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Physics Nobel Prize Winner

21 Feb 2009

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- 1. Nobel Prize in Physic in 1921 From the Theoretical Physics and Photoeletric effect. By Group 1
- 2. <ul><li>Born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>In his childhood, he moved to many places and studied in many schools. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1901, he received his bachelor in mathematics and physics. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1905, he obtained his doctor’s degree. </li></ul>
- 3. <ul><li>In 1903, he married with Mileva Marić and had daughter and two sons. </li></ul>
- 4. <ul><li>After graduated, he worked at the Patent Office where he produces much of his remarkable works such as four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, the leading German physics journal. </li></ul>
- 5. Year 1904 Worked at Patent Office 1909 Professor Extraordinary at Zurich 1909 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague 1933 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton
- 6. <ul><li>Theory of relativity </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-energy equivalence </li></ul><ul><li>Photoelectric effect effect </li></ul><ul><li>He also contributed in many other field. </li></ul><ul><li>He had published more than 300 scientific works. </li></ul>
- 7. <ul><li>Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics: </li></ul><ul><li>The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (Galileo's principle of relativity), </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light. </li></ul>
- 8. <ul><li>The resultant theory has many surprising consequences. Some of these are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for some observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's "stationary" clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. </li></ul></ul>
- 9. <ul><li>Some of the consequences of general relativity are: Time goes more slowly in higher gravitational fields. This is called gravitational time dilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Orbits process in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars). </li></ul>
- 10. <ul><li>Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field. </li></ul><ul><li>Frame-dragging, in which a rotating mass "drags along" the space time around it. </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, general relativity is a metric theory of gravitation whose defining feature is its use of the Einstein field equations. The solutions of the field equations are metric tensors which define the topology of the space time and how objects move inertially. </li></ul>
- 11. <ul><li>In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that any mass has an associated energy, and that any energy has an associated type of mass. In special relativity this relationship is expressed using the mass–energy equivalence formula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E = total energy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m = mass, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c = the speed of light in a vacuum ( celeritas ), (about 3×10 8 m/sec) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where total energy is the sum of kinetic energy and rest energy.In other words, energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared. </li></ul></ul>
- 12. <ul><li>The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation such as x-rays or visible light. The emitted electrons can be referred to as photoelectrons in this context. The effect is also termed the Hertz Effect,due to its discovery by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, although the term has generally fallen out of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Photoelectric effect takes place with photons with energies of about a few eV. If the photon has sufficiently high energy, Compton scattering(~keV) or Pair production(~MeV) may take place. </li></ul>
- 13. <ul><li>Study of the photoelectric effect led to important steps in understanding the quantum nature of light and electrons and influenced the formation of the concept of wave–particle duality. </li></ul><ul><li>The term may also refer to the photoconductive effect (also known as photoconductivity or photoresistivitity), the photovoltaic effect, or the photoelectrochemical effect. </li></ul>
- 14. <ul><li>http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_relativity </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass%E2%80%93energy_equivalence </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect </li></ul>

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