• Give credit where credit is due when directly
quoting. When quoting a sentence, put the person's
words in quotation marks and include an APA
formatted in-text citation.
• When quoting phrases longer than 40 words, put the
quote in a block quote. Cite your source.
• At minimum, APA formatting requires the writer to
note the author of the direct quote, year the source
was published, and the page or paragraph on which
the information was found.
• Katherine Smith (2010) of the US Department of
Education acknowledged, “It is noted that children
who attend pre-kindergarten are more prepared
than those students who attend preschool only” (p.
Long quote—Use block formatting
The US Department of Transportation (2010) found the
FMCSA research shows that drivers who send
and receive text messages take their eyes off
the road for an average of 4.6 seconds out of
every 6 seconds while texting. At 55 miles per
hour, this means that the driver is traveling the
length of a football field, including the end
zones, without looking at the road. Drivers who
text while driving are more than 20 times more
likely to get in an accident than nondistracted drivers. (para. 5)
Citing Block Quotes
• Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a
free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit
Start the quotation on a new line indented 1/2 inch
from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you
would begin a new paragraph.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin and
indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph
within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout.
The parenthetical citation should come after the
closing punctuation mark.
• Give credit where credit is due when paraphrasing.
• Always use your own words when using someone’s
ideas, information, or analysis. Remember to use all
original language when paraphrasing a source. You
need to use your own style and your own words when
paraphrasing! Both stealing words and/or style is
How Do We Do Paraphrase?
o Read the passage
o Decide the main
ideas of the passage
o Highlight important
words or phrases
o Write the main points
in your own words
How do I cite paraphrased
information in APA formatting?
• Summary / Paraphrase
If you summarize or paraphrase another person's work, you
must include a citation in your paper and an entry in your
reference list. A proper citation requires the author’s last
name and the year the source was published.
• According to Gardner (2004), multiple intelligences need to
be considered in all classrooms.
• Multiple intelligences need to be considered in all
classrooms (Gardner, 2004).
Paraphrasing Two Authors
• Two Authors
When there are two authors, always include both authors' last
names when making your in-text citation.
Example #1 (with signal phrase)
• Miller and Crooks (2005) emphasized the difference in breeds by
comparing genetic coding at the molecular level.
Example #2 (without signal phrase)
• Experts emphasized the difference in breeds by comparing genes
a the molecular level (Miller & Crooks, 2005).
IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT
1. Use only important information.
2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much.
3. We must use our own voice and words.
• Add your own analysis or thoughts after you have
inserted directly quoted words or paraphrased
knowledge. This allows you to put your own spin on
the research you have used. It also allows you to
illustrate the explicit connection between the
research you chose and your essay’s intent or thesis
statement. I call this giving the author the
opportunity to add his or her $.02 on the matter.
Adding Your Own $.02
• Think of a hamburger when inserting expert
knowledge into a paragraph.
• Meat = Expert knowledge
• Ketchup, mustard, pickles,
onions, mayo, lettuce = your
• Use a plagiarism checker to see if you
plagiarized. Keep your similarity index below
• The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Style
Handbook (2006) states, “In research papers, you
should quote from a source to show that an authority
supports your point…and to present a particularly
well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost or
changed if paraphrased or summarized” (para. 3).
• Do not recycle work! In other words, do not double-
dip! Re-used work will likely be flagged by the
plagiarism checker, marking your work as suspect.
• You can reference former papers you wrote or have
published, but you cannot present your previously
written work as new. To do so, is academically
• Do not buy or copy a paper from the Internet. This
will easily be flagged by a plagiarism checker or by
inserting the suspect text into Google.
• Note the penalties associated with plagiarism when
they are posted in class. Forewarned is forearmed!
• Plan out your time. Work out a schedule ahead of
time and establish a timeline so that you are not
• This avoids the temptation to plagiarize.
• This avoids accidental plagiarism.
• Choose a topic that means something to you
personally so that you are more invested in the topic.
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