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Building Services 1 - Ventilation in Heritage Building

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Building Services 1 - Ventilation in Heritage Building

  1. 1.                           BUILDING SERVICES    VENTILATION PROBLEM IN HERITAGE BUILDING    ● WONG DE­VIN ( 0319814 )  ● GUNPUTH CHARANJEEV (0323942)  ● TAN HWEE MIN (0326057)  ● NURAFIQAH ZARIFUL (0321196)  ● CHA SHU QING (0326178)  ● LIM KAR YAN (0325602)  ● ESTHER CHUAH NING SIE (0321422)  ● LIEW LI WEN (0324297)             
  2. 2.           TABLE OF CONTENT        CONTENT    PAGE NUMBER  Introduction  2 ­ 4  Installation Process  5 ­ 9  Advantage and Disadvantage  10 ­ 11  Case Study  12 ­ 17  Possible Problems  18 ­ 20  Recommendations  21 ­ 24  Learning Outcome  25 ­ 27  References  28  Appendices  29 ­ 30                  1 
  3. 3.       Introduction    Whenever we work in an enclosed space, at some point of the day we may feel                                suffocated, start to feel the dust and other pollutants in a room. Moreover a rise in temperature                                  can make us very uncomfortable. This is because the air in the room is stagnant, it has no flow                                      and eventually start to smell. This discomfort can be eradicated by the use of ventilation.    Ventilation is the process during which a proportion of air in an enclosed space is                              continuously drawn out and replaced by fresh air which is drawn in from a clean external                                source. Ventilation is important as it is used to maintain air purity in an enclosed space. The                                  maintenance of air purity can be described as;    1.​     ​Preservation of oxygen content in the air.  2.​     ​Removal of carbon dioxide.  3.​     ​Control of humidity.  4.​     ​Prevention of heat concentrations.  5.​     ​Prevention of condensation.  6.​     ​Dispersal of concentration of bacteria.  7.​     ​Dilution and disposal of contaminants.  8.​     ​Provision of freshness.    Ventilation is experienced every day; the air­conditioning system in a car, fan in an office                              and natural wind are few examples. Ventilation can be categorised into two groups, namely                            natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation.    Natural ventilation is the flow of external air to an indoor space due to the difference                                between the internal and external air pressures. Natural ventilation depends on wind and air                            pressure or stack effect.            2 
  4. 4.       Wind and air pressure    When considering wind and air pressure for ventilation, windows and doors are the                          mostly used to channel the wind through the building.         Stack effect    Stack effect is the movement of air within a tall building due to a difference in their                                  temperature. The hot air which is less dense will move upwards and colder denser air from the                                  outside will get inside the building.              Mechanical ventilation    Mechanical ventilation is ventilation provided by machineries such as electric fans and                        air condition system. The fan may circulate the air around or remove the used air inside.        3 
  5. 5.       Heritage building  Heritage buildings means buildings that are of historic, architectural and cultural significance.                        They must be preserved in order to share their part of history to the next generations to come.                                    Some buildings may be preserved in their normal state or some buildings are converted into                              museums. The three key concepts that are needed to decide whether a building can be                              considered as a heritage one or not are; ​historic significance, historic integrity, historic                          context.  Historic significance is about the role played by the property in history, architecture or culture of                                a community, region or nation.  Historic integrity is the originality of a property’s historic identity which can be proved by any                                evidence which survived through the same historic period.  Historic context is the information that the property carries with itself about the history of the                                community, region or nation.    Heritage sites can be spotted all over the world, some are big in size and some small but all of                                        them are very rich in history and had an important role for their respective countries.  Some of the most popular heritage sites in the world are Taj Mahal of India, Independence Hall                                    of Philadelphia, The Forbidden City of Beijing, Westminster Abbey of London and Chartres                          Cathedral in France.                        Installation Process  4 
  6. 6.         Forbidden City    ​1.Ancient traditional windows    Since the glass technology did not apply to the                  construction industry in ancient China, kraft paper              or white tissue paper soaked in tung oil is generally                    used as window materials , is the use of advanced                    clamshell like the so­called " Ming Wa " to make .                      This material with a thin piece of shell windows , called                      " calabash shell window ," is a characteristic of the                    Ming and Qing Dynasties Jiangnan architecture ; shell pieces by hand grinding process more                            cumbersome , so there were only wealthy families that could afford it.      Many architectural features of the Forbidden City help                to relieve the summer heat. The Zhizhai window was                  one of the great inventions: the upper part could be                    tilted by strut for ventilation, while the lower part could                    be removed to allow more light in. Due to the                    ventilation needs during summer, the upper part of the                  window should have a bigger area than the lower part.      Wall window is constructed by excavate a hole or                  reserve a hole on a part of the wall, and then add on                          some decoration around the perimeter of it to become                  window. Actually it is more for decoration than                ventilation purpose.        5 
