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5 Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability


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Given the fact that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) today are developing in the direction of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, and that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa), a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Content integration and content interoperability are the key concepts in this connection. In many applications, such as in eAccessibility/eInclusion, content often must be totally reliable – therefore, it needs certification and validation for many different kinds of content. Standards-based datamodels and standardized content facilitate such certification and validation, which also should be based on standards. Needless to say that the above-mentioned approach has a big impact on software development, as can be gathered from document MoU/MG/05 N0221 "Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale", which was adopted in 2005. See: It also has an impact on future ICT-related standards as can be seen from MoU/MG/05 N0222 "Statement on eBusiness Standards and Cultural Diversity". See: Increasingly required today are modularity and comprehensive interoperability, capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards. Fulfilling these requirements will make software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It will also make content – first of all structured content at the level of lexical semantics – fit for different kinds of content integration and content interoperability. Such structured content – especially if standardized and made available in the form of content repositories – enhances the potential for re-use in totally different eApplications. It also increases the reliability of data, thus reducing the risk of all sorts and liability. This contribution attempts to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools and their certification not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion.

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5 Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

  1. 1. Christian Galinski Infoterm Austria Standards-based Content Resources – Content integration and interoperability
  2. 2. Many heterogeneous ontologies Many deficient content repositories People with special needs not respected Many industry standards – gaps in open standards  standardized content repositories  content interoperability based on open standards Motivation, problem area
  3. 3. Research objectives Global content interoperability of content repositories based on open standards for people with special needs
  4. 4. Research approach, methodology Standardization  open standards for: - harmonized data models - harmonized data dictionaries - ontology integration and interoperability - content repositories
  5. 5. Major outcomes / results <ul><li>Standardization for interoperability I: </li></ul><ul><li>- classification </li></ul><ul><li>„ catalogues“ (=structures/formats) </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul><ul><li>concept databases </li></ul>
  6. 6. Major outcomes / results <ul><li>Standardization for interoperability II: </li></ul><ul><li>- web-based workflows </li></ul><ul><li>transparent procedures </li></ul><ul><li>metadata registries (ISO 11179 etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>federated content repositories </li></ul><ul><li>verification, validation, certification </li></ul>
  7. 7. STANDARDIZATION <ul><li>=open standards </li></ul><ul><li>activity of </li></ul><ul><li>establishing, with regard to actual or potential problems , provisions for common and repeated use , </li></ul><ul><li>aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE 1: In particular, the activity consists of the processes of formulating, issuing and implementing standards. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE 2: Important benefits of standardization are improvement of the suitability of products, processes and services for their intended purposes, prevention of barriers to trade and facilitation of technological cooperation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CONSENSUS &quot;General agreement, characterized by the absence of sustained opposition to substantial issues by any important part of the concerned interests and by a process that involves seeking to take into account the views of all parties concerned and to reconcile any conflicting arguments&quot;. (ISO/IEC Guide 2:1991)
  9. 9. Content standards <ul><li>too many standards?  industry standards </li></ul><ul><li>standards lacking/being insufficient?  open standards </li></ul><ul><li>standards concerning content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content items/entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metadata, data modelling, metamodels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repositories / registries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cooperative work & workflow methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance (incl. legal issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>services concerning structured content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requirements for business models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design of support tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li> standards should be examined, whether they support or hinder multi-linguality, multimodality and cultural diversity (very important for SMEs) </li></ul>
  10. 10. MoU/MG N0221 Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated reposi-tories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale adopted in 2005
  11. 11. Content Interoperability <ul><li>semantic interoperability  content interoperability = capability of content items / entities (i.e. structured content at the level of lexical semantics) </li></ul><ul><li>to be integrated into or combined with other (types of) content items / entities </li></ul><ul><li>to be extensively re-used for other purposes (also sub-items/entities to be re-usable/ re-purposable) </li></ul><ul><li>to be searchable, retrievable, recombinable from different points of view </li></ul>
  12. 12. MoU/MG N0221 Examples It‘s all catalogues
  13. 13. MoU/MG N0221
  14. 14. MoU/MG N0221
  15. 15. MoU/MG N0221
  16. 16. MoU/MG N0221
  17. 17. MoU/MG N0221
  18. 18. MoU/MG N0221
  19. 19. MoU/MG N0221
  20. 20. “ Fastened by a steel 3-1/2” threaded bolt” Source: Ben Martin (J.D. Edwards) 2002 <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updating Item Descriptions 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>“ Fastened by an aluminum 3-1/2” threaded bolt” “ Fastened by a steel 3-1/2” threaded bolt”
  21. 21. Out to different exchanges and formats MODEL 1 ORIGINAL MODEL 2 MODEL 3 MODEL 4 MODEL 5 ebXML cXML Source: Ben Martin (J.D. Edwards) 2002 <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updating Item Descriptions 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>CD-ROM
  22. 22. … ideally into various languages MODEL 1 ORIGINAL MODEL 2 MODEL 3 MODEL 4 MODEL 5 CD-ROM ebXML cXML <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updating Item Descriptions 3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Source: Ben Martin (J.D. Edwards) 2002 ENGLISH FRENCH GERMAN DUTCH SWEDISH
  23. 23. Structured content More often than not different kinds of content items are combined with or embedded in each other  new requirements on content!
  24. 24. Language + <ul><li>Multimodality not only written  spoken… </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linguistic representations: graphical symbols, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-channel output: from large display boards to PDA displays </li></ul><ul><li>+eInclusion / eAccessibility </li></ul>
