Title 09 - computer application in media industries (2)


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Title 09 - computer application in media industries (2)

  2. 2. Table of ContentsMajor Industry Trends – Nurul Syahida Bt Mohd Nazeri GA01322 ......................... 2 CONVERGENCE .................................................................................................................................. 3 New Media Wins Advertising Share from Traditional Broadcasters ................................................. 4 Market Analysis.................................................................................................................................. 5 ............................................................... 6 The "Business Critical" Market ...................................................................................................... 8 Improving Workflow Efficiency......................................................................................................... 9 Tiered Storage Strategy....................................................................................................................... 9 Storage Infrastructure Trends ........................................................................................................... 10 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 10New media – Masnani Bt Abd Chair GA01282 .................................................. 11 History .............................................................................................................................................. 11 Definition .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Globalization and new media ....................................................................................................... 15 As tool for social change ............................................................................................................... 17 Interactivity and new media .......................................................................................................... 18Is Nokias Ovi Finnishd? – Ani Sarah Binti Ridzwan GA01267 ...................... 19TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 1
  3. 3. MAJOR INDUSTRY TRENDS NURUL SYAHIDA BT MOHD NAZERI GA01322Major Industry Trends One hundred years ago, the media was simplyT he term “media” refers both to composed of the printed press. Today, there various forms of communication, and is a vast range of communication channels, to the organizations behind this including TV, radio, cinema, and the internet,communication, including the press and as well as print. However, common industrynews-reporting agencies. It can also refer to trends can still be identified, despite thedifferent types of data storage. This review increasingly diverse nature of the market.looks at the media in all its communicationactivities.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 2
  4. 4. MAJOR INDUSTRY TRENDS NURUL SYAHIDA BT MOHD NAZERI GA01322CONVERGENCEC onvergence has been one of the satellite TV broadcasts. Some airlines offer buzzwords in the industry for many video games and audio-visual entertainment years. It relates to the emergence of on demand, allowing passengers to stop, digital technology, which has allowed start, and skip through programs, and tomedia organizations to deliver text, audio, select movies stored in the aircraft computerand video material over the same wired, system. Touch-screens and/or handsets allowwireless, or fiber-optic connections. The passengers to choose from a variety ofdevelopment of the internet has played a features and content, including feature films,critical role in media convergence, as it now news, and TV programs, as well as giving themallows people to read newspapers, listen to the option to select video games and web-the radio, watch TV, and download music and based content, create music playlists, and somovies (and play both) on their computers, on. The more advanced IFE systems allowor, increasingly, on handheld devices. passengers to make hotel or rental carConsumers are now watching movies on their reservations in advance from the aircraft seat.mobile phones, and making phone calls from Back on the ground, trends over the next fewtheir personal computers. Technological years, in terms of convergence andadvances also mean that consumers can technological developments, meanwatch TV programs on demand, that is, when manufacturers are likely to focus onand where they want, rather than when the increasing demand for personalizedTV schedulers decide to broadcast them. entertainment, with much of the industry’sThe development of in-flight entertainment attention focused on developing services for(IFE) provides a vivid illustration of the way in mobile phones. In April 2010, Nokia, forwhich the media has been transformed over example, released its N8 phone, whichthe past 30 years, and of the convergence of features a camera and acts as a portabletechnologies. In the 1970s, IFE consisted of a entertainment hub. The phone providesmovie projected onto a screen. Today, most access to web TV services, while an HDMIairlines offer personal televisions, usually connection enables the owner to plug it intolocated in the seat backs, featuring live their home entertainment system and get HD video playback with Dolby Digital Plus Surround Sound.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 3
