Electricity and the Environment - 2014 Update


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Information on the environmental performance of the electric industry, including use of water for cooling

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Electricity and the Environment - 2014 Update

  1. 1. Electricity and the Environment ! 2014 ! Legislative advertising paid for by: John W. Fainter, Jr. • President and CEO Association of Electric Companies of Texas, Inc. 1005 Congress, Suite 600 • Austin, TX 78701 • phone 512-474-6725 • fax 512-474-9670 • www.aect.net
  2. 2. AECT Principles! • AECT is an advocacy group composed of member companies committed to: - Ensuring a modern, reliable infrastructure for the supply & delivery of electricity. - Supporting efficient competitive markets that are fair to customers and market participants. - Supporting consistent and predictable oversight and regulation that will promote investment and ensure the stability of Texas’ electric industry. - Promoting an economically strong and environmentally healthy future for Texas, including conservation and efficient use of available resources. • AECT member companies remain dedicated to providing Texas customers with reliable service and are committed to the highest standards of integrity. The Association of Electric Companies of Texas, Inc. (AECT) is a trade organization of investorowned electric companies in Texas. Organized in 1978, AECT provides a forum for member company representatives to exchange information about public policy, and to communicate with government officials and the public. For more information, visit www.aect.net. 2
  3. 3. Texas is Among Nationwide Leaders! in Low Emissions Rates! States  With  NOx,  SO2  and  CO2  Emissions  Rates  Below  the   Na9onal  Average  for  Electric  Genera9on   Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data) 3 !
  4. 4. Comparison of Electric Utility Generation Emissions: Texas vs. the Northeast! ! 13  Northeast  States  &  DC   Texas   Land Area 247,175 mi2 261,232 mi2 Tons of CO2 427,123,780 259,789,897 Tons of SO2 722,257 365,350 Tons of NOx 367,109 133,966 Sources: CO2, NOx, SO2: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data); Land Area: US Census Bureau, 2010 4 !
  5. 5. Texas’ Electric Generating Plants Remain Among Cleanest NOx Emitters in the Nation! Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data) 5 !
  6. 6. Texas is Already Leading the Way in Clean Power Plants Regionally Texas electric generators have the lowest rate of NOx emissions in the region 0.179 OK 0.340 NM 0.086 TX 0.174 AR 0.109 LA Area 2012 NOx Emission Rate Averages (lbs/ mmBtu) National Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data) 0.139 Texas 0.086 6 !
  7. 7. Texas’ Electric Generating Plants Below National Average SO2 Emissions Rates! Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data) 7 !
  8. 8. Texas’ Electric Generating Plants Also Below Average CO2 Emissions Rates! Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2013, Preliminary Data) 8 !
  9. 9. Overview of Water Use ! by Electric Generators in Texas! •  AECT member companies represent the largest private owners, builders, and operators of private reservoirs in Texas. •  Dependable water supplies are essential to the reliable generation of electricity. –  Water supply is generally obtained in the form of water contracts/rights, prior to the construction of an electric generation station. –  Water contracts/rights are secured at a level to ensure a reliable water source during future drought periods. –  It is important to note that most of this water is not consumed: water consumed for electric generation is currently 4% of total Texas water demand. •  The reliable generation of electricity is necessary for pumping water to cities and farms, and for water treatment and sewage treatment – among other necessities. •  Moreover, a reliable Texas electricity industry is necessary for the state to meet the needs of our growing population and the new and growing businesses that fuel our state’s economy. 9 !
  10. 10. How Texas’ Steam Power Plants! Use Water!    Steam   Flow  of  H2O      Water      Stack      Controls      Combus9on      Fuel   Turbine      Pump   Flow  of  H2O   Generator   Flow  of  Power   Transformer   Electricity   Condenser      Cooling  Water   •  •  •  The graphic above is a simplified example of a power plant’s use of water for steam generation. Most power plants heat water in a closed system until it becomes steam, then pressurize that steam to turn a generating turbine. The steam is then routed to a condenser, where the water is condensed and reused in the steam cycle. 10 !
  11. 11. Management and Use of Water 