  25. 25. COSTS Costs of content creation and maintenance Items of structured content occur in all kinds of technical documentation  costs
  26. 26. MoU/MG N0221
  27. 27. Global IOp <ul><li>Interoperable methods & models </li></ul><ul><li>coherent combination of methods: </li></ul><ul><li>ISO/TC 37 “Terminology and other language and content resources” </li></ul><ul><li>ONE methodology </li></ul>
  28. 28. IOp STANDARDS <ul><li>Increasingly standards developing organizations (SDOs) are cooperating on the agreed basis of </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 13584 Series </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 11179 Series </li></ul><ul><li>ISO/TC 37 standards </li></ul><ul><li>taking into account the basic requirements for content interoperability: multilinguality, multimodality, multimedia, eAccessibility / eInclusion, multi-channel </li></ul>
  29. 29. SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Standardization of metadata  metadata registries (properties for products and services, terminology, graphical symbols, etc.)  reliable data / data quality </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized data models and exchange formats to insure interoperability of data and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Online workflows for development and maintenance of data </li></ul>
  30. 30. Examples It‘s happening!
  31. 32. COSTS
  32. 33. COSTS
  33. 34. COSTS
  34. 35. COSTS
  35. 36. COSTS
  36. 37. COSTS
  37. 38. COSTS
  38. 39. COSTS
  39. 40. ISO/CDB <ul><li>May 2008 - First presentation at ISO internal IT-strategy meeting in Milano </li></ul><ul><li>October 2008 – Presentation at ISO General Assembly in Dubai </li></ul><ul><li>January 2009 – beta-version evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>October 2009 – presentation at ISO General Assembly in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>October 2009 – public release for look-up </li></ul><ul><li>October 2010 – incl. coding systems, SI symbols, metadata / data categories, </li></ul><ul><li>October 2011 – upgrading  support tool for content standardization </li></ul>
  40. 41. SOLUTIONS
  41. 42. SOLUTIONS
  42. 43. Lessons learned <ul><li>Worldwide collaborative online development of multilingual and reliable content is feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization of workflows between organizations creating content is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Free availability of reliable meta data (terminology, product properties, graphical symbols,…) is a key factor for security of investments </li></ul>Standardization in content reduces the complexity of business processes
  43. 44. Data quality <ul><li>QUALITY  RELIABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability  liability </li></ul><ul><li> reduce risks and liability </li></ul>
  44. 45. QUALITY <ul><li>The quality of something can be determined by comparing a set of inherent characteristics with a set of requirements. If those inherent characteristics meet all requirements, high or excellent quality is achieved. If those characteristics do not meet all requirements, a low or poor level of quality is achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is, therefore, a question of degree. As a result, the central quality question is: How well does this set of inherent characteristics comply with this set of requirements? In short, the quality of something depends on a set of inherent characteristics and a set of requirements and how well the former complies with the latter. </li></ul><ul><li>According to this definition, quality is a relative concept. By linking quality to requirements, ISO 9000 argues that the quality of something cannot be established in a vacuum. Quality is always relative to a set of requirements. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  45. 46. ISO 9000 principles <ul><li>ISO 9004 (a supporting standard of 9001) dictates the 8 principles that the ISO 9001 definition is based on. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Focus Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of People </li></ul><ul><li>Process Approach </li></ul><ul><li>System Approach to Management </li></ul><ul><li>Continual Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Factual Approach to Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships </li></ul>
  46. 47. Conformity assessment demonstration that specified requirements relating to a product, process, system, person or body are fulfilled NOTE 1 The subject field of conformity assessment includes activities defined elsewhere in this International Standard, such as testing, inspection and certification, as well as the accreditation of conformity assessment bodies. NOTE 2 The expression “object of conformity assessment” or “object” is used in this International Standard to encompass any particular material, product, installation, process, system, person or body to which conformity assessment is applied. A service is covered by the definition of a product .
  47. 48. CERTIFICATION third-party attestation related to products, processes, systems or persons NOTE 1 Certification of a management system is sometimes also called registration. NOTE 2 Certification is applicable to all objects of conformity assessment except for conformity assessment bodies (2.5) themselves, to which accreditation (5.6) is applicable.
  48. 49. Standards compliance <ul><li>Standards compliance needs to be assessed according to validation/verification criteria , defined as policy, procedure or requirement used as a reference against which evidence is compared. </li></ul><ul><li> 2 closely related systematic, independent and documented processes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Verification & validation Verification uses objective evidence that ( specified) requirements which define an intended use or application have been met for the sake of the evaluation of assertions against agreed verification criteria. Whenever specified requirements have been met, a verified status is achieved. Validation uses objective evidence to confirm that ( specified) require-ments which define an intended use or application have been met. Whenever all requirements have been met, a validated status is achieved.
  50. 51. Global content IOp <ul><li>Structured content in eAccessibility/eInclusion may come from or be re-used / re-purposed in: </li></ul><ul><li>eHealth, eGovernment, eLearning and other eApplications </li></ul><ul><li> generic approach based on open standards </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in eAccessibility/eInclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>communication between impaired people (directly or through ICT devices), </li></ul><ul><li>communication between impaired people and the tools they use, </li></ul><ul><li>communication between the tools </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of metadata, data models, messages, protocols, conversion of all sorts, multilinguality (incl. cultural diversity), multimodality, user interfaces  design for all (DfA) etc. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Conclusion and outlook <ul><li>Content integration – whether in the form of virtual or real data integration – and content interoperability must be based among others on: </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent methodology standards for datamodels and data modelling; </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated standardization of several kinds of structured content; </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized identification systems for individual pieces of information; </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized transfer protocols and interchange formats; </li></ul><ul><li>in order to be efficient and reliable. </li></ul>