  5. 5. MAJOR INDUSTRY TRENDS NURUL SYAHIDA BT MOHD NAZERI GA01322 expressing strong interest in new search-New Media Wins targeting technologies. These include “searchAdvertising Share from retargeting,” or targeting search ads to select groups of users based on the websites thatTraditional they have previously visited, or based uponBroadcasters whether an individual has visited anS earch Engine Marketing Professional advertiser’s own website before. The search Organization (SEMPO), a trade engine Google is striving to increase its organization for the search-engine advertising revenues, and is using targetedmarketing sector, reported in April 2010 that marketing as one means of achieving this. Theinternet search engines are continuing to company believes that: “by making ads moresteal advertising market share from relevant, and improving the connectiontraditional broadcasters. SEMPO said that between advertisers and our users, we canaround half the companies it surveyed are create more value for everyone.” Thereallocating budgets to search-engine company added that: “Users get more usefulmarketing from print advertising. More than a ads, and these more relevant ads generatethird (36%) are shifting money away from higher returns for advertisers and publishers.”direct mail, and almost a quarter are moving Google is also seeking to increase itsbudgets from conferences and exhibitions and advertising revenues by offering mobileweb display advertising. advertising, including ads that appear withinSara Holoubek, outgoing SEMPO President for mobile phones’ web browsers.2009–10, said, “Difficult market conditions Other companies have been offeringcaused by the recession resulted in a personalized online advertising for some time.relatively slow year for the industry in 2009, The social networking sites, MySpace andwhich was improved by a significant upturn in Facebook, have targeted ads at individualthe fourth quarter. This momentum has users based on their profiles since 2007, whilecontinued into 2010, and we are expecting a retail sites such as Amazon and iTunesreturn to double-digit percentage market regularly recommend books and music togrowth in 2010.” Part of the appeal of the their users, based on their past purchases.new media to advertisers is that audiencescan be targeted much more effectively thanusing traditional media. Earlier research fromSEMPO has found that advertisers wereTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 4
  6. 6. MAJOR INDUSTRY TRENDS NURUL SYAHIDA BT MOHD NAZERI GA01322 struggling New York Times accepted a US$250Market Analysis million loan from prominent shareholder,Impact of the Recession on the Carlos Slim, in 2009. The newspaper hasMedia Industry suffered as readers and advertisers flee toT other platforms. In 2009, burdened by debt he media industry earns a large proportion of its revenues from advertising, and is, therefore, highly Technologicalinfluenced by the economic cycle. Advertising Developments Apart from convergence, other technologicaland marketing budgets tend to suffer first developments are likely to have a dramatic impact onwhen the corporate sector comes under the media industry over the next five to 10 years. 3D TV was launched in 2010, although viewers willpressure. The recession in 2009 certainly hit struggle to enjoy the product until 3D TV channels arethe industry hard, with one UK agency also launched. However, Samsung, which was among the first to launch 3D TVs, says that the new hardwaredescribing the downturn as the worst the will add depth to the picture of normal broadcasts andmedia had faced since the Second World War. Blu-ray films. For several years, the industry has talked up the arrival of 3D TV in the home to little effect.However, signs of an upturn emerged in 2010, Many, however, believe 2010 really is thewith global giants such as Procter and Gamble breakthrough year for the technology, helped in large part by the growing number of 3D movies at the(P&G) pledging to increase their media spend theatre, and the success of James Cameron’s sci-fiover the year. In 2009, P&G reduced its spend epic Avatar.by 13%. This was a more swingeing cut than and a steep slide in newspaper advertising,that made by the biggest 100 advertisers the Miami Herald was also reported to be upcollectively: as a group, they decreased for sale.spending by just over 11% in the UnitedKingdom, according to Nielsen.The downturn in ad spend has certainly had asevere impact in the United States. In April2010, for example, the publisher of two of thecountry’s most popular dailies, the ChicagoTribune and Los Angeles Times, and owner oftelevision stations, including superstationWGN, filed for bankruptcy. Reports said that a2007 buyout saddled the publisher, Tribune,with too much debt as the economy andadvertising revenue declined. Meanwhile, theTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 5
  7. 7. COMPUTER APPLICATION NURUL ADZLINE BTE RAKMAN GA01318 shelf technology — mainly due toT he future of storage and how its used is being determined today by the IT industry, where most of thecomponents used in professionalproduction and distribution systems and performance reasons. However, with the advances we see today in the IT industry, some manufacturers have qualified specific high-performance computernetworks come from. storage systems for use in broadcast. The advantage here is in quicker time-to-As the broadcast industry moves to file- market with new technology, generallybased systems, storage is a key component lower costs for performance and morein how facilities implement video servers flexible solutions.into their workflow. Manufacturers havetwo options: use off-the-shelf IT solutions When we look at the storage landscape itsand tailor them for broadcast, or design important to focus on two majorcustom storage systems into their products. elements—the physical storage media (e.g., internal data processing technologyIn the past, the highly specialized nature of and form factor) and the workflow that itbroadcast had precluded the use of off-the- will ultimately be deployed in.T he IT industry designs storage for many markets, with two major customers, the PC market and the Enterprise market for mission critical type applications, driving most of the revenue. In many cases the design guidelines for these two markets are verydifferent. The PC market is primarily focused on price while the Enterprise market demandshigh performance and reliability. Recently, however, new technology advancements havehelped to create a new category between these two —the "Business Critical" market.Within the Enterprise drive market there are several major trends that are driving the use ofcertain types of physical storage:TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 6