 at Texas’ Power Plants! •  Many electric generating facilities in Texas obtain TCEQ permits for use of fresh surface water or surface saltwater as well as groundwater conservation district permits for well water withdrawals. •  Electric generating facilities in Texas are required to obtain TCEQ permits for their wastewater discharge. –  •  In addition to complying with state and federal water quality regulations, AECT member companies are committed to practicing sound water conservation. We: –  –  –  –  –  •  AECT member companies have an outstanding record of compliance with state and federal water quality standards and requirements, which includes rigorous monitoring of the wastewater discharge Reuse water whenever possible Capture storm water runoff Restore, enhance and create aquatic habitats Preserve ecosystems Enhance and create valuable wetlands Many reservoirs created by electric generating companies are used for recreational purposes, including camping, boating, fishing and swimming. 11 !
  12. 12. Recent Key Findings! On Water Use in Texas! •  The typical American household consumes 300 gallons of water each day. Producing the electricity consumed by that household requires only about 9½ gallons. •  Only about 3% of an average resident’s total daily consumption of electricity is needed to take care of all of daily water needs. –  This includes pumping the raw water from the ground or lake, pumping it to a treatment plant and treating it, delivering the treated water to the resident and treating the resulting wastewater. •  EPRI’s Water Conservation & Technology Center report supports once-through cooling used on the majority of fossil fuel-fired power plants today, finding that “Mandating one cooling technology may result in job losses and have unintended consequences,” due to the costs and potential impact on the broader state economy. Source: Viability and Impacts of Implementing Various Power Plant Cooling Technologies in Texas, prepared for EPRI by Texas A&M University, July 2012 12 !
  13. 13. Mitigating Drought Effects! •  Generators are taking many actions to help ensure water supplies allow for reliable operation. Examples include: –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Implementing water conservation measures Reusing water whenever possible Using treated municipal sewage effluent for cooling Upgrading power plant processes to minimize or eliminate use of water for non-cooling purposes Capturing, treating and using storm runoff from the plant site Procuring additional water rights Building pipelines to remote water sources Adding pumping capability Using advanced water treatment systems to treat and use surface water that naturally contains high levels of minerals or dissolved solids, thus avoiding use of higher quality surface water 13 !
  14. 14. Additional Water Challenges:! Invasive Species! •  Zebra mussels clog cooling water intake valves, as well as impacting water supply. The mussels have multiplied so quickly in Lake Texoma that the North Texas Municipal Water District is no longer able to pump water. •  Hydrilla, a non-native invasive aquatic plant, is found in over 100 bodies of water in Texas. In great quantities, it can affect water supplies and operations of power plants. 14 !
  15. 15. Generation and Water Usage:! Summary! •  Water consumption for electric generation is currently 4% of total Texas water demand. –  The Texas Water Development Board projects this to grow to 7.4% by 2060. It is noteworthy that this increase in water usage is sufficient to provide electricity for a population projected to grow over the same time frame by 82%. •  AECT member companies have made substantial investments to secure water contracts/rights and groundwater resources and build and maintain reservoirs in advance of actual use. •  All of these water contracts/rights and groundwater resources have been or are held for substantial periods of time for future generating units and also during drought periods for existing power plants. •  AECT member companies are working hard to ensure adequate water supply for reliable electric generation, including building pipelines to remote water sources, seeking additional water rights, adding pumping capability, and use of effluent for cooling, and implementing water conservation measures. 15 !
  16. 16. Selected Environmental Programs and Fees •  The electric industry is among the most heavily regulated in the nation, complying with hundreds of regulations and paying millions of dollars in fees annually. Selected Current 
 Environmental Programs Selected Current 
 Environmental Fees - Compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards -  State Implementation Plan -  NOx reductions for electric generating units -  Clean Air Interstate/Clean Air Mercury Rules -  New Source Review (NSR)