  7. 7.             Mullioned window is installed by arranging the              vertical timber wood within the door frame and also                  adding one or two horizontal timber wood in the                  middle. This kind of window is widely used by ancient                    people during that time.            2. Ancient Traditional Doors    Symmetry production is the main technical point of view for traditional doors. These                          doors are usually made by hardwood.The timber plank need to be flattened by placing it on two                                  wooden stool. After that, draw out all the turnstile, threading, wood pin mortise, and the sawing                                linear line symmetrically, to avoid making error during production.The threading must be scewed                          with cap iron nail to make sure it is tightened and solid.                        Ban Men is made of plank which is approximately 6 cm thick. During the installation,                              bearing stone is used as center shaft, and the door frame is fixed with door pin. So that the door                                        can be opened freely with the supportation of hinges.      6 
  8. 8.         Arched door is built up with bricks and then form a                      semicircular arch shape as it’s opening. Some              openings consists of door panels to keep the                certain places being enclosed.          Sliding door can act as windows, doors, and walls. It                    provide protection from external environment and            also act as partition wall for the interior part. The leaf                      of the door is light in weight, therefore it’s easy to                      install and remove. It generally consist of 4 main                  part which is the window frame, external frame,                skirting and sash ring plate. It is installed between                  the hypostyle column and eave column of the                building.     Westminster Abbey  1. Windows    Clerestory is a kind of high section wall that                  contains windows which are arranged in rows. As                the clerestory windows are typically fixed, the main                purpose is to create a solid band of light. But                    sometimes these windows are operable to allow              hot air rise and escape. It’s a great invention as                    these windows set high on the wall and are                  protected by roof overhangs which can protect              home from summer­sun heat and only winter sun                is allowed in.    7 
  9. 9.         The stained windows are handcraft works of art                which are commonly used in churches,            museum etc. This kind of window is visually                attractive and can provide privacy due to the                decoration on the glass. But it limited the                amount of passable light through windows and              hence the room may be darker.              2.  Traditional Doors    The oak door in Westminster Abbey has been known as the                      oldest door in Britain due to the timber wood of the door which                          consists the pattern of the tree rings. It is made of 5 vertical oak                            planks and held together with 3 horizontal battens / ledges and                      iron straps. Due to the material used, it’s still solid enough for                        thousand years.                          8 
  10. 10.       Ventilating Lamp ( Sun Burner )  During those days when houses lit by gas especially with open flame burners, ​the temperature                              varied enormously throughout the house and without the gas lighting providing some heat                          elsewhere. And so there’s a solution to this problem is to connect the lamp through chimney to                                  outside air.                Therefore, it form a passage for the hot products of combustion to outside of the room and                                  became a means of ventilation. Hence, so called ventilating lamp.  This lighting fixtures could perform exceedingly well in their guise as ventilators, as they are                              high up to the ceiling level where the temperature is the highest  These imposing fixtures would be the focus of attention of the ceiling with those amazing                              design.                        9 
  11. 11.       Advantages and Disadvantages     Most of the heritage buildings rely solely on natural ventilation, as mechanical ventilation did not                              exist at the ancient time.     Natural ventilation do not have visible pipe­work or duct penetrations hence providing a beautiful                            architecture externally compared to mechanical ventilation that has space consuming ventilation                      units such as air­conditioners or fans. Hence the use of natural ventilation is more aesthetically                              pleasant.    Natural ventilation is also energy and cost efficient, as it does not require mechanical energy                              because it uses elements of nature such as wind energy to enable natural air movement within                                the building. An addition to it would be the benefit of reduced energy bills compared to                                mechanical ventilation system that relies on electricity in the modern days.     