  8. 8. COMPUTER APPLICATION NURUL ADZLINE BTE RAKMAN GA013181. The Enterprise market is currently Valley K2 Media Server). This moving from Fibre Channel (FC) drives determines how fast you can process to serial attached SCSI (SAS) drives and move data on and off the drive. In a just as the PC market recently moved video environment, the faster the from parallel connections to serial storage system the better, but more SATA drives. Driving this migration is importantly, it must be deterministic the fact that aside from the obvious and consistent. In the IT industry, if cabling advantages of serial attach, you have a few millisecond pause in serial clock speeds can be higher than data transfers, nobody will notice, but parallel connections and SAS provides in video, it can mean black frames. a direct point-to-point bus connection vs. a shared bus connection with FC Video servers are designed with SCSI drives resulting in better overall appropriate buffering to avoid these performance. This means stored delays up to a certain point, which is material can be accessed much faster. why your storage system must be For editors and program distributors, deterministic. An area that can cause this results in better productivity. these delays is disk failures in a RAID protected system — both FC and SAS The performance of a drive is drives provide good performance and determined by its clock speed and its deterministic behavior whereas SATA rotational speed (today Thomson uses drives are not as predictable. 15,000 rpm SAS drives in its Grass2. The latest version of SATA drives — time between failure) and Native SATA 3Gb/s, running at 7,500 rpm, Command Queuing (which enables the have made a lot of improvements over drives to internally optimize how first generation SATA 1.5Gb/s drives. commands are executed for better In addition to clock speeds doubling to performance) opens new markets for 3 Gb/s which doubled the transfer rate SATA drives. While SATA drives to 300 MB/s, features such as hot-swap continue to get better, they still lag behind capability, improved MTBF (mean- that of Enterprise SAS drives for high- performance, high reliable mission critical markets.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 7
  9. 9. COMPUTER APPLICATION NURUL ADZLINE BTE RAKMAN GA01318The "Business Critical" MarketThese advancements have created a new class of SATA drives, which can be half the cost ofSAS drives and becomes a practical consideration for use in lower performance videoapplications. Seagate, which supplies a large number of drives to the broadcast and videoproduction industry, calls them "Business Critical" drives; indicating a class of drives betweenEnterprise SAS drives and the low cost, lower performance and less reliable PC drives.We consider the broadcast market to be a "Mission Critical" market. While a disk problem willnot result in a fatality, it can result in lost revenue with make-goods. Most broadcastersdemand that their server system be as reliable as possible, which has driven the almostexclusive use of Enterprise Drives in professional video servers. However, new advances inthese Business Critical devices make them an ideal choice to support some types of videoproduction and less demanding playout applications. These SATA drives will also be availablewith a SAS interface. This allows you to pick a storage system and populate it with eitherdrive, based on your application and budget. These should begin appearing in the communitylater this year.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 8
  10. 10. COMPUTER APPLICATION NURUL ADZLINE BTE RAKMAN GA01318 out of real-time 270 Mb/s (or 1.5Gb forImproving HD) video and into a data file that can be as low as 8 Mb/s for transfers many times faster (15-25 Mb/s is typical for SD and 50Workflow Mb/s for HD). The most benefit is realized by making the conversion (encoding) asEfficiency early in the process as possible, preferably during the ingest process.T he overall concept of servers has moved facilities from a baseband video infrastructure to a file-baseinfrastructure, bringing with it a long listof benefits that this type of IT-centric In addition, with file-based workflows you have the option of working with a low- resolution, browse-level version of the file (1 Mb/s or less) for QA purposes, editing,architecture affords. Broadcasters and quick review or archiving. This allows youproduction studios are seeing more and to cost-effectively develop internalmore success with cost savings and networks where hundreds of journalistsworkflow efficiencies in migrating this and producers can access the same file atway. the same time, while keeping bandwidthThe whole idea of a tapeless facility goes requirements low.back to implementing a workflow that gets footage on-line for one week, move it toTiered Storage near-line for 30 days and then to off-line. This reduces the amount of on-line storageStrategy without the large performance penalty of tape.A nother option for tapeless workflows is to implement a tiered storage strategy, in which youhave three types of storage; on-line, near-line and off-line. On-line = Enterprise drives, highest performance, reliability and highest cost. Usually configured in a SAN system. Near-line = SATA drives, moderate performance, good reliability and lower cost. Usually configured in a NAS system. Off-line = tape archive; lowest performance and lowest cost. Storage robotic systems can be small as a desktop or as large as a bedroom.. For example, in a news productionenvironment, you might want to storeTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 9
