which end with either of the glottal alphabets namely ቀ /qä/, ከ /kä/, ገ /gä and ነ /nä/ (see Table-4) or semivowel alphabets namely ወ /wä/ and የ /yä/ [see Table-5). Phonological changes, on the other hand, are usually occurred when objectmarker suffixes are added after SMSs (see Table-6) or circumfixes.(see Table-7).03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 16
  17. 17. Assimilation and Phonological changes …03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 17
  18. 18. Assimilation and Phonological changes … Table-5: Assimilation of a verb ፈተወ /fätäwä/ (he wanted) with ወ /wä/ at its end03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 18
  19. 19. Assimilation and Phonological changes … Table-6: Vowel changes occurred when OMS are attached right after SMS03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 19
  20. 20. Assimilation and Phonological changes …03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 20
  21. 21. Assimilation and Phonological changes … Table-7: Vowel changes occurred when OMS are attached after circumfixes03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 21
  22. 22. 9) Conclusion Ge’ez verbs, alike the other Semitic languages, do have prosodic non- concatenatative morphology. Its non-concatenative nature is characterized by the internal modification of a seed of a verb. The Ge’ez verbs morphology described and the declaration model designed can be used by both linguistic and computational researchers. The model can also be consumed by various Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems such as machine translation, spell-check, speech recognition, automatic dictionary (lexicon) compilation, POS tagging, morphological analyzer and synthesizer, automatic sentence construction, etc.03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 22
  23. 23. ንሴብሐክሙ ነመስግነኩም እናመሰግናችኋለን [=We Thank you] desta4us@gmail.com sebsibe2004@yahoo.com Questions and/or Comments03/12/2011 Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration Model 23
  24. 24. See Complete Declaration Result Geez Verbs Morphology and Declaration03/12/2011 24 Model

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