Furthermore, natural ventilation systems are highly adaptable. Natural ventilation can be used in                          all seasons throughout year. When temperature greatly differs between day and night during                          different seasons, the buildings would benefit from stack effect as cooler outdoor air is drawn                              into buildings at a lower level and warmed by the sources of heat within the building, and then                                    rises through the building to vent out through the high ceilings. A positive pressure area is                                created at the top of the palace and negative pressure area at the bottom. This process takes                                  place simply by introducing openings such as doors at the ground floor level of the building, and                                  openings at the top of the building such as ventilation ducts or ceiling opening.     Besides that, minimal maintenance is required compared to mechanical ventilation, as it will                          retain airflow over time, because the stack energy is utilized as part of the very design of the                                    building. Besides that, natural ventilation system supplies every room with an adequate amount                          of warm and cool air to ensure the room temperature remains constant, hence ensuring thermal                              comfort among people, reducing possibility of Sick Building Syndrome.    10 
  12. 12.       In a building in which the doors and windows have been strategically positioned, it is easy to                                  achieve airflow throughout the building without the use of mechanical ventilation that has                          relatively high price.    However, there may be problem to achieve the desired indoor environment consistently with                          natural ventilation. The openings must be constantly altered according to the modulation of wind                            speed, wind direction, and outside temperature to ensure proper fresh air distribution and                          satisfactory fresh air exchange rates within the building. If the openings are not properly                            adjusted in response to weather changes, the humidity level will vary due to extreme                            fluctuations of indoor temperature. Orientation has to be carefully planned for naturally                        ventilated buildings so that it is exposed to prevailing winds during the hottest part of the year. If                                    the building is improperly oriented relative to warm­weather winds during the summer, it would                            be under ventilated, resulting in extreme humidity levels, hence causing the Sick Building                          syndrome.     Not just that, the building requires more land space in order to take advantage of warm weather                                  winds which includes surrounding free space. The basic requirement of it is to have                            unobstructed airflow around the building. Obstructions such as trees, buildings and other large                          wind­deflecting obstacles may affect wind patterns and reduce wind energy available to                        ventilate a building.    Taking all these factors into consideration, it would be a laborious work to build a high rise                                  building in an urban area which depends solely on natural ventilation because there are too                              many obstructions that limits surrounding airflow. It would be advisable for houses or buildings                            in rural areas to undertake natural ventilation whereby there is minimal surrounding obstruction                          as it provides greater benefits compared to those within the urban state.                11 
  13. 13.       CASE STUDY 1: The Forbidden City  History  The Forbidden City was the palace of the Chinese emperor from the ​Ming dynasty to the end of                                    the ​Qing dynasty​—the years 1420 to 1912. It is situated at the centre of ​Beijing​, China, and                                  now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it was used as a home to the emperors                                    and also used as ceremonial and political for the Chinese government.   It was constructed in 1406 and consisted of 980 buildings covering an area of 180 acres. The                                  palace is an example for traditional Chinese architecture which influenced cultural and                        architectural developments in ​East Asia and many other places. In 1987, The Forbidden City                            was declared a ​World Heritage Site and ​UNESCO listed it as the largest collection of preserved                                ancient wooden structures in the world.  Since 1925, the Palace Museum has taken charge of the Forbidden city,which has an extensive                              collection of artwork and crafts inspired by the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing                              dynasties.  The reason why we have chosen this place to use it as our case study is simple. It has nearly a                                          thousand buildings in the amazing heritage site and it is built for the royalties, emperors and                                kings back in the chinese civilization. Simply because of that we can find out what has been                                  made to make sure the ventilation is good and comfortable and which part of ventilation can                                12 