  11. 11. COMPUTER APPLICATION NURUL ADZLINE BTE RAKMAN GA01318 iSCSI (SCSI commands over Ethernet)Storage and TOE cards (TCP/IP engines required for off-loading the system CPU) makeInfrastructure GigE a good option for high performance, deterministic video systems.Trends For the most common serverThe storage infrastructure is what ties implementations 1 Gb/s performance iseverything together. Today in the certainly good enough, but when you wantEnterprise market we have FC and GigE to move a massive amount of data in andconnections. FC has always been the out of a server, the more bandwidth youperformance leader but is costly to have available the better. This is where 10implement. Gb/s Ethernet becomes ideal. Often a high performance ftp network will be mostly 1Gigabit technology has been predominate Gb/s with a 10 Gb/s backbone. This allowsin the IT industry and we are seeing its most devices to talk to the network via 1performance advance to where it is a good Gb/s but gives some devices the option ofalternative to FC while coming at a lower 10 Gb. For example, if you need to movecost (with cheaper switches and cabling). data to a very fast archive system withToday FC has moved from 2 Gb/s to 4 multiple tape drives in the 120 MB/sGb/s performance. Ethernet is range, then you can easily max out a 1predominately 1 Gb/s, but were seeing Gb/s connection.cost-effective 10 Gb/s switches (actually afew 10 Gb ports on a 1 Gb switch) beingimplemented. New technologies such asConclusion oing forward, as storage demands increase — which is a certainty given the need toG support multiple channels of HD content sent to a variety of distribution platforms — IT-centric technologies will continue to provide the solutions broadcasters require.Some applications are still being developed, so no ones sure exactly what technologies willbe adopted most. What is clear is that many vendors serving the broadcast industry haverecognized the efficiencies to be found in off-the-shelf IT solutions. While some still cling toproprietary architectures, its the most open approaches that will provide the fastest return oninvestment and ultimately be most successful.Roger Crooks is Product Marketing Manager for Servers and Digital News ProductionProducts at Grass Valley.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 10
  12. 12. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282New mediaN ew media is a broad term networkable, dense, compressible, in media studies that emerged in and interactive. Some examples may be the latter part of the 20th the Internet, websites, computercentury that refers to on-demand access to multimedia, video games, CD-ROMS, andcontent anytime, anywhere, on any digital DVDs. New media does notdevice, as well as interactive user include television programs, featurefeedback, creative participation and films, magazines, books, or paper-basedcommunity formation around the media publications – unless they containcontent. Another important promise of technologies that enable digitalnew media is the "democratization" of the interactivity. Wikipedia, an onlinecreation, publishing, distribution encyclopedia, is an example,and consumption of media content. combining Internet accessible digital text,Another aspect of new media is the real- images and video with web-links, creativetime generation of new, unregulated participation of contributors, interactivecontent. feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors andMost technologies described as "new donors for the benefit of non-communitymedia" are digital, often having readers. Facebook is an example ofcharacteristics of being manipulated, the social media model, in which most users are also participants.History such as those of television and radio. TheI n the 1960s, connections between last twenty-five years have seen the rapid computing and radical art began to transformation into media which are grow stronger. It was not until the predicated upon the use of digital1980s that Alan Kay and his co-workers technologies, such asat Xerox PARC began to give the power of the Internet and video games. However,a personal computer to the individual, these examples are only a smallrather than have a big organization be in representation of new media. The usecharge of this. "In the late 1980s and early of digital computers has transformed the1990s, however, we seem to witness a remaining old media, as suggested by thedifferent kind of parallel relationship advent of digital television and onlinebetween social changes and computer publications. Even traditional media formsdesign. Although causally unrelated, such as the printing press have beenconceptually it makes sense that the Cold transformed through the application ofWar and the design of the Web took place technologies such as imageat exactly the same time.‖ manipulation software like AdobeUntil the 1980s media relied primarily Photoshop and desktop publishing tools.upon print and analogue broadcast models, Andrew L. Shapiro (1999) argues that the "emergence of new, digital technologiesTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 11
