1
Piaget
   g


the father of the cognitive psychology theory, which is the individualistic
approach, theorized that learnin...
Constructivism


Within both theories, constructivism is based on providing a learning
environment to assist learners as t...
Assimilation and Accommodation


Piaget defined assimilation as the process of responding to the environment with
one’s co...
Scaffolding


Vygotsky coined the term scaffolding to express when other more
competent individuals provide some form of g...
Examples of Group Work:


Action Maze:
A programmed case study, where learners are given a list of detail to take them to
...
Examples of Group Work:


Case study:
Learners are presented with a description of a problematic situation and asked to
id...
Examples of Group Work:


Formal debate:
Students are divided into teams to present opposing viewpoints. Some may act as
r...
Examples of Group Work:


Group projects:
Groups work on projects, such as writing research papers and creating PowerPoint...
Examples of Group Work:


Muddy Points:
Group members must each pose a muddy point to the group. Group members help
to cla...
The “Guiding” Principle


Online education places the instructor in the role of facilitator, guiding and directing
learner...
What is a Group Charter?


A document prepared by and agreed to by group members that outline
expectations, responsibiliti...
Why a Group Charter?

Group charters allow group members to establish rules of operation at the beginning
of the group’s e...
When to Introduce a Group Charter?




                                     14
Stages of a g p development,
   g        group’s   p


Forming
Reliance on polite, safe, patterned behavior; members looki...
Stages of a g p development
   g        group’s   p


Storming
Group attempts to organize for the task, and conflicts emer...
Stages of a g p development,
   g        group’s   p


Norming
A sense of belonging and group cohesion; a sense of persona...
Stages of a g p development,
   g        group’s   p


Performing
Fun and exciting; high commitment to group; feeling of h...
Forming Stage


During the forming phase, learners want to gain trust of one another. One way of
increasing trust in the g...
Forming Stage


Gould and Padavano (2006) suggested that explaining the importance of group
work along with using group ch...
Components of group charter:


Code of conduct; Bandow, 2001; Doran, 2001; Gould & Padavano,2006; A.
Morgan, 2002; Page & ...
Components of a Group Charter


Group name; A. Morgan


Meeting times (including time zone, and length of meeting); Bandow...
Components of a Group Charter


Member roles and responsibilities; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page &
Donelan; Salas ...
Components of a Group Charter


Penalty for lack of member participation; A. Morgan


Preferable method of communication; ...
Components of a Group Charter


Standard for quality of work; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page
& Donelan; ...
Two Questions


(a) What is the experience of learners in online groups, with and without the use of
group charters?


(b)...
The Participants


The participants for this study were observed in an online accounting class
that was divided into two s...
Two Groups


Charter and Non-Charter




                          28
Charter Section Felt Prepared




                                29
Charter Section Less Worried




                               30
Charter Section More Efficient – The Section




                                               31
Charter Section Learners More Efficient – The Learners




                                                         32
Charter Section More Effective – The Section




                                               33
Charter Section Assessment Scores Increased More




                                                   34
Learners Identified Important Components

(a) determining the members’ roles and responsibilities,

(b) establishing the s...
Thank you! Questions?




                        36
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Group work facilitated by a group charter can create an efficient & effective learning experience

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This presentation shows the results of research conducted with online groups and group charters.

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Group work facilitated by a group charter can create an efficient & effective learning experience