  14. 14.       they improve in their building since there was not any surveyors to measure the perfect                              ventilation made back then.    As the picture showed , this was one of the main type of                          ventilation used back in the chinese civilization. The                problem with this kind of windows and doors are they                    cannot be able to trap heat in the building, even though                      when the weather is hot and warm, it gives better                    ventilation and cool air comes into the building easier                  and hot air can leave the building easier but when it                      comes to winter, the people inside of this room will find                      that heat is hardly being trapped and easily leaked out of                      the building.     Another problem is that if there happens to be rain or snow, the snow and storm water can enter                                      the building as it is not properly sealed and only blocked by a sheet of bamboo blinding.    In the big event halls and gathering points in the forbidden                      city, it can be noticed that the ceiling are all pushed to a                          very high point and there are ventilation windows placed                  all around the highest point of the walls. This is made to a                          minor stack effect as hot air can rises during summer and                      exits through these windows and cooler air can enter the                    building by the windows at the bottom and also through                    doors. This also provides sunlight for extra brightness and                  vision into the building but the problem to it is the hard access to the high windows and open                                      and close it. These concept cannot be found in the smaller rooms like bedrooms as the ceiling                                  are not built high enough to allow a passive stack effect to occur.      13 
  15. 15.       If anyone have been to forbidden city or any ancient chinese cultured                        buildings, it can be noticed that this kind of humongous wooden door                        are used almost in every entrance. The main reason of this huge solid                          timber door is because it is very strong and can withstand a very high                            impact or even extreme weathers. The doors are built so big that if it is                              opened, it can allow chill air from outside to enter the building in hot                            days but in the winter, it is mostly shut to prevent heat lost in the                              building and therefore there is a smaller door always built next to it for                            access during winter and also to prevent rain or snow to be blown into                            the building.      Back in the chinese civilizations, it is noticeable that the building were all built with very big                                  windows and very wide pillars firstly to allow sunlight to enter the building as there were not any                                    light back then and oil lamp cannot produce enough lighting for the whole building. Secondly is                                due to ventilation, large window and wide pillars allows air to enter the building easily when                                windows are opened but the disadvantage if it is that it does not have good privacy settings                                  because it have too many windows. These buildings were only built for the emperors relaxing                              area and not his private area.    There are many factors that can affect the ventilation of a building and many architectural                              designs have to be considered to prevent sick building syndrome to take place especially to                              someone so important to the chinese civilization. There was not any mechanical ventilation back                            then so they have to apply only natural ventilation and therefore architecture takes a huge part                                in natural ventilation. From this case study, many examples can be taken to apply into our                                buildings nowadays in term of its architecture and also how can it reach the comfort zone even                                  without any mechanical ventilation components taking place. It is spectacular how smart were                          the designers back in the days and manage to build humongous palaces for their king and make                                  sure he is comfortable even there was not any ventilation technology except having slaves to                              manually fan their king.      14 
  16. 16.       Case Study 2 : Westminster Abbey  The Westminster Abbey, used to be called Saint Peter Collegiate Church is a huge, gothic                              church that is located in Westminster, London. It is one of the most eye catching churches and                                  one of the most religious buildings in England and it has been the traditional place of burial and                                    coronation for the English.  Today, the church is still function for tourist purposes and also to use as an event hall for some                                      royal events. It has been the signature of Britain and it has a long history since the 1500.  The reason why we chose this building as our case study as there are many ventilations                                examples that we can learn from this heritage building. The Westminster Abbey has been and                              always will be the symbol of churches and England. Until today, the Westminster Abbey is still                                opened for tourist, active as a church and houses many remarkable events of England for                              example the marriage of Prince William , Duke of Cambridge.  A venue with such important roles, without any doubt it has to have extremely good ventilation                                as it was made to house most important people in the world. But, there are also still flaws and                                      things to be done.     15 