  13. 13. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282signals a potentially radical shift of who is media, and particularly the Internet,in control of information, experience and provide the potential for a democraticresources" (Shapiro cited in Croteau and postmodern public sphere, in whichHoynes 2003: 322). W. Russell citizens can participate in well informed,Neuman (1991) suggests that whilst the non-hierarchical debate pertaining to their"new media" have technical capabilities to social structures. Contradicting thesepull in one direction, economic and social positive appraisals of the potential socialforces pull back in the opposite direction. impacts of new media are scholars such asAccording to Neuman, "We are witnessing Ed Herman and Robert McChesney whothe evolution of a universal interconnected have suggested that the transition to newnetwork of audio, video, and electronic media has seen a handful of powerfultext communications that will blur the transnational telecommunications corporatdistinction between interpersonal and mass ions who achieve a level of globalcommunication and between public and influence which was hithertoprivate communication" (Neuman cited in unimaginable.Croteau and Hoynes 2003: 322). Neuman Scholars, such as Lister et al. (2003) andargues that New Media will: Friedman (2005), have highlighted both the positive and negative potential and Alter the meaning of geographic actual implications of new media distance. technologies, suggesting that some of the Allow for a huge increase in the early work into new media studies was volume of communication. guilty of technological determinism – Provide the possibility of increasing whereby the effects of media were the speed of communication. determined by the technology themselves, Provide opportunities for interactive rather than through tracing the complex communication. social networks which governed the Allow forms of communication that development, funding, implementation and were previously separate to overlap future development of any technology. and interconnect.Consequently it has been the contention ofscholars such as DouglasKellner and James Bohman that newTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 12
  14. 14. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282 3. New Media as Digital DataDefinition Controlled by Software – The lthough there are several ways that language of New Media is basedA New Media may be described, Lev Manovich, in an introduction to The New Media Reader, defines New Media by using eight simple on the assumption that, in fact, all cultural objects that rely on digital representation and computer-based delivery do share a number ofand concise propositions:[4] common qualities. New media is 1. New Media reduced to digital data that can be versus Cyberculture – manipulated by software as any Cyberculture is the various social other data. Now media operations phenomena that are associated can create several versions of the with the Internet and network same object. An example is an communications (blogs, online image stored as matrix data which multi-player gaming), whereas can be manipulated and altered New Media is concerned more according to the additional with cultural objects and algorithms implemented, such as paradigms (digital to analog color inversion, gray-scaling, television, iPhones). sharpening, rasterizing, etc. 2. New Media as Computer Technology Used as a 4. New Media as the Mix Between Distribution Platform – New Existing Cultural Conventions Media are the cultural objects and the Conventions of which use digital computer Software – "New Media today can technology for distribution and be understood as the mix between exhibition. e.g. (at least for now) older cultural conventions for data Internet, Web sites, computer representation, access, and multimedia, Blu-ray disks etc. The manipulation and newer problem with this is that the conventions of data representation, definition must be revised every access, and manipulation. The few years. The term "new media" "old" data are representations of will not be "new" anymore, as visual reality and human most forms of culture will be experience, and the "new" data is distributed through computers. numerical data. The computer is kept out of the key "creative" decisions, and is delegated to the position of a technician." e.g. In film, software is used in some areas of production, in others are created using computer animation.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 13
  15. 15. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282 5. New Media as the Aesthetics that Accompanies the Early Stage of Every New Modern Media and 7. New Media as the Encoding of Communication Technology – Modernist Avant-Garde; New "While ideological tropes indeed Media as Metamedia – Manovich seem to be reappearing rather declares that the 1920s are more regularly, many aesthetic relevant to New Media than any strategies may reappear two or other time period. Meta- three times ... In order for this media coincides approach to be truly useful it with postmodernism in that they would be insufficient to simply both rework old work rather than name the strategies and tropes and create new work. New media to record the moments of their avant-garde "is about new ways of appearance; instead, we would accessing and manipulating have to develop a much more information" (e.g. hypermedia, comprehensive analysis which databases, search engines, etc.). would correlate the history of Meta-media is an example of how technology with social, political, quantity can change into quality as and economical histories or the in new media technology and modern period." manipulation techniques can "recode modernist aesthetics into a very different postmodern aesthetics." 6. New Media as Faster Execution 8. New Media as Parallel of Algorithms Previously Articulation of Similar Ideas in Executed Manually or through Post-WWII Art and Modern Other Technologies – Computers Computing – Post WWII Art or are a huge speed-up of what were "combinatorics" involves creating previously manual techniques. e.g. images by systematically changing calculators. "Dramatically a single parameter. This leads to speeding up the execution makes the creation or remarkably similar possible previously non-existent images and spatial structures. representational technique." This "This illustrates that algorithms, also makes possible of many new this essential part of new media, forms of media art such as do not depend on technology, but interactive multimedia and video can be executed by humans." games. "On one level, a modern digital computer is just a faster calculator, we should not ignore its other identity: that of a cybernetic control device."TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 14
