Play, The “endangered” speciesof the classroom“We dont quit playing because we grow old, wegrow old because we quit playing.”− George Bernard Shaw
Discussion Question #11)Think back to yourown childhooddescribe commonsummertime playactivities.2)What doessummertime playlook like for childrentoday? How has playchanged in the last 20years?
Changing Nature of Play“It is interesting to me that when we talk about playtoday, the first thing that comes to mind are toys.Whereas when I would think of play in the 19thcentury, I would think of an activity rather than anobject...(in the past) they improvised play,whether it was in the outdoors...or whether it wason a street corner or somebodys back yard. Theyregulated their play and made up their own rules.”− Howard Chudoff, play researcher BrownUniversity
What is play?What is the difference between structuredplay and free play?− Structured play = Rule based play− Free Play = Dynamic, imaginativeinteraction with either objects orpeers or both objects and peersWhich type of play is most important todeveloping emotional intelligence?
Playtime“Play is the highest form of research”− Albert Einstein
Discussion #2 Question What are the 3 most important wayschildren benefit from free play?
Play is Essential toDevelopmentPhysical benefitsAppropriate socializationSelf-regulationDevelops higher order thinking skills− Static vs. Dynamic
Text Poll http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choi
Physical benefitsNeed for active playReduces risk of obesityReduction in depressionEnjoyable!− International survey found outdoorplay most enjoyable activity. 50% ofmothers report children do not playoutside enough.− -
Appropriate socializationbenefitsKathy Hirch Pasek studies – comparedacademic pre-schools to play-based pre-schools− More anxiety, were less creative,had more negative attitudestowards school1997 High Scope Study− Age 23 arrest rates (1/3 vs. 1/10)− -
Self-regulation = key tosuccess in life“Self-regulation predicts effective development in virtuallyevery domain; in fact, good executive function is a betterpredictor of success in schools than a childs IQ.”− Laura Berk, professor of psychology IllinoisState University
Discussion Question #3 List the characteristics of a successfulperson? http://wiffiti.com/screens/7483
Play = Learning“Child-initiated play, not memorizinginformation, is the vehicle through whichchildren develop many of the skills thateducation reformers, and business leaders saythey need, such as collaboration, criticalthinking, and confidence”− Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
Develops higher orderthinking skillsEarly Intervention play-basedvs. academic instruction (105vs. 85)Rats Experiment – (BDFNChemical Neuron Stimulator)Block Experiment –Researchers gave blocks to agroup of 18 month olds. 6months later...
The Predators of Play“Play now appears to be a minor activity inmost kindergarten classrooms.”Edward Miller, Director of Alliance forChildhood
Organized ActivitiesU of M research study offree play− 1987 (40%) 1997(25%)Changed the way parentsinteract with their children40% of schools offer lessthan 30 minutes of recess ina 6 hour school day
Academic PursuitsDirect instruction versus free play inclassroomDecline in attentiveness when recess isdelayed
Screen Time“The traditional culture of childhood is fastdisappearing. In the past two decades alone,children have lost 12 hours of free time a week,and 8 of those were once spent in unstructuredfree play and outdoor pastimes. In part, this is afunction of the digital culture which provides somany adult-created toys, games, andamusements, Game Boys, and other electronicgames are so addictive they dissuade childrenfrom playing the traditional games.”− David Elkind
Screen TimeTV replaces time socializing and engaging inunstructured free playChildren 8-18 spend 6 hours per day ofscreen time2/3 of infants and toddlers watch 2hours/day40,000 commerical/ year51% of TV is always on53% no rules about TV watching
TV and ResearchLinks to ADDViolent behaviors− 66% of all TV shows violenceOne study found children who watchedmore TV than average impactededucational achievement at 26.
TV and ObesityU of M found being awake in a room and in a roomwith TV on more than 2 hours per day increasedrisks of being overweight at ages 3-4.Researchers found TV is the GREATEST risk factorfor childhood obesity. (Diet, physical activity,sedentary behavior)Recent study shows success in reducing weight ofpre-teens just by restricting TV viewing.Metabolic rate is lower watching TV than just sittingquietly doing nothing
Screen Time Suggestions Talk to parents about setting limits Make meaningful choicesMr. Rogers vs. Barney Co-Viewing with children under 2 -
Discussion Question #4What are the biggest challenges teachersface in talking to parents about screentime?
Classroom “EnvironmentalProtection Agencies ofPlay”“Imaginative play is important to childrensdevelopment, Children need opportunities to actand dress up like people they know. Equipmentthat encourages such play includeshousekeeping furniture, dolls, dress-up clothes,utensils, blocks, vehicles, carpentry equipment,and musical instruments. Freedom to usevarious paints, clay, water, and other artmaterials encourages imitation as well asconversation and creative expression of ideasand understandings.”− Position Paper of ACEI (Association for ChildhoodEducation International)
“Environmental ProtectionAgencies of Play” BestPracticsTime for free play45 minutes/day 5 days a weekModeling playLanguage and showcasing professionsMaterials for Play Simpler Toys = More Creative Inputs
Materials for PlayDramatic Play VideoDramatic Play SpeakerProp Box List
Evaluations Next workshop in December Topic: Dealing with Challenging Children FACEBOOK me! Amber Fante