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Electricity and the Environment


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A 2019 update on environmental programs for electric companies in Texas

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Electricity and the Environment

  1. 1. Legislative Advertising Paid For by: Association of Electric Companiesof Texas 1005Congress, Suite 1000,Austin, TX 78701 •512-474-6725• 2019 Electricity and the Environment
  2. 2. Generation Companies Transmission & Distribution Utilities AECT CompanieswithinERCOT (512) 474-6725 2 Retail Electric Providers Total ERCOT Capacity: >78,000 MW
  3. 3. Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) Southwest Power Pool (SPP) AECT companiesOutside of ERCOT (512) 474-6725 3 Total ERCOT Capacity: >78,000 MW
  4. 4. Strong Environmental Performance by Electric Generators in Texas (512) 474-6725 4 Electric Generators in Texas Use Fuel Efficiently and Effectively Capture Emissions – Texas is one of a minority of states with NOx, SO2 and CO2 emissions rates below the national average for electric generation – Texas electric generators have the lowest rate of NOx emissions when compared with neighboring states – New power plants include modern environmental emissions controls. Maintaining Access to Cooling Water is Important to Continued Generation Reliability – Dependable water supplies are essential to the reliable generation of electricity because most electric generation units require the use of water for system cooling. – AECT member companies represent the largest private owners, builders, and operators of private reservoirs in Texas.
  5. 5. ERCOT Generation Mix: more natural Gas thanU.S. Average (512) 474-6725 5 Note: Oil-fired generation is negligible in ERCOT, accounting for less than 0.1% of ERCOT capacity and load; numbers may not add up to 100% due to rounding. Sources: ERCOT (2017 data); EIA (2016 data) Capacity(MW)Energy(MWh) ERCOT U.S. Average Nuclear Natural Gas Coal Non-Hydro Renewables (Mostly Wind) Hydro 34% 30% 20% 7% 1% Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Other 39% 32% 11% 1% Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Wind 53% 17% 5% 22% 2% Other Wind 17% Other 8% Nuclear Natural Gas Coal Non-Hydro Renewables (Mostly Wind) 44% 25% 9% 11% 7% Other 4%Hydro Other Other Hydro Hydro
  6. 6. Comparison of Electric Utility Generation Emissions (512) 474-6725 6 13 Northeast States Texas Sources: CO2, NOx: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2017); Land Area: US Census Bureau, 2010 Land Area 247,175 mi2 261,232 mi2 Short Tons of CO2 160,957,000 104,008,000 Tons of NOx 160,957 104,007
  7. 7. Texasis AlreadyLeadingtheWay in Clean Power Plants Regionally (512) 474-6725 7 Area 2017 NOx Emission Rate Averages (lbs/MWh generated) National 0.109 Texas 0.094 0.287 NM 0.094 TX 0.109 OK 0.159 AR 0.123 LA Average NOx Emissions from Electric Generation by state Source: EPA Air Markets Program Data (2017)
  8. 8. Overview of WaterUse by Electric Generators in Texas (512) 474-6725 8 • AECT member companies represent the largest private owners, builders, and operators of private reservoirs in Texas. AECT members have also supported many other major reservoirs across the state. • Dependable water supplies are essential to the reliable generation of electricity because most electric generation units require the use of water for production of steam and system cooling. – Water supply is generally in the form of adjudicated water rights, contracts and/or permits obtained prior to the construction of an electric generation unit and held for substantial periods of time. – Water supplies, and the associated infrastructure (such as reservoirs and pipelines) are secured and maintained through substantial investments at a level to ensure a reliable water source to meet a “drought of record.” – More than 95% of the water used in electric generation is not consumed, but is recycled and re- used. Water consumed for electric generation is only about 4% of total Texas water demand. • The reliable generation of electricity is necessary for homes, schools, hospitals, businesses and farms, and for water treatment and sewage treatment. • A reliable Texas electricity industry is necessary for the state to meet the needs of our growing population and the new and growing businesses that fuel our state’s economy.
  9. 9. (512) 474-6725 9 How Texas’ Steam Power Plants Use Water • The graphic above is a simplified example of a power plant’s use of water for steam generation. • Most power plants heat water in a closed system until it becomes steam, then pressurize that steam to turn a generating turbine. • The steam is then routed to a condenser, where the water is condensed and reused in the steam cycle. Turbine Generator TransformerPump Combustion Water Steam Cooling Water Condenser Fuel Controls Stack Electricity Flow of Power Flow of H2O Flow of H2O
