Group work facilitated by a group charter can create an efficient & effective learning environment


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This presentation reports on the efficiency that can be product of online group work that employs a group charter. The presentation will also report on the how the effectiveness of learning in groups is increased when a group charter is utilized.

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Group work facilitated by a group charter can create an efficient & effective learning environment

  1. 1. Sloan-C International <br />Group work facilitated by a group charter can create an efficient & effective learning experienceAnn Esarco, Ph.D.McHenry County CollegeCrystal Lake, ILSloan-C International Conference on Online LearningOrlando, FL October 29, 2009© Copyright 2009, Ann Esarco, McHenry County College<br />
  2. 2. Piaget<br />Vygotsky<br />Why Group Work?<br />
  3. 3. Constructivism<br />
  4. 4. Assimilation and Accommodation<br />
  5. 5. Scaffolding<br />
  6. 6. Action maze:<br />Examples of Group Work<br />
  7. 7. Case study: Learners are presented with a description of a problematic situation and asked to identify or solve the problem.<br />Critical incident technique: A group of learners is given a very brief narrative of a problem or situation to which they must respond.<br />Examples of Group Work<br />
  8. 8. Formal debate:<br />Examples of Group Work<br />
  9. 9. Group projects:<br />Examples of Group Work<br />
  10. 10. Muddy Points:<br />Examples of Group Work<br />
  11. 11. The “Guiding” Principle<br />
  12. 12. What is a Group Charter?<br />
  13. 13. Group charters allow group members to establish rules of operation at the beginning of the group’s existence. <br />Establishing an agreement among group members at the onset of the course may alleviate some of the frustrations that are inherent when communication among individuals working on a joint activity is inadequate.<br />Why a Group Charter?<br />
  14. 14. When to Introduce a Group Charter?<br />
  15. 15. Stages of a group’s development, Tuckman (1965)<br /><ul><li>Forming:methods and procedures not determined</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Storming:violation of code of conduct and team rules</li></ul>Stages of a group’s development, Tuckman (1965)<br />
  16. 16. <ul><li>Norming:trust between group members; unified mission; healthy balance of power;</li></ul>Stages of a group’s development, Tuckman (1965)<br />
  17. 17. <ul><li>Performing: smooth task and process</li></ul>flow within the group; pride in group accomplishments<br />Stages of a group’s development, Tuckman (1965)<br />
  18. 18. During the forming phase, learners want to gain trust of one another. One way of increasing trust in the group environment is for learners to agree on task assignments, communication strategies, and timelines for collaborative activities (Tu & Corry, 2002).<br />Forming Stage<br />
  19. 19. Gould and Padavano (2006) suggested that explaining the importance of group work along with using group charters is fundamental in improving learner satisfaction with online group work. The forming phase of group development may be the ideal time to introduce the group charter as a tool to aid learners in developing trust within the group.<br />Forming Stage<br />
  20. 20. Code of conduct;Bandow, 2001; Doran, 2001; Gould & Padavano,2006; A. Morgan, 2002; Page & Donelan, 2003<br />Conflict resolution plan; Page & Donelan<br />Decision making structure; A. Morgan<br />Group goals; A. Morgan; Salas et al., 2005<br />Components of a Group Charter<br />
  21. 21. Components of a Group Charter<br />Group name; A. Morgan<br />Meeting times (including time zone, and length of meeting);Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan<br />
  22. 22. Member roles and responsibilities;Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan; Salas et al.<br />Member skills or knowledge inventory;Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan<br />Components of a Group Charter<br />
  23. 23. Penalty for lack of member participation; A. Morgan<br />Preferable method of communication;Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan<br />Components of a Group Charter<br />
  24. 24. Standard for quality of work;Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; A. Morgan; Page & Donelan; Salas et al.<br />Time frames and deadlines;Bandow; Doran; Gould & Padavano; Page & Donelan<br />Components of a Group Charter<br />
  25. 25. (a) What is the experience of learners in online groups, with and without the use of group charters? <br />(b) What components of the group charter are most critical to the learners’ educational experience?<br />Two Questions<br />
  26. 26. The participants for this study were observed in an online accounting class that was divided into two sections of an online course room; each section constituted a case study or a “bounded system” (Merriam, 1998, p. 27). The group activity that was employed for this research was the muddiest point. “The muddiest point, though extremely simple, focuses on understanding, a somewhat deeper level of learning than simple recall” (Angelo & Cross, 1993, p. 120). <br />The Participants<br />
  27. 27. Charter Section<br />Non Charter Section<br />Two Groups<br />
  28. 28. Charter Section Felt Prepared<br />8<br />Charter<br />7<br />Non-Charter<br />6<br />5<br />4<br />Learners<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />0<br />Not Prepared<br />Prepared<br />
  29. 29. Charter Section Less Worried<br />6<br />Charter<br />5<br />Non-Charter<br />4<br />Learners<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />0<br />No Concerns<br />Concerns<br />
  30. 30. Charter Section More Efficient<br />Charter<br />Non-Charter<br />800<br />700<br />600<br />500<br />400<br />Number of Postings<br />300<br />200<br />100<br />0<br />Total Term Postings<br />
  31. 31. Charter Section Learners More Efficient<br />Charter<br />100<br />Non-Charter<br />90<br />80<br />70<br />60<br />50<br />40<br />Number of Forum Postings<br />30<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />Average Postings<br />Average Postings With<br />Without Two Major<br />Two Major Posters<br />Posters<br />
  32. 32. Charter Section More Effective<br />Charter Average<br />Non-Charter Average<br />100.00%<br />90.00%<br />80.00%<br />70.00%<br />60.00%<br />50.00%<br />Average Grades <br />40.00%<br />30.00%<br />20.00%<br />10.00%<br />0.00%<br />Overall Grade<br />Tests<br />Group Work<br />
  33. 33. Charter Section Assessments Scores Increased More<br />Charter Average<br />Non-Charter Average<br />30.00%<br />25.00%<br />20.00%<br />15.00%<br />Increase in Assessment Scores<br />10.00%<br />5.00%<br />0.00%<br />
  34. 34. Learners Identified Important Components<br />(a) determining the members’ roles and responsibilities,<br />(b) establishing the standard for the quality of work,<br />(c) agreeing on a code of conduct,<br />(d) establishing a conflict resolution plan, <br />(e) agreeing on time frames and deadlines.<br />
  35. 35. Thank you! Questions?<br />Contact:<br />Ann Esarco, PhD<br />McHenry County College<br />8900 U.S. Highway 14<br />Crystal Lake, IL 60012<br /><br />