  17. 17.       In every single block and rooms of the Westminster                  Abbey, there are tons of ventilation ducts installed in                  the roof above the ceiling. As mentioned before, it is                    made to have very big events that sometimes involves                  the appearance of the Queen, so these ducts is the                    make sure there is a way of air exiting the buildings as                        quick as possible in order for cooler or fresher air to                      enter the building. These ducts works with a                ventilation fan that absorbs air into the duct and pass these ducts, it will be released out of the                                      building.    This particular church is built with many windows on                  the top and also on the ground floor itself, it is simply                        because to allow sunlight to enter the building and                  also for natural ventilation to occur most of the time.                    Back in the days when ventilation technology is not                  developed yet, most of this buildings, in fact all                  heritage buildings are very dependant on windows              and door and therefore windows back then comes in                  many shapes in sizes and play many different roles                  even though it runs on natural ventilation. High windows are normally placed in such a way that                                  a passive stack effect can occurs most of the time as the ceiling as built very high too. The lower                                        windows are made to allow the flow of air into and also exit the building conveniently.     In the old days there when there was not any mechanical                      ventilation yet, these shafts plays a very important role.                  These shafts are use to make sure air exit and enter the                        building consistently even when the windows are closed in                  the building. These shafts are normally built either in the                    ceiling and at the bottom of a building and have a                      underground channel to send the air in the building far away                      16 
  18. 18.       from the building itself. These shaft can be used for safety purposes as well. Some of these                                  shafts are built big enough to use as an emergency exit route.    These type of windows serve many purposes to heritage                  buildings mostly in churches. These windows can be                found everywhere in Westminster Abbey. One of its                purpose is for design purposes but it also allows plenty of                      sunlight into the building. These windows cannot be                opened but it can allow heat to enter the building in the                        afternoon simply because it is made out of glass and it                      can magnify the sunlight and allow heat to enter the                    building easily. Therefore it serve a good purpose during                  winter and also when there is insufficient of light in the building.    There are many ventilation design and technology can be found in the Westminster Abbey even                              though it is made with a very simple way. It is a very good example that we can learn from this                                          building as it plays a very important role for major events in England and also for tourist                                  purposes.                              17 
  19. 19.       Possible problems   The ventilation system in Forbidden city and is basically natural ventilation. Due to limited                            resources and techniques, mechanical ventilation is not available at that time. Impacts of poor                            ventilation system in heritage building can have on differents parts of the buildings.Now,we will                            examine the possible problems that arise from poor ventilation of the Forbidden city.    Existence of moulds and mildews  The first problem I would like to highlight is that the existence of moulds and mildews, which can                                    be spread within the building . The moulds and mildews are normally caused by the                              condensation. When the steam ​touches cooler surfaces around the room ,it will start to                            condense. It may peel off wallpaper, create an unpleasant look on the ceiling wall,and even                              destroy the structural integrity. Mould on the ceiling wall cannot be easily cleaned without using                              any chemical products. The experts need to make sure that the products used is suitable to be                                  applied on timber as most of the structure components in Forbidden City are made up of timber.                                  Therefore,the selection of the chemical products must be very careful to reduce the degree of                              damage to the building in Forbidden City.          Attack of the termites to the building structure  As we know, timber is widely used for the construction of the most heritage building,as bricks or                                  concrete bricks is not yet invented at that time.In Forbidden city, the pillar ​of the most important                                  halls were made of whole logs of precious ​Phoebe zhennan wood.​, which might be attacked by                                termites if the ventilation of the room is poor and the moisture level of the room is high. Termites                                      are often called as ‘silent destroyer’ and they like to feed on moist wood. Even if the outer                                    18 
  20. 20.       surface of the pillar looks fine, the termites may be secretly                      hiding and ‘eating’ the inner part of the pillar. If relevant                      action is not taken immediately, the pillar which acts as the                      structure component of the building might be collapsed. In                  order to detect the location of the termites in Forbidden City,                      high technology devices such as moisture sensor and termites                  detection radar are used by the expert. Extra caution are                    needed while doing the inspection to avoid any destruction to                    the building.      ​Rusting of the metal components of the building  Failure in having a good ventilation system might also cause rusting. ​Rusting is the process by                                which a chemical reaction occurs between the metal and the elements resulting in the                            orange­brown, depending on the metal, coloring on the surface.​The moisture produced by the                          condensation process will cause the metal components of of the building such as nails,screws                            and fixings to rust.The strength of metal components will be weakened and potentially break                            which will endanger the safety of the occupants.            The rusted metal components from the roof   The rusted shackle for connection purpose                19 