  16. 16. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282 Globalization and new mediaT he rise of new media has increased process through which public communication communication between people all becomes restructured and partly dis- over the world and the Internet. It has embedded from national political and culturalallowed people to express themselves through institutions. This trend of the globalized publicblogs, websites, pictures, and other user- sphere is not only as a geographicalgenerated media. expansion form a nation to worldwide, but also changes the relationship between the public,Flew (2002) stated that as a result of the the media and state (Volkmer, 1999:123).evolution of new mediatechnologies, globalization occurs. "Virtual communities" are being establishedGlobalization is generally stated as "more than online and transcend geographicalexpansion of activities beyond the boundaries boundaries, eliminating socialof particular nation states". Globalization restrictions. Howard Rheingold (2000)shortens the distance between people all over describes these globalised societies as self-the world by the electronic communication defined networks, which resemble what we do(Carely 1992 in Flew 2002) and Cairncross in real life. "People in virtual communities use(1998) expresses this great development as words on screens to exchange pleasantriesthe "death of distance". New media "radically and argue, engage in intellectual discourse,break the connection between physical place conduct commerce, make plans, brainstorm,and social place, making physical location gossip, feud, fall in love, create a little high artmuch less significant for our social and a lot of idle talk" (Rheingold cited in Slevinrelationships" (Croteau and Hoynes 2003: 2000: 91). For Sherry Turkle "making the311). computer into a second self, finding a soul in the machine, can substitute for humanHowever, the changes in the new media relationships" (Holmes 2005: 184). New mediaenvironment create a series of tensions in the has the ability to connect like-minded othersconcept of "public sphere". According to Ingrid worldwide.Volkmer, "public sphere" is defined as aWhile this perspective suggests that the technology drives – and therefore is a determining factor – inthe process of globalization, arguments involving technological determinism are generally frownedupon by mainstream media studies. Instead academics focus on the multiplicity of processes bywhich technology is funded, researched and produced, forming a feedback loop when thetechnologies are used and often transformed by their users, which then feeds into the process ofguiding their future development.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 15
  17. 17. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282While commentators such as Castells espouse a "soft determinism" whereby they contend that"Technology does not determine society. Nor does society script the course of technological change,since many factors, including individual inventiveness and entrepreneurialism, intervene in theprocess of scientific discovery, technical innovation and social applications, so the final outcomedepends on a complex pattern of interaction. Indeed the dilemma of technological determinism isprobably a false problem, since technology is society and society cannot be understood without itstechnological tools." (Castells 1996:5) This, however, is still distinct from stating that societal changesare instigated by technological development, which recalls the theses of Marshall McLuhan.Manovich and Castells have argued that whereas mass media "corresponded to the logic of industrialmass society, which values conformity over individuality," (Manovich 2001:41) new media follows thelogic of the post-industrial or globalized society whereby "every citizen can construct her own customlifestyle and select her ideology from a large number of choices. Rather than pushing the sameobjects to a mass audience, marketing now tries to target each individual separately." (Manovich2001:42).TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 16
