History of instructional design


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History of instructional design

  1. 1. History of Instructional Design<br />Andrea Reeder<br />September 8, 2011<br />IDT 7052<br />
  2. 2. What is IDT?<br />According to Kent Gustafson and Rob Branch instructional design is a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007).<br />
  3. 3. Contributing Theories<br />Greek philosophers : writings on learning and memory<br />St. Thomas Aquinas: free will in terms of teaching<br />John Locke: gaining knowledge through experience 17th century<br />John Dewey: learning by doing<br />13th century<br />20th century<br />
  4. 4. Behaviorism<br />Influential theory in the development of IDT<br />Defined as the measurement and study of human behaviors (Resier and Dempsey, 2007)<br />IDT views this theory as more encompassing then stimulus-response (Resier and Dempsey, 2007)<br />1920’s<br />
  5. 5. World War II: rapid advancement in the field<br />Psychologist and educators developed training materials for soldiers.<br />1930-1945<br />
  6. 6. American Institute for Research<br />Developed numerous analysis, design, and evaluation procedures.<br />Leading Researcher<br />B. Miller author of<br />Psychological Principles in System Development<br />1946<br />
  7. 7. B. F. Skinner<br />Author of The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching<br />Developed the characteristics of effective programmed materials.<br />1954<br />
  8. 8. Objectives<br />Taxonomy of Educational Objectives<br />Benjamin Bloom developed learning outcomes in terms of objectives.<br />Bloom’s Taxonomy depicts a hierarchy, showing the relationship between the outcomes.<br />Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />1956<br />
  9. 9. Sputnik<br />The launch of Sputnik, a Soviet space satellite, lead to reforms in math and science education. <br />Science and math instructional materials developed using US government funding.<br />1957<br />
  10. 10. Early Instructional Design Models<br /> A model for systemically designing material was developed by incorporating<br />Task Analysis,<br /> Objective Specification, &<br />Criterion-Referenced Testing*<br />1960’s <br />*Robert Glaser developed the term criterion-reference. His research allowed educators to assess for previous knowledge and develop materials that are learner specific.<br />
  11. 11. Robert Gagne: Key Researcher<br />Author of “Military Training and Principles of Learning” and The Conditions of Learning<br />Contributions: <br />Described various types of learning outcomes and events of instruction (Reiser and Dempsey, 2001)<br />Structures of learning and analysis<br />1965<br />
  12. 12. L. C. Silvern: Key Researcher<br />Research assisted in field’s creation (Reiser and Dempsey)<br /> Model based on behaviorism<br />Applied general system theory (GST) to solving instructional problems<br />Research Interest: Aerospace and Defense<br />1965<br />
  13. 13. Systems Approach<br />Rapid growth and development in the creation of new models for systemically designing instruction. <br />1970’s<br />
  14. 14. Microcomputers<br />Growth in computer based instruction<br />1980’s<br />
  15. 15. Human Performance Technology Movement<br />Emphasizes<br />On the job performance<br />Business results<br />Non-instructional solutions to problems<br />1990’s to 2000’s<br />
  16. 16. Constructivism<br />Current theory influencing instructional design technology<br />Key Researchers<br />Piaget<br />Vygotsky<br />Emphasizes<br /> Authentic learning <br /> Application of learning to daily life.<br />Piaget<br />1990’s to 2000’s<br />
  17. 17. References<br />Dempsey, J.V., & Reiser, R. (2007).Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.<br />Leigh, D. (n.d.). A Brief History of Instructional Design. Retrieved September 5, 2011 from http://www.pignc-ispi.com/articles/education/brief%20history.htm<br />Reiser, R. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. ETR&D, 49, 57-67.<br />
  18. 18. References<br />The History of Instructional Design. (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2011 from Preceden Web site: http://www.preceden.com/timelines/8906-history-of-instructional-design.<br />