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Piaget g the father of the cognitive psychology theory, which is the individualistic approach, theorized that learning occurs when individuals are actually doing the work themselves and creating their own understanding ( (Mooney, 2000). y, ) Vygotsky theory expounded upon Piaget’s by supporting social constructivism. Vygotsky b li V t k believed th t i t d that interaction with others h d an enormous i ti ith th had impact t on cognitive development (Mooney). 2
  3. 3. Constructivism Within both theories, constructivism is based on providing a learning environment to assist learners as they explore content by designing experiences that encourage assimilation and accommodation. 3
  4. 4. Assimilation and Accommodation Piaget defined assimilation as the process of responding to the environment with one’s cognitive structure, and accommodation as the process by which the cognitive structure is modified (as cited in Hergenhahn & Olson,1997). 4
  5. 5. Scaffolding Vygotsky coined the term scaffolding to express when other more competent individuals provide some form of guidance or structure that enables learners to engage in activities and perform tasks that otherwise would be out of the reach of the learner (Ormrod, 1999). Scaffolding S ff ldi can b th be thought of as one person standing on th shoulders ht f t di the h ld of another person to gain a different point of view. 5
  6. 6. Examples of Group Work: Action Maze: A programmed case study, where learners are given a list of detail to take them to the first decision point. As decisions are made, learners are directed further in the action maze to find out the consequences of their decisions and perhaps, what the next set of alternative actions available This activity is effective for teaching available. troubleshooting (Laird, 1985). 6
  7. 7. Examples of Group Work: Case study: Learners are presented with a description of a problematic situation and asked to identify or solve the problem. Critical incident technique: A group of learners is given a very brief narrative of a problem or situation to which they must respond. 7
  8. 8. Examples of Group Work: Formal debate: Students are divided into teams to present opposing viewpoints. Some may act as respondents or judges. This can be accomplished asynchronously through discussion forums or e-mail lists. 8
  9. 9. Examples of Group Work: Group projects: Groups work on projects, such as writing research papers and creating PowerPoint presentations to be posted to the class. 9
  10. 10. Examples of Group Work: Muddy Points: Group members must each pose a muddy point to the group. Group members help to clarify the muddy point to each other. Group members select one muddy point to send forward to another group for help with clarifying the point. 10
  11. 11. The “Guiding” Principle Online education places the instructor in the role of facilitator, guiding and directing learners to resources. Instructional designers and instructors may find that utilizing a group charter helps learners effectively manage group assignments. 11
  12. 12. What is a Group Charter? A document prepared by and agreed to by group members that outline expectations, responsibilities, time schedules, and other matters that are necessary for the group to function as a group. 12
  13. 13. Why a Group Charter? Group charters allow group members to establish rules of operation at the beginning of the group’s existence. Establishing an agreement among group members at the onset of the course may alleviate some of the frustrations that are inherent when communication among individuals working on a joint activity is inadequate. 13
  14. 14. When to Introduce a Group Charter? 14
  15. 15. Stages of a g p development, g group’s p Forming Reliance on polite, safe, patterned behavior; members looking to leader for direction; desire for acceptance; approaches to resolving conflict not developed; individual expectations not formed; group purpose and methods not formed; tasks not determined or delegated; methods and procedures not determined; rules of behavior not well developed so members keep things simple and avoid controversy. 15
  16. 16. Stages of a g p development g group’s p Storming Group attempts to organize for the task, and conflicts emerge; group attempts to decide who is to be responsible for what, what evaluation and reward criteria will be; power structure is not stable; some members may be silent while others may attempt to dominate; confusion; loss of interest; lack of progress; violation of code of conduct and team rules. 16
  17. 17. Stages of a g p development, g group’s p Norming A sense of belonging and group cohesion; a sense of personal accomplishment; individual roles understood; freedom to express opinion; trust between group members; unified mission; healthy balance of power; effective group process; sincere attempt to reach consensus; little or no violation of team rules; productive; attack problems, not each other, “we” overtakes “me” mentality. 17
  18. 18. Stages of a g p development, g group’s p Performing Fun and exciting; high commitment to group; feeling of high trust and friendship; involvement with group inspires members’ best performance; creative use of existing resources; highly effective orchestration of activities and abilities; humor, flexibility, versatility, smooth task and process flow within the group; pride in group accomplishments; volunteering participation; commitment to decisions; expressions of appreciation and caring. Don’t forget “adjourning,” separation anxiety. 18
  19. 19. Forming Stage During the forming phase, learners want to gain trust of one another. One way of increasing trust in the group environment is for learners to agree on task assignments, communication strategies, and timelines for collaborative activities (Tu & Corry, 2002). 19
  20. 20. Forming Stage Gould and Padavano (2006) suggested that explaining the importance of group work along with using group charters is fundamental in improving learner satisfaction with online group work. The forming phase of group development may be the ideal time to introduce the group charter as a tool to aid learners in developing trust within the group. 20
  21. 21. Components of group charter: Code of conduct; Bandow, 2001; Doran, 2001; Gould & Padavano,2006; A. Morgan, 2002; Page & Donelan, 2003 Conflict resolution plan; Page & Donelan Decision making structure; A. Morgan Group goals; A. Morgan; Salas et al., 2005 21
  22. 22. Components of a Group Charter Group name; A. Morgan Meeting times (including time zone, and length of meeting); Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan 22
  23. 23. Components of a Group Charter Member roles and responsibilities; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan; Salas et al. Member skills or knowledge inventory; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan 23
  24. 24. Components of a Group Charter Penalty for lack of member participation; A. Morgan Preferable method of communication; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan 24
  25. 25. Components of a Group Charter Standard for quality of work; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan; Salas et al. Time frames and deadlines; Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan 25
  26. 26. Two Questions (a) What is the experience of learners in online groups, with and without the use of group charters? (b) What components of the group charter are most critical to the learners’ educational experience? 26
  27. 27. The Participants The participants for this study were observed in an online accounting class that was divided into two sections of an online course room; each section constituted a case study or a “bounded system” (Merriam, 1998, p. 27). The group activity that was employed for this research was the muddiest point. “The muddiest point though extremely simple focuses on understanding a The point, simple, understanding, somewhat deeper level of learning than simple recall” (Angelo & Cross, 1993, p. 120). 27
  28. 28. Two Groups Charter and Non-Charter 28
  29. 29. Charter Section Felt Prepared 29
  30. 30. Charter Section Less Worried 30
  31. 31. Charter Section More Efficient – The Section 31
  32. 32. Charter Section Learners More Efficient – The Learners 32
  33. 33. Charter Section More Effective – The Section 33
  34. 34. Charter Section Assessment Scores Increased More 34
  35. 35. Learners Identified Important Components (a) determining the members’ roles and responsibilities, (b) establishing the standard for the quality of work, (c) agreeing on a code of conduct, (d) establishing a conflict resolution plan, (e) agreeing on time frames and deadlines. 35
  36. 36. Thank you! Questions? 36

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