  18. 18. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282 some within a movement. Others are scepticalAs tool for social change about how democratic or useful it really is forS ocial movement media has a rich and social movements, even for those with storied history (see Agitprop) that has access. There are also many New Media changed at a rapid rate since New components that activists cite as tools forMedia became widely used (Chris change that have not been widely discussedAtton). The Zapatista Army of National as such by academics.Liberation of Chiapas, Mexico were the first New Media has also found a use with lessmajor movement to make widely recognized radical social movements such as the Freeand effective use of New Media for Hugs Campaign. Using websites, blogs, andcommuniqués and organizing in 1994. Since online videos to demonstrate the effectivenessthen, New Media has been used extensively of the movement itself. Along with thisby social movements to educate, organize, example the use of high volume blogs hasshare cultural products of movements, allowed numerous views and practices to becommunicate, coalition build, and more. more widespread and gain more publicThe WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 attention. Another example is the on-protest activity was another landmark in the going Free Tibet Campaign, which has beenuse of New Media as a tool for social change. seen on numerous websites as well as havingThe WTO protests used media to organize the a slight tie-in with the band Gorillaz in theiroriginal action, communicate with and educate Gorillaz Bitez clip featuring the leadparticipants, and was used as an alternative singer 2D sitting with protesters at a Free Tibetmedia source. The Indy media movement also protest. Another social change seen comingdeveloped out of this action, and has been a from New Media is trends in fashion and thegreat tool in the democratization of emergence of subcultures such as Textinformation, which is another widely discussed [19] Speak, Cyberpunk, and various others.aspect of new media movement. Somescholars even view this democratization as anindication of the creation of a "radical, socio-technical paradigm to challenge the dominant,neoliberal and technologically deterministmodel of information and communicationtechnologies." A less radical view along thesesame lines is that people are taking advantageof the Internet to produce a grassrootsglobalization, one that is anti-neoliberal andcentred on people rather than the flow ofcapital. Of course, some are also sceptical ofthe role of New Media in Social Movements.Many scholars point out unequal access tonew media as a hindrance to broad-basedmovements, sometimes even oppressingTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 17
  19. 19. NEW MEDIA – MASNANI BT ABD CHAIR GA01282 one way with the technology that we haveInteractivity and new media today and there is no longer a limit to what weI nteractivity has become a term for a can do with our creativity. number of new media use options evolving Interactivity can be considered a central from the rapid dissemination concept in understanding new media, butof Internet access points, the digitalization of different media forms possess differentmedia, and media convergence. In 1984, Rice degrees of interactivity, and some forms ofdefined new media as communication digitized and converged media are not in facttechnologies that enable or facilitate user-to- interactive at all. Tony Feldman considersuser interactivity and interactivity between user digital satellite television as an example of aand information. Such a definition replaces the new media technology that uses digital"one-too-many" model of traditional mass compression to dramatically increase thecommunication with the possibility of a "many- number of television channels that can beto-many" web of communication. Any delivered, and which changes the nature ofindividual with the appropriate technology can what can be offered through the service, butnow produce his or her online media and does not transform the experience of televisioninclude images, text, and sound about from the users point of view, and thus lacks awhatever he or she chooses. Thus the more fully interactive dimension. It remains theconvergence of new methods of case that interactivity is not an inherentcommunication with new technologies shifts characteristic of all new media technologies,the model of mass communication, and unlike digitization and convergence.radically reshapes the ways we interact andcommunicate with one another. in "What is Terry Flew (2005) argues that "the globalnew media?" Vin Crosbie (2002) described interactive games industry is large andthree different kinds of communication media. growing, and is at the forefront of many of theHe saw Interpersonal media as "one to one", most significant innovations in new media"Mass media as "one too many", and finally (Flew 2005: 101). Interactivity is prominent inNew Media as Individuation Media or "many to these online video games such as World ofmany". Warcraft, The Sims Online and Second Life. These games, which are developments ofWhen we think of interactivity and its meaning, "new media," allow for users to establishwe assume that it is only prominent in the relationships and experience a sense ofconversational dynamics of individuals who belonging that transcends traditional temporalare face-to-face. This restriction of opinion and spatial boundaries (such as when gamersdoes not allow us to see its existence in logging in from different parts of the worldmediated communication forums. Interactivity interact). These games can be used as anis present in some programming work, such as escape or to act out a desired life. Will Wright,video games. Its also viable in the operation of creator of The Sims, "is fascinated by the waytraditional media. In the mid 1990s, filmmakers gamers have become so attached to hisstarted using inexpensive digital cameras to invention-with some even living their livescreate films. It was also the time when moving through it". New media have created virtualimage technology had developed, which was realities that are becoming virtual extensionsable to be viewed on computer desktops in full of the world we live in. With the creation ofmotion. This development of new media Second Life and Active Worlds before it,technology was a new method for artists to people have even more control over this virtualshare their work and interact with the big world, a world where anything that aworld. Other settings of interactivity include participant can think of can become a reality.radio and television talk shows, letters to theeditor, listener participation in such programs, New Media changes continuously because it isand computer and technological constantly modified and redefined by theprogramming. Interactive new media has interaction between users, emergingbecome a true benefit to everyone because technologies, cultural changes, etc.people can express their artwork in more thanTOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 18
