Boiler, utility

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Boiler, utility

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. SADIA WAZIR ROLL # 25 BOILER 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Boiler is a closed vessel in which the heat produced by the combustion of fuel is transferred to water for its conversion into steam at the desired temperature and pressure. 3
  4. 4. BOILER 4
  5. 5. Why we use boiler ? 5  A boiler is a device used for generating: a) Steam for power generation b) Hot water for heating purpose
  6. 6. PRIMARY REQUIREMENT OF BOILER  The primary requirements of steam generators or boilers are: a) The water must be contained safely b) The steam must be delivered safely in desired conditions as regards its pressure, temperature, quality and required rate 6
  7. 7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF BOILER The selection of type and size of a steam boiler depends upon the following factors:  The power required and the working pressure  Geographical position of the plant  Availability of fuel  Supply and quality of feed water  The probable load factor  Space available  Labor available  Steam pressure and superheat desired 7
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION The Boilers may be classified as under:  Horizontal boiler, vertical or inclined boilers  Fire tube and water tube boilers  Externally fired and internally fired boilers  Forced circulation and natural circulation boilers  High, medium and low pressure boilers  Stationary boiler and portable boiler  Single tube boilers and multi tube boilers 8
  9. 9. BOILER ACCESSORIES Feed pump Injector Economizer Air pre-heater Superheated Steam separator 9
  10. 10. FEED PUMP Its a pump which is used to deliver feed water to the boiler.  The appliances in common use for delivering the feed-water into the steam boilers are: a) Reciprocating pump b) Rotary pump 10
  11. 11. INJECTOR The function of an injector is to feed water into the boiler. It is also used where the space is not available for the installation of a feed pump. 11
  12. 12. ECONOMISER  An economizer is a device in which the waste heat of the flue gases is utilized for heating the feed water.  Economizer are of two types :  Independent type, and  Integral type 12
  13. 13. AIR PREHEATER The function of the air pre-heater is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. It is generally placed after the economizer. 13
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION 14
  15. 15. HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL OR INCLINED BOILER  If the axis of the boiler is horizontal, the boiler is called horizontal if the axis is vertical, it is called vertical boiler and if the axis is inclined it is called as inclined boiler.  The parts of horizontal boiler is can be inspected and repaired easily but it occupies more space. The vertical boiler occupies less floor area. 15
  16. 16. FIRE TUBE BOILER In the fire boilers, the hot gases flows inside the tubes and the water surrounds the tubes  Relatively small steam capacities (12,000 kg/hour)  Low to medium steam pressures (18 kg/cm2)  Operates with oil, gas or solid fuels 16
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES 17  Fire tube boiler is so easy to use, operate, clean and maintain Fire tube boiler can be used in small scale industries. Fire tube boiler is relatively cheaper than water tube boiler. A fire tube boiler costs 25 to 40 percent less than a comparatively sized water tube boiler.
  18. 18. DIS ADVANTAGES 18 The fire tube boiler can not produce steam at a pressure higher than 250 pounds per square inch. Capacity of generated steam is limited. Fire tube boilers are limited to approximately 2,500 HP, or about 86,000 lb/hr. Steam quality less as compared to WTB
  19. 19. WATER TUBE BOILER In the water tube boilers, the water is inside the tubes and hot gases surround them.  Used for high steam demand and pressure requirements  Capacity range of 4,500 – 120,000 kg/hour  Combustion efficiency enhanced by induced draft provisions  Lower tolerance for water quality and needs water treatment plant 19
  20. 20. ADVANTAGES 20  To operate boiler at a high capacity, the water tube packaged boiler is best.  Water tube boiler packages are designed to handle larger capacities, up to approximately 650,000 lb/hr, which is equivalent to about 19,000 HP.  A water tube boiler also is superior for high temperature and steam pressure.  It can operate at pressures up to 1,500 psi.  For large-capacity loads, large design pressure requirements, tracking rapid load swings or extreme horsepower needs, the water tube boiler essentially is the only choice.
  21. 21. EXTERNALLY FIRED AND INTERNALLY FIRED  The boiler is known as externally fired if the fire is outside the shell.  In case of internally fired boilers, the furnace is located inside the shell. 22
  22. 22. FORCED CIRCULATION AND NATURAL CIRCULATION In forced circulation type of boilers, the circulation of water is done by forced pump. In natural circulation type of boilers, circulation of water in the boiler takes place due to natural convention currents produced by the application of heat. 23
  23. 23. HIGHER PRESSURE AND LOW PRESSURE BOILERS  The boiler which produce steam at pressures of 80 bar and above are called high pressure boilers.  The boilers which produce steam at pressure below 80 bar are called low pressure boilers. 24
  24. 24. STATIONARY AND PORTABLE Primarily, the boilers are classified as either stationary or mobile. Stationary boilers are used for power plant steam, for central station utility power plants, for plant process steam etc. Mobile boilers or portable boilers include locomotive type, and other small units for temporary use at sites. 25
  25. 25. SINGLE TUBE AND MULTI TUBE BOILER THE fire tube boilers are classified as single tube and multi-tube boilers, depending upon whether the fire tube is one or more than one. 26
  26. 26. 27 MIANTENANCE
  27. 27. 1. Boiler Performance 2. Boiler blow down 3. Boiler feed water treatment ASSESSMENT OF BOILER 28
  28. 28. BOILER PERFORMANCE • Causes Of Poor Boiler Performance - Poor combustion - Heat transfer surface fouling - Poor operation and maintenance - Deteriorating fuel and water quality • Heat Balance : Identify heat losses • Boiler Efficiency: Determine deviation from best efficiency 29
  29. 29. BOILER BLOW DOWN • Controls ‘total dissolved solids’ (TDS) in the water that is boiled • Blows off water and replaces it with feed water • Conductivity measured as indication of TDS levels • Calculation of quantity blow down required: Feed water TDS x % Make up water Maximum Permissible TDS in Boiler water 30
  30. 30. BENEFITS • Lower pretreatment costs • Less make-up water consumption • Reduced maintenance downtime • Increased boiler life • Lower consumption of treatment chemicals 31
  31. 31. Boiler Feed Water Treatment  Quality of steam depend on water treatment to control  Steam purity  Deposits  Corrosion  Efficient heat transfer only if boiler water is free from deposit-forming solids 32
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