Muhammad Ali Jinnah Profile

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Who is Muhammad Ali Jinnah?
- A politician, lawyer and Pakistan’s first Governor-General
- Known as ‘Quaid-I Azam’ or ‘Great Leader’
- He successfully campaigned and led Pakistan’s independent from India and became its first leader.

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Muhammad Ali Jinnah Profile

  1. 1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Catrine Carina Kartika Yana Tsamara Alifia
  2. 2. Who is he?  A politician, lawyer and Pakistan’s first Governor- General  Known as ‘Quaid-I Azam’ or ‘Great Leader’  He successfully campaigned and led Pakistan’s independent from India and became its first leader.
  3. 3. Early Life • Born on December 25, 1876, in Karachi, Pakistan. • His father was a prosperous Muslim merchant named Jinnah Poonja. • Went to Bombay, India, when he was 11 years old, but sent back to Karachi because of his habit of cutting classes. • He received his early education at the Sindh Madrasah and later at the Mission School, Karachi
  4. 4. Departure to England (1) His father decided to send him to England to acquire business experience. However, he made up his mind to become a barrister. Married at the age of 16 years old before he left India and go to London. However, both of his mother and wife died when he was in London. He then continue his study at Bombay University and at Lincoln's Inn in London. He completed his study in 2 years and became the youngest barrister of India.
  5. 5. Departure to England (2)  While he was in England, he was terrified by the fact that so many people from India became slave there and treated poorly.  He realized that there‟s a different of treatment between the rulers and the ruled.  However, he was inspired by Dadabhai Naoroji, who won an election & became a member of British parliament.  It was for the 1st time in the 50-year British rule in India that an Indian was able to made a way to the British parliament.
  6. 6. Early Career (1) • He started his political life as Dadabhai Naoroji‟s personal secretary. • Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress, the largest political organization in India in 1896. • At this time, his role model was Gopal Khrishna Gokhale. • In his early career, he helped a lot of his Muslim workmates since at that time, Muslim people were minority.
  7. 7. Early Career (2) • On January 25, 1910, he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council. • He and many people in the congress used to support the Great Britain in his early career because they thought the Great Britain will grant Indians political freedom.
  8. 8. Membership Of The Muslim League (1) • The Muslim League was founded in 1906. • At first, Jinnah didn‟t have any interest at all. However, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 but without leaving the congress. • In 1916, he became the president of the Muslim League. • As a member of the Muslim League, Jinnah began to work for Hindu-Muslim unity.
  9. 9. Membership of the Muslim League (2) • Mohammad Ali Jinnah really tried to bring the Muslim League and the Congress closer to each other. • Jinnah also made an agreement between Indian National Congress and Muslim league in December 1916 known as Lucknow Pact • The pact dealt both with the structure of the government of India and with the relation of the Hindu & Muslim communities. • His effort to get the pact approved made him to a title of “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity” from Mrs. Sarojini Naidu (the congress leader).
  10. 10.  Jinnah married again with a woman named Rattanbai Petit in 1918.  Rattanbai‟s religion was parsi, which was different with Jinnah‟s. Many people didn‟t like the marriage between persons of two religions.  When Rattanbai hit 18, she converted into Muslim and changed her name into Maryam.  In 1919, Rattanbai bore a daughter named Dina.
  11. 11. • By 1918, Mohandas Gandhi had become one of the main leaders of the Congress Party. • Jinnah and Gandhi had different mind. Gandhi wanted a non- violent protest to gain independence, while Jinnah wanted constitutional struggle to gain independence. • Their different thoughts led Jinnah to leave the Congress party in 1920. • At this time, Jinnah brought out a program to reduce the differences between the Congress party and the Muslim League, which was called as Jinnah‟s fourteen points.
  12. 12. Jinnah’s Fourteen Points • Jinnah‟s fourteen points made it clear to Hindus and British Government that Muslims wanted their own identity without influence by Hindus • The fourteen points of Jinnah were purpose as a constitutional reform plan to protect the political rights of Muslims in India. • His demands includes: a) The government should be federal. b) At least 1/3 of the central legislature will be Muslim. c) Government should provide assistance and financial relief to minorities so that they can fulfill their religious activities d) There should be religious freedom to all the minorities of the state. e) Etc.
  13. 13. • However, his fourteen points program didn‟t worked out because the Congress party didn‟t accept it. • Due to this, Jinnah‟s personal life started to worsened. He was paying too much attention to his work and didn‟t pay attention to his family. • His marriage didn‟t worked out, and he got divorced in 1927. • Not long after that, Rattanbai died in 1929 due to a disease.
  14. 14. *Conflict between the Muslim League and Congress continued throughout the 1930s. *He thought the Hindu-Muslim Unity was possible, but the conflict kept continuing and his thought was no longer seemed realistic at that time. *He had a thought that partition was necessary to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims.
  15. 15. * *Also called as Tehrik-e-Pakistan. *This movement was led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and achieved success in 1947. *A form of successful historical movement against British and Indian to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation of the North-Western region of the Indian subcontinent.
  16. 16. Independence of Pakistan • Jinnah proposed the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan, in the area where Muslims constitute a majority (1940) • In 1942 the Muslim League adopted the Pakistan Resolution to partition India into states • India was then divided into three territories. • The independent state of Pakistan came to be on August 14, 1947. Territories: 1. Hindu Majority, makes up present-day India. 2. A Muslim Area (Northwest), Pakistan. 3. Made up of Bengal and Assam, with a narrow Muslim Majority
  17. 17. The British Movement  Murder Muslims  Snatch their properties  Make bad economy  Occupied on trade  Drop the Muslims from the army
  18. 18. Two Nation Theory • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Two Nation Theory. The word „two nation‟ was used for Hindus and Muslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for the Muslims • He tried to make the Muslims realise their differences with the Hindus in religions, social and language, rational and international identity • To succeed this progress, he switched attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two Entities” • After the Hindu-Urdu controversy, he thought that it was impossible for Hindus and Muslims to work as a single nation
  19. 19. Death O Jinnah had been suffering from 1940s, but only his close relatives knew about this. O After the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan, he became the governor general of Pakistan. There are a lot of things he had to do. This made his health got worsened. O On 11 September 1948, Jinnah died from Tuberculosis and lung cancer.
  20. 20. * *Ahmed.A.S (1997), Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, The NYTimes (online). Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/a/ahmed- jinnah.html (Assessed Date: 29 July 2013) *(2013), Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Biography (online). Available at:http://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-jinnah- 9354710?page=4 (Assessed Date: 28 July 2013) *(2013), Mohammad Ali Jinnah, BBC (online). Available at:http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jinnah_mohammad _ali.shtml (Assessed Date: 29 July 2013) *(2013), Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Biography (online). Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-jinnah- 9354710?page=2 (Assessed Date: 28 July 2013) *2013), Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Biography (online). Available at:http://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-jinnah-9354710 (Assessed Date: 29 July 2013)
  21. 21. Questions: 1. Who‟s Muhammad Ali Jinnah? 2. What does Quaid-I Azam stands for? 3. Where did he received his early education? 4. Why did Jinnah got inspired by Dadabhai Naoroji? 5. When did he joined the Indian National Congress? 6. Why did he and many people from the Indian National Congress supported the Great Britain back then? 7. When did the Muslim League was found, and when did Jinnah joined it? 8. Who was the person who gave him the title “Ambassador of Hindu- Muslim Unity”? 9. Why did Jinnah left the Indian National Congress? 10. Mention at least two of Jinnah‟s fourteen points! 11. What was the cause of Jinnah‟s death?

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