  20. 20. IS NOKIA’s OVI FINNISH’d? – BOB FAULKNER – REWRITE BY ANI SARAH RIDZWAN GA01267 Is Nokias Ovi Finnishd?May 14, 2009 vi is Finnish for "door" and the Ovi Store was expected to be NokiaO Corp. (NYSE: NOK)’s doorway to the world of Internet services. Now some reports(one each from Reuters andTechFlash) say that plans may have changed rather dramatically.Nokia told TechFlash that it plans to close its Kirkland, Wash., facility as part of its recentrestructuring efforts. Kirkland was the home of Nokia’s 2007 acquisition, Twango, whichwas the basis for its media sharing services. A spokesperson told Reuters: "Ovi Share… isplanned to be maintained in its current state" -- apparently meaning no more investment ordevelopment is expected to take place. All this is a far cry from the company’s plans of just afew months ago.At last December’s investor meeting Nokia was expecting the Ovi Store to be the gateway toaccessing what it expected to be a €40 billion Internet services market in 2011. In their view,1 billion people use a Nokia device every day, and Ovi would be the service brand that wouldbring them together.Nokia officially announced the Ovi Store unique visitors per month, Ovi.comat the Mobile World Congress in February. commanded only about 70,000 uniqueWhile the store was not officially intended visitors in April, according to statistics atto "open" until May, it has been available Compete.com. Not a scientificfor access for some time. However, while comparison, to be sure, but it gives someother media-sharing and social-networking idea that Ovi wasnt keeping the folks atsites are generating tens of millions of Facebook up at night.But aside from the social-networking aspects of Ovi Store, there is a more important issuethat comes into play relative to Nokia.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 19
  21. 21. IS NOKIA’s OVI FINNISH’d? – BOB FAULKNER – REWRITE BY ANI SARAH RIDZWAN GA01267Nokia has been quite late to the party when it comes to the War of the Smartphones, in moreways than one. It only got its first touch-based device (5800) out the door earlier this year andit is largely a me-too unit. The company’s long-awaited N97 is not expected until next month.However, two critical success factors in personal computer and video gamesmartphones industries.will be Unfortunately,applications Nokia is welland their behind thedelivery curve here assystems, just well.as they werein the earlydays of the Application software developers will gravitate to the platform that provides them with the greatest opportunity for success. If you look at the iPhone community as an example, we know that more than 100,000 iPhone Software Developers Kits (SDK) were downloaded during its first week of availability more than a year ago. With the advent of the more- powerful iPhone 3G units last summer, I’m fairly certain that the iPhone development community has grown substantially given the fact that they currently have more than 35,000 applications on their App Store.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 20
  22. 22. IS NOKIA’s OVI FINNISH’d? – BOB FAULKNER – REWRITE BY ANI SARAH RIDZWAN GA01267While it is certainly not a perfect analog by any means, compare the iPhone developerinterest with Nokia’s recent experience. At the company’s Developer Summit held late lastmonth the company attracted all of 345 developers. Granted, it is a difficult economicenvironment and that may have had a significant bearing on attendance. If that is indeed thecase we should see subdued attendance when Apple holds its World Wide DevelopersConference in early June. IPHONE NOKIA APP STORE OVI STORETOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 21
  23. 23. IS NOKIA’s OVI FINNISH’d? – BOB FAULKNER – REWRITE BY ANI SARAH RIDZWAN GA01267What may also be holding developers back This situation reminds me very much ofwhen it comes to the Nokia platform is the the early days of the high-speed broadbandsimple lack of scale. The amount of market as cable companies rolled out cableadvanced hardware in the hands of modems and telcos countered with DSL.subscribers is limited as are the resources Both were a refreshing alternative to thedevelopers have to throw at any days of dial-up and its king, AOL.opportunity. If you look at Nokia’s overallstrategy that developed as the handset The cheerleaders for AOL insisted that themarket evolved, it seems to be based upon cable companies and the telcos would bethe assumption that the aforementioned 1 forced to cut a deal with AOL and offerbillion subscribers can be leveraged as if AOL’s services via the new high-speedthey are an asset that will attract pipe. After all, the logic went, AOL haddevelopers for the ―next‖ platform. the customers. Yes, they did and in retrospect. But building applications forThe billion Nokia devices out there are, for the Internet as a whole, instead of justthe most part, simply making phone calls AOL, proved to be more attractive to(not that there’s anything wrong with that). developers. So we see just how well thatThe market Nokia is trying to enter is, in worked out for AOL.fact, a separate market and in this newarena Nokia is really starting far closer to — Bob Faulkner, special to Light Readingsquare one than it may think.TOPIC 9 – COMPUTER APPLICATION IN MEDIA INDUSTRIES Page | 22