  21. 21.       Excessive Heat / Cold inside the heritage building  Another possible ventilation problems in the heritage building is that the excessive heat cannot                            be released in the summer and the cold air will enter into the building in the winter . In the                                        summer, the heat radiated from the sun to the building will increase the temperature inside the                                building. Without a good ventilation system, there is no way for the hot air to be released. The                                    hot air is now trapped inside the building and it causes the discomfort of the occupants. On the                                    contrary, the hot air inside the building cannot be kept inside the building in the winter. The cold                                    air outside will flow into the building and decrease the temperature inside the building. With the                                inflow of the cold air, the moisture level in the room will also increase which causes the                                  discomfort of the occupants too!    Existence of musty odour  Musty odour is the another possible problem I would like to mention about. In a poor ventilation                                  room, the build up of damp and humidity can create stuffy and uncomfortable odour, which can                                spread to other areas of the building. It’s a dilemma, because if you can’t find the source, you                                    can’t remove the problem and get rid of the musty smells in the room. ​The use of air purifies and                                        air freshener can only get rid of the musty odour temporary. ​Breathing in this smell can affect                                  the physical well­being of the occupants.    Diseases transmission among the occupants  In addition, disease is the most severe consequence caused by the poor ventilation system. A                              lack of ventilation can become hazardous for the health of the occupants. Respiratory and                            pulmonary diseases such as asthma and difficulty in breathing can be linked to this problem.                              When there is a occupant infected with some diseases such as flu or cough, the diseases might                                  be transmitted to other occupants easily in a poor ventilation room. Therefore, the ventilation                            problem must be highly concerned to ensure the comfortable of the occupants.        20 
  22. 22.       Recommendations  Forbidden City is only depending on the natural ventilation and it has already become an                              advantage that the Natural Ventilation reduce the energy use and cost. However, they can still                              improve the ventilation system without prevailing approach of using mechanical ventilation to                        provide acceptable indoor environment quality and maintaining a healthy, comfortable indoor                      climate. Since natural ventilation systems rely on pressure differences (temperature or                      differences in humidity) and Beijing has a temperate and continental monsoon ​climate, with four                            distinct seasons and big differences in temperature between day and night. Here are some                            recommendations on how to improve the ventilation system:     1.​      ​Solar Chimneys  This works on cold and relatively cloudy days. It can be useful for locations such as Beijing,                                  with hot summers and cold winters, by opening and closing vents, we can control the cooling                                and heating effect.  A solar chimney uses the solar energy to warm up the air rising and increases the stack effect                                    thus increasing the entry of cold air inside the building. Solar chimneys need their exhaust                              higher than normal roof level, and requires adequate sun exposure. They are efficient for sunny                              weather; windy climate on hot days can usually get more ventilation using the wind itself. Below                                are diagram examples of different solar chimney designs.                           Thermal chimneys can also act as a cooling effect, as shown on the diagram above, the                                incoming air like evaporative cooling passes through the openings.     21 
  23. 23.       Aside from the cooling advantages, solar chimneys can also be used for heating. If the top                                exterior vents are closed, the heated air is not exhausted out the top; at the same time, if high                                      interior vents are opened to let the heated air into occupied spaces, it will provide convective air                                  heating.                      2.​      ​Effective area of multiple openings  In Natural Ventilation, the amount of ventilation will depend critically on the size and placement                              of openings in the building, it is best for the Forbidden City to increase their installation of                                  openings between rooms such as transom windows, louvers, grills, or open plans to complete                            the airflow circuit. Understanding how to bring wind into a building can make a big difference in                                  controlling thermal comfort inside a building. Strategically placed openings on windward sides of                          a building benefit from the pressure of the wind to drive air through the windows. With cross                                  ventilation, air enters one side, goes through the whole targeted area and leaves on the                              opposite side, but the ​pressure can also              stack effect.      A building section showing multiple          strategies for ventilation. (Image by R.            Thomas Jones)        Design strategies that help to beneficiate from wind pressure and air density to create an airflow                                throughout the building.  22 
