8 ontology integration and interoperability (onto i op)

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Project number: 224348
Project acronym: AEGIS
Project title: Open Accessibility Everywhere: Groundwork, Infrastructure, Standards
Starting date: 1 September 2008
Duration: 48 Months
AEGIS is an Integrated Project (IP) within the ICT programme of FP7

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8 ontology integration and interoperability (onto i op)

  1. 1. Introduction Scenario Standard Conclusion Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation A Meta Ontology Language to be Standardised for Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp) AEGIS Conference Christoph Lange1,2 , Till Mossakowski1,3,4 , Christian Galinski5 , Oliver Kutz1,3 1 University of Bremen, Germany 2 Computer Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany 3 SFB/TR 8 “Spatial cognition”, University of Bremen, Germany 4 DFKI GmbH, Bremen, Germany 5 International Information Centre for Terminology (Infoterm), Vienna, Austria 2011-11-30 Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 1
  2. 2. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionBackground: The OASIS EU project OASIS = Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardisation Goal: an innovative reference architecture (based on ontologies and semantic services) that allows plug and play and cost-effective interconnection of existing and new services in all domains required for the independent and autonomous living of the elderly and enhancing their Quality of Life http://www.oasis-project.eu Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 2
  3. 3. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionInteroperable Assistive Technology Assistive technology increasingly relies on communication among users, between users and their devices, and among these devices. Making such ICT accessible and inclusive is costly or even impossible We aim at more interoperable devices, services accessing these devices, and content delivered by these services . . . at the levels of data and metadata data models and data modelling methods metamodels as well as a meta ontology language Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 3
  4. 4. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionOur Big Picture of Interoperability Knowledge Infrastructure Service-Oriented Smart Environment Architecture Concepts/Data/Individuals Service Target (Device) Device rabil r ity fo Ontology Service Description Target Description inte ppings rope ma Ontology Language/Logic Service Descr. Language Target Descr. Language Data Concepts/Data/Individuals processes Service accesses Target (Device) Device represented in terms of satisfies conforms to Models Ontology refers to Service Description Target Description written in written in written in Metamodels Ontology Language/Logic Service Descr. Language Target Descr. Language Knowledge Software Agents Hardware For now we focus on the “content”/ “knowledge” column Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 4
  5. 5. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionAn Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Use Case Scenario Clara instructs her wheelchair to get her to the kitchen (next door to the living room). For dinner, she would like to take a pizza from the freezer and bake it in the oven. (Her diet is vegetarian.) Afterwards she needs to rest in bed. Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 5
  6. 6. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionAn Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Use Case Scenario Clara instructs her wheelchair to get her to the kitchen (next door to the living room). For dinner, she would like to take a pizza from the freezer and bake it in the oven. (Her diet is vegetarian.) Afterwards she needs to rest in bed. Existing AAL ontologies (e.g. OpenAAL, http://openaal.org) cover the core of these concepts: Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 5
  7. 7. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionAn Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Use Case Scenario Clara instructs her wheelchair to get her to the kitchen (next door to the living room). For dinner, she would like to take a pizza from the freezer and bake it in the oven. (Her diet is vegetarian.) Afterwards she needs to rest in bed. Existing AAL ontologies (e.g. OpenAAL, http://openaal.org) cover the core of these concepts: . . . but not all required concepts e.g. food ingredients ⇒ need other ontologies/modules even need to tap into the Web of Data (product data, geodata) Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 5
  8. 8. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionAn Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Use Case Scenario Clara instructs her wheelchair to get her to the kitchen (next door to the living room). For dinner, she would like to take a pizza from the freezer and bake it in the oven. (Her diet is vegetarian.) Afterwards she needs to rest in bed. Existing AAL ontologies (e.g. OpenAAL, http://openaal.org) cover the core of these concepts: . . . but not all required concepts e.g. food ingredients ⇒ need other ontologies/modules even need to tap into the Web of Data (product data, geodata) . . . not necessarily at the required level of complexity e.g. space/time ⇒ need other logics Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 5
  9. 9. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionWhat do Devices Need to Know? Some of the devices involved: kitchen light switch freezer (aware of its contents) wheelchair (with navigation) Different Services and Devices need to understand different aspects of the real world at different levels of complexity.Quote from the “Hitchhiker”“Suddenly [the door] slid open. ‘Thank you,’it said, ‘for making a simple door veryhappy.’” Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 6
  10. 10. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionDifferent Devices and their Knowledge Light Switch: “light is switched on if and only if someone is in the room and it is dark outside” Freezer: “a vegetarian pizza is a pizza whose toppings are all vegetarian” Wheelchair: “two areas in a house (e.g. a working area in a room) are either the same, or intersecting, or bordering, or separated, or one is part of the other” Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 7
