L05 value of oceans


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L05 value of oceans

  1. 1. IB Oceans and their Coastal Margins<br />B3 – The Value of Oceans<br />
  2. 2. World’s oceans represent a valuable resource base for the planet.<br />Biotic – relating to living organisms<br />Abiotic – non-living chemical and physical factors.<br />Resource Base<br />
  3. 3. Resources<br />The world’s oceans provide many products that are useful for humans.<br />Accessing resources is more difficult in the deep oceans than in the shallow continental shelves.<br />The margins of the oceans have the greatest demands on them.<br />As technology develops and cost structures change even the deepest and remote ocean areas are seen as being able to provide resources for human use.<br />
  4. 4. Fishing<br />Most useful biotic resource that the ocean provides for humans is fish.<br />Fish supplies 16% of the world’s protein to humans.<br />Fishing is conducted at a wide range of scales from individual people casting nets to large trawlers that operate like factories.<br />Most fish are used for human consumption.<br />Other use of fish are feeding animals or provide oils as raw materials for industrial processes.<br />
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  6. 6. Transport<br />Although people tend to travel long distances by Air humans still use oceans for transport.<br />Long-distance shipping is widely used to transport cargo in various types of ships including bulk oil tankers and container ships.<br />Oceans are also used for communications as long-distance telephone, internet and data cables are laid across the ocean floor.<br />
  7. 7. Tourism<br />An increasingly important use for oceans as a resource.<br />Most tourism related to oceans occurs on the margins, such as beaches and the shallow waters of the continental shelves.<br />Some cruise liners carry passengers across the oceans between continents.<br />
  8. 8. Abiotic Resources: Minerals<br />Ocean resources are increasingly being used as a source for minerals.<br />It is more difficult and more expensive to mine the oceans than the land.<br />If the resource is significantly valuable it justifies the high cost.<br />Unfortunately mining in the oceans often causes destruction of natural ecosystems.<br />When dredging occurs the ocean floor is totally destroyed wiping out all marine habitats and breeding grounds.<br />
  9. 9. Fishing<br />Traditional fishing methods were defined to obtain food for subsistence purposes.<br />Today fishing within most LEDCs takes only the quantities of fish needed for food in the local community.<br />Under traditional fishing fish remains a renewable resource.<br />
  10. 10. Commercial Fishing<br />Commercial fishing provides an incentive to catch as many fish as possible to make as much money as possible.<br />The fishing industry has a great difficulty conserving resources in part because fish can move across boundaries.<br />Within any country their can be enforcement of rules about size of fish and bag limit.<br />Actions can help to conserve fish stock in estuaries and coastal waters when there are sufficient inspectors to police regulations.<br />Destruction of breeding habit may be counteracting conservation measures.<br />
  11. 11. Fishing Stocks<br />Fish may move great distances during their life cycle and this will mean crossing the boundaries of countries’ control.<br />Territorial waters now extend some 320 kilometers from the shore and that means there is an overlap between many countries; or dispute where the line should be placed.<br />Many countries enter other countries territorial waters and remove food and other sources of food.<br />Patrolling can go some way to seeing that conservation measures are observed.<br />
  12. 12. Dwindling Fish Stocks<br />When fishermen are taking undersized fish stocks near an ocean border they are depleting breeding stock on both sides.<br />Much more efficient techniques have been developed in recent years:<br />Air and radar surveillance to locate fish schools.<br />Larger, faster, better equipped factory ships to process and preserve the catch.<br />Better netting techniques that often require the team work of a number of fishing boats.<br />
  13. 13. Increasing Fishing<br />As well as fishing becoming more intensive the size of the world fishing fleets grew enormously.<br />Fish can now be caught in quantities that threaten the survival of species.<br />Drift net is still being used by fishers from some countries despite being banned in international agreements.<br />The drift net is almost invisible and snares virtually everything that is unluckily enough to swim into it.<br />The drift net cannot exclude protected species.<br />
  14. 14. Special Fish<br />There are special markets for particular fish, such as tuna in Japan or the coral trout in Hong Kong.<br />The price that fishers can obtain encourages them to take greater risks of breaching territorial waters.<br />Coral trout has been taken from the protected marine park of the Great Barrier Reef to appear later in Hong Kong restaurants as the result of illegal fishing.<br />The price that people are willing to pay influences whether conservation will be successful.<br />
  15. 15. Conservation of Fisheries<br />Conservation measures are only having a minor impact.<br />Trend in marine fish catches has been downwards since about 1970 – though there is a greater success in catching what fish are actually there.<br />Traditional fish sought by the industry are over exploited.<br />Size of the catch is being maintained by some non-traditional species such as sprat or Pollock.<br />This will allow the size of the yield to be maintained though not through active conservation.<br />
  16. 16. Whaling<br />Breaches of restrictions on whaling receive more publicity than the steep reductions in the stocks of fish.<br />Conservation of Whaling has been successful in terms of conservation.<br />Japan and Norway still do not recognise some international agreements.<br />Numbers of whale species have shown a steady increase in their last two decreases.<br />Many places they contribute to ecotourism as people are fascinated by them.<br />
  17. 17. Question<br />Describe the issues involved in the management of fish as a resource?<br />