  24. 24.       1) Place windows at both high level and low level to prevent cross ventilation.  2) Place corridors and chimneys such that it encourages airflow and stack effect within the                            building.  The differences in air pressure will create a good airflow if one set of openings is on a hotter                                      side of the building and another on a cool side.     3.​     ​Installing waterproof vents  This is to ​passively ventilate attic spaces in hot climates. It is an important design strategy that is                                    often overlooked. On the other hand, to simply the prevention of overheating​, these principles                            can also be used to actually help to cool a building by using ventilated attics. There are several                                    types of passive roof vents such as openstack, turbine, gable, and ridge vents, to name a few.                                  Pictures below shows some of the example of how roof vents look like.                       Stack ventilation can also allow the adjustability for the amount of cool and fresh air, operable                                windows or ventilation louvers must be equipped with adjustable with inlet openings. Such                          systems can be industrialized and controlled by thermostats to optimized the process.     4.​      ​Indoor climate cooling  Many of our historical buildings are actually old residences intended for a small number of                              people. The primary task is to work with reducing the Instead of installing climate cooling, it is                                  possible to reduce solar heat gains by using external sun­screens. When installing plant rooms                            in attics in older buildings, special solutions are often necessary to reconcile the work                            environment requirements with the building’s design. If cooling is still needed in accordance with                            the climate calculation, sun­shading should be investigated as an alternative: automatically                      controlled awnings can often be the solution.      23 
  25. 25.       5.​      ​Intake air via external walls  It is an advantage if you can pre­heat the intake air upon entry. One way is to convey outside air                                        via an intake air radiator. The air is drawn in through the external wall, filtered and pre­heated                                  when passing out through the rear of the radiator to be dispersed over the radiator. Another way                                  is to use an intake air convector that consists of a heat battery where outside air is pre­heated.    Taking in outdoor air via grilles into the radiators is a technically                        good solution.    Vent convectors can also provide          pre­heated outdoor air when needed.                                          24 
  26. 26.       Learning Outcome    It has been shown, therefore, ventilation plays a vital part in dominating the totality of                              one building condition. In the older days, as the technology was not that advanced, natural                              ventilation is the only way to keep a building in suitable condition for a human being to live in.                                      Based on the research we have done earlier, windows and doors were mainly used as the                                ventilation system during the past centuries, which are being called as the natural ventilation                            nowadays. Natural ventilation is the process which supplies and removes air through indoor                          spaces by natural means, meaning without using any other mechanical system such as fan, air                              conditioning and so on. It uses the physical theory which implies pressure difference between                            the building and its surrounding, causing outdoor air flow to provide sufficient ventilation and                            space cooling.  As global warming and increasing of high rise building, needs of ventilating and cooling                              is amplified, making natural ventilation is not enough supply fresh air and has to be supported                                with additional mechanical ventilation. According to the research done previously, natural                      ventilation and mechanical ventilation both have advantages and disadvantages. In the                      beginning of our research we briefly introduced the definition of the two ventilation system, the                              natural and mechanical ventilation system. Next, we moved on to discuss about the methods of                              natural and mechanical ventilation systems which acted as the prologue for the following parts                            of the research. After that, we concise the features of heritage buildings and briefly introduced                              the heritage chose for our case study, which are the Forbidden City and the Westminster                              Abbey. Few possible problems are then being established from the case studies done which are                              the causation of failures and defections of such ventilation system. Lastly, we provides some                            recommendations to improve the existing ventilation system or to reduce the possible negative                          effects caused by the system used now.  Ventilation is crucial for every building to ensure the air quality meets suitable living                              standard for occupants of that premises. Firstly, it controls impurities in the air as ventilation is a                                  process that expels polluted air (probably contains pollutants like bacteria, moisture and nasty                          whiffs such as body odour) and replaces it with fresh air. Ventilation system also reduces                              possible condensation which may cause mold and rotten surface due to the damp condition of                              such spaces where air flow are not directed. Furthermore, ventilation system serves as the key                              constituent for controlling the temperature of the building. When the amount of people                          25 