  11. 11. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionDifferent Devices = Different Logics Which logics can intuitively capture these notions? Light Switch: propositional logic “light is switched on if and only if someone is in the room and it is dark outside” – light_on ≡ person_in_room ∧ dark_outside Freezer: description logic (Pizza ontology) “a vegetarian pizza is a pizza whose toppings are all vegetarian” VegetarianPizza ≡ Pizza ∀hasTopping.Vegetarian Wheelchair: first order logic (RCC-style spatial calculus) “two areas in a house (e.g. a working area in a room) are either the same, or intersecting, or bordering, or separated, or one is part of the other” ∀a1 , a2 .equal(a1 , a2 ) ∨ overlapping(a1 , a2 ) ∨ bordering(a1 , a2 ) ∨ disconnected(a1 , a2 ) ∨ part_of(a1 , a2 ) ∨ part_of(a2 , a1 ) Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 8
  12. 12. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionDOL (Distributed Ontology Language) The DOL standard (Distributed Ontology Language) specifies a meta-language for logically heterogeneous, modular, interlinked, and documented ontologies with a formal semantics and an XML, RDF and text syntax that is compatible to conforming existing and future ontology languages. In practice, interoperability can only be achieved via standards: formulate consensual rules under participation of major stakeholders (here: ontology language communities) improve suitability of products, processes and services facilitate communication reduce complexity (and thus costs) increase quality via certification Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 9
  13. 13. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  14. 14. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  15. 15. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  16. 16. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  17. 17. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  18. 18. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Example in DOL (Excerpt) logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> ontology OurAAL = <http://openaal.org/SAM/Ontology#> then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/Propositional> : { props light_on, person_in_room, dark_outside . light_on <=> person_in_room / dark_outside with person_in_room |-> Room that inverse locatedIn Person min 1 %% also establish links to OpenAAL’s Device } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/OWL> : { Class: VegetarianPizza EquivalentTo: Pizza that hasTopping only Vegetarian Individual: <http://productdb.org/ean/4001724819806> Facts: hasTopping Tomato, hasTopping Mozzarella %% and nothing else %% also connect Pizza to the OpenAAL Devices Freezer and Oven } then logic <http://purl.net/dol/logic/CommonLogic> : { . (forall (a1 a2) (or (equal a1 a2) ... (part_of a2 a1)) %% plus another axiom that makes the "or" exclusive with %% establish link to OpenAAL’s Room connectedTo Room } end Relevant DOL features used here: literal inclusion of existing languages; modular reuse; links between ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 10
  19. 19. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionISO Standardization Roadmap The standardization of DOL (ISO 17347) so far involves experts from ≈ 15 countries and various ontology-related communities. Now: Working Drafts, towards Committee Draft (each stage reviewed by experts, voted upon) 2013: Draft International Standard 2015: Final Draft, then International Standard http://ontolog.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?OntoIOp DOL – a meta-language for logically heterogeneous, modular, interlinked, and documented ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 11
  20. 20. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionOne Logic for the Ontology? Why not everything in first order logic? The more expressive a logic, the less computationally favorable! Specialized tools for specific logics exist: provers, model finders, consistency checkers, query engines Ontologies in different logics exist as a matter of fact e.g. DOLCE (first order logic): general notions of space, time, parthood Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 12
  21. 21. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionRequirements DOL should be generally applicable, open, and extensible DOL shall be a logic-agnostic metalanguage DOL should have user- and machine-readable serializations DOL should have a well-defined formal, logic-based semantics DOL should allow for expressing logically heterogeneous ontologies (and literal reuse of existing modules) DOL should allow for expressing links between ontologies DOL should allow for writing down ontologies and ontology links as implicitly as possible and as explicitly as needed DOL should allow for rich annotation and documentation of ontologies Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 13
  22. 22. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionThe Onto-Logical Translation Graph OBOOWL OBO 1.4 bRDF EL QL RL RDF PL OWL RDFS DDLOWL RDFSOWL grey: no fixed expressivity green: decidable ontology languages yellow: semi-decidable ECoOWL FOL= orange: some second-order constructs red: full second-order logic CL ECoFOL Rel-S F-logic subinstitution CASL theoroidal subinstitution simultaneously exact and FOLms= model-expansive comorphisms HOL model-expansive comorphisms Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 14
  23. 23. Introduction Scenario Standard ConclusionConformance Criteria DOL should work with any existing or future ontology language (if the latter conforms!) We shall establish the conformance of OWL, Common Logic, RDFS, F-logic, UML class diagrams, and OBO Conformance of a logic (directly or by translation): semantic conformance > entailment conformance Conformance of a serialization: XML conformance > RDF conformance > text conformance > standoff markup conformance Conformance of a document (“Is this document a DOL ontology?”) Conformance of an application: A DOL-conforming application produces DOL-conforming documents! Lange et al. (U. Bremen/Infoterm) Making Heterogeneous Ontologies Interoperable Through Standardisation 2011-11-30 15

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