Aktiviti-aktiviti yang direka untuk memperbaiki miskonsepsi, memperkembangkan konsep-konsep idea/idea utama. Aktiviti untuk mengamalkan cara bekerja secara saintifik.
Needham 5 phase constructivism model-ira
Needham 5-phaseConstructivism Model
Richard Needham, (1987) introduce this model in “Children’s Learning in Science Project” In this model, students can explore the ideas, compare with their own ideas and reflect the learning process they have experienced.
Teaching phases in 5-phase Constructivism Model PHASE PURPOSE METHODS1 Orientation Attracting attentions & interests. Demonstrations, Orientasi Preparing learning condition video shows etc -untuk memperkenalkan topik/konsep/idea utama2 Eliciting of To be aware of the student’s Experiment, small ideas prior knowledge. group discussion, Pencetusan -strategi-strategi untuk concept mapping idea mencungkil pengetahuan sedia and presentation. ada pelajar
3 Restructuring of ideas To realize the existence of Penstrukturan semula alternative ideas , ideas idea needs to be improved, to be developed or to be replaced with scientific • Explanation and Group exchanging ideas discussion, To determine the • Exposure to conflict reports etc alternative ideas and ideas critically assess the • Development of new present ideas. ideas Discussion, • Evaluation To test the validity of the reading, and •Aktiviti-aktivi yang present ideas. teacher’s direka input. To improvise, develop or to Experiment, replace with new ideas. project, demonstration To test the validity of the new etc
4 Application Application of ideas in new of ideas situation Writing of Aplikasi idea individual’s report on the project Situasi atau masalah sebenar work. diberi yang membolehkan pelajar menggunakan konsep yang telah dipelajari. Rekacipta5 Reflection Conscious ofkonsep/idea utama berasaskan the changing ideas. Self evaluation, Refleksi Students can reflect the changing notes, discussion ideas that was experienced etc themselves Aktiviti untuk membimbing pelajar menilai/menyedari apa yang telah dipelajari dan bagaimana pelajaran ini berlaku.
Differences Between Traditional and Constructivist Classroom TRADITIONAL CLASS CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSTeachers disseminate information Teachers have discussed with theirto students and students are students and help them constructrecipients of knowledge. their own knowledge.Teacher’s role is directive, rooted Teacher’s role is interactive, rootedin authority . in negotiation.Knowledge is seen as inert. Knowledge is seen as dynamic ever changing with our experiences.Students work primarily alone. Students work primarily in groups.Assessment is through testing Assessment includes student’scorrect answers. works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product.