  27. 27.       occupying a space is too hot, the environment may become hot and stuffy. At this time, natural                                  ventilation is not adequate to give continuous supply of fresh air needed, and so, mechanical                              ventilation is used to solve this problem, leaving the environment to be more comfortable.                            Incapable ventilation system can lead to relevant problem. The most significant is the                          stimulation of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). Sick building syndrome (SBS) is used to describe                            situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear                          to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified. Hence,                                      a good ventilated building or space is necessary to keep the occupants in good health condition                                and to promote a highly productive workplace for the occupants.  There are few objectives set for this entire research. One of the objectives is to extend                                  and refine our knowledge relating to the building services technology and the management                          system chose which is the ventilation system. Through this research, we are broadly exposed to                              different types of ventilation components used previous and now. By comparing the past and                            now, we are able to understand current application in construction industry and identify the                            benefits of having both traditional and modern ways of ventilating. We also learn that different                              ways of ventilating gives different capacity of ventilating strength. Decision of usage of each                            ventilation way depends on the demand of the airflow of the space, comprising the factor of                                number of occupants and the usage of that particular space.  When browsing through the online materials available as reference for this research, we                          are required to filter and interpret what we read to get the relevant points which support the topic                                    we chose. We tried to gain knowledge which is accurate and may be activated at the                                appropriate time which then promotes new learning. We also found that it’s important to                            organize the knowledge we got and able to retrieve and apply it effectively and efficiently in our                                  daily basis when appropriate connections between pieces of knowledge are made. As this is a                              team­based assignment, all the work is separated evenly among the team members. We first                            had few times discussion after the class to discuss on the assignments and follow up each                                progress so that the assignment can be done before the due date reaches. All team members                                are willing to spare their time and be active on each discussion session. This is good fact as any                                      idea can be shared among team members and the best solution can be picked. This                              assignment gives a great impact in developing our interacting and research skills which can be                              very useful in our future career. We very appreciate each effort and responsibility given by each                                member throughout this assignment. Whole process runs smooth as each member able to offer                            helping hands to each other when any of us met problems on retrieving information or                              26 
  28. 28.       explanation. Credits also to be given to our lecturer, Miss Lim Tze Shwan who always gives                                appropriate explanations in solving our problems met during this assignment. She leads us to                            think in different point of views and so, excites our thinking and evaluating skills, which are                                fundamental in completing this assignment. We are happy and satisfied working together as a                            team and we deeply hope that there may be a second chance that we may work together again                                    to achieve higher goals. Thank you.                                                       27 
  29. 29.       Reference    http://zyk.bucea.edu.cn/pub/fczgmc/gzygy/ztmcdgy/index.htm  http://www.chinahighlights.com/beijing/forbidden­city/  http://www.kinabaloo.com/forbidden_city.html  http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/HistoricBeijing/Forbidden_City/  https://www.wbdg.org/resources/naturalventilation.php  http://www.sfv.se/globalassets/bygg­pa­kunskap/byggnadsvard/ventilation_in_historic_buildings _b­2.pdf  http://www.i­sells.co.uk/blog/ventilation­for­westminster­cathedral/1707  http://www.dyerenvironmental.co.uk/sectors_heritage.html  http://climatechangeblog.historic­scotland.gov.uk/2012/07/ventilation­old­buildings­and­all­that­h ot­air/  http://www.geocities.ws/dwetheridge/contents.htm  http://www.westminster­abbey.org/visit­us  http://www.visitlondon.com/things­to­do/place/610825­westminster­abbey  http://www.sacred­destinations.com/england/london­westminster­abbey  http://gbtech.emsd.gov.hk/english/utilize/natural.html  https://www.wbdg.org/resources/naturalventilation.php  http://sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/natural­ventilation  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK143277/  http://coolvent.mit.edu/intro­to­natural­ventilation/basics­of­natural­ventilation/  http://www.heritagebuildings.com/  https://historicengland.org.uk/advice/heritage­at­risk/search­register/                28 
  30. 30.       Appendices              29 
  31. 31.               30 

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