  10. 10. Managementand Use of Water (512) 474-6725 10 • Electric generating facilities in Texas are required to obtain TCEQ permits for their wastewater discharge, including cooling water. – AECT member companies have an outstanding record of compliance with state and federal water quality standards and requirements, which includes rigorous monitoring of the wastewater discharge • In addition to complying with state and federal water quality regulations, AECT member companies are committed to practicing sound water conservation. Companies: – Reuse and/or recycle water whenever possible – Capture and use of storm water runoff – Restore, enhance and create aquatic habitats – Preserve ecosystems – Enhance and create valuable wetlands • Many reservoirs created by electric generating companies are used for recreational purposes, including camping, boating, fishing and swimming.
  11. 11. WaterUsage in theAverage Household (512) 474-6725 11 Only about 3% of an average household’s total daily consumption of water is needed to generate the electricity that is used by the household each day. Source: Viability and Impacts of Implementing Various Power Plant Cooling Technologies in Texas, prepared for EPRI by Texas A&M University, July 2012
  12. 12. Mitigating DroughtEffects (512) 474-6725 12 Electricity generators are taking many actions to help ensure water supplies allow for reliable operation of power plants. Examples include: – Implementing water conservation measures – Reusing and/or recycling water whenever possible – Using treated municipal sewage effluent for cooling – Upgrading power plant processes to minimize or eliminate use of freshwater for non- cooling purposes – Capturing, treating and using storm runoff from the plant – Procuring and maintaining additional water rights – Building pipelines and other infrastructure to access remote water sources – Improving pumping capability – Using advanced water treatment systems to treat and use surface water that naturally contains high levels of minerals or dissolved solids, thus avoiding use of higher quality surface water
  13. 13. Selected EnvironmentalPrograms and Fees (512) 474-6725 13 The electric industry is among the most heavily regulated in the nation, complying with hundreds of regulations and paying millions of dollars in fees annually. Selected Current Environmental Programs - Compliance with NAAQS - State Implementation Plan - NOx reductions for electric generating units - Clean Air Interstate/Clean Air Mercury Rules - Prevention of Significant Deterioration New Source Review (NSR) - Non-attainment NSR, including offsets - State Minor NSR - Title V and Acid Rain permits - Compliance Assurance Monitoring - Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems - Toxic Release Inventory - Clean Water Act - Coal Combustion Residual rules - Monitoring cooling water - NOx Mass Emission Cap and Trade Program -Endangered Species Act Selected Current Environmental Fees - Title V federal operating permit fees - Air inspection fees - Air quality permit fees - Air quality permit renewal fees - Wastewater permit application fees - Water quality fees - Potable water fees - Water use permit application fees - Hazardous waste generation fees - Non-hazardous waste fees - Low level radioactive waste fee - Injection well fee - Water Master fee - Stormwater fee - Groundwater Conservation District fees
  14. 14. Giving Backto the Environment (512) 474-6725 14 AECT member companies help to improve our environment through stewardship, support for new technologies and various partnerships. Environmental Stewardship - Reducing releases of chlorofluorocarbons - Recycling coal combustion products - Educating schools and communities about renewable energy - Designating land and reservoirs for public recreational use - Preserving and restoring forests - Helping other industries adopt pollution- prevention plans - Launching education campaigns to help communities save energy - Creating wetlands and wildlife habitats on company properties - Reclaimed water utilization - Offering renewable energy products to retail -customers Environmental Partnerships - Climate Challenge Program - Energy Star - Energy Smart Schools - Environment Research Program - EPA SF6 Partnership program - Mickey Leland Internship Program - TCEQ Teaching Environmental Science - Green Lights - Habitat Protection - Learning From Light! - Millennium Council - Million Solar Roofs - National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project - Natural Gas Star
  15. 15. How To Reach Us (512) 474-6725 15 For background on electric markets, environmental data and Electricity 101 Regular updates from AECT and its member companies Keep up with pictures and links to latest documents released by AECT @aectnet AECT Advocacy on Facebook An easy way to receive updates from AECT TheAECT App