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Intellectual Property Rights in India - An Overview

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IPR in India an Overview

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Intellectual Property Rights in India - An Overview

  1. 1. Associate Professor of Law &Associate Professor of Law & EDC Coordinator of PILawEDC Coordinator of PILaw www.klgupta.inwww.klgupta.in Dr. KALPESHKUMAR L. GUPTADr. KALPESHKUMAR L. GUPTA AtAt Parul Institute of TechnologyParul Institute of Technology July 30, 2019July 30, 2019
  2. 2. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Outline of the presentation :- 1.Introduction 2.Branches of IPR 3.Recent Issues in IPR 4.Video on IPR 5.Q & A
  3. 3. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  4. 4. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA What is Intellectual Property ? IPR are the legally recognized exclusive rights to creation of the mind. Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce. It’s an intangible asset
  5. 5. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA 1.Company Value 2.Entry Barriers 3.Legal Monopoly 4.Avoid freeriding 5.Avoid Infringement 6.Financial leveraging 7.Advance of man kind 8.Goodwill 9.Counterfeiting 10.Works or Art Why do you need to protect your intellectual property* *Source :- http://www.jarryip.com/blog/bid/273971/Why-do-you-need-to-protect-your- Intellectual-Property
  6. 6. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) :- - TRIPS is an international agreement administered by World Trade Organization (WTO) - Negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994 - 158 Countries member
  7. 7. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  8. 8. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Branches of Intellectual Property :-
  9. 9. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Copyrights works under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India Protection of Plant Varieties & Farmer’s Rights Authority works under Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India
  10. 10. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  11. 11. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- For granting patent following conditions are essential :- -Novelty -Non-obviousness -Utility -Enablement Prior Art, Public Domain, Public Use :- ……...Prior art something which is already known to mankind. Anything which is already known in general or to specific group of person, whether in the same country of abroad, cannot be patented
  12. 12. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents Application :- - First inventor/Assignee/Legal Representative can file application - Provisional Specification to be attached with application, a complete specification shall be filed within 12 months from the date of filing of the application. - Controller may ask for further details - Patent will be granted after complying all requirement - Term is 20 years from filing of patent application - Addition can be done in existing patent - Compulsory licences (Section 84) after 3 years of granting patent (See Section 92A also) - Govt. power to use innovation for purpose of govt. (Sec. 100)
  13. 13. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents Co-operation Treaty :- - The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in June 1970. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states. A patent application filed under the PCT is called an international application, or PCT application. - Total 148 parties of PCT
  14. 14. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- Top 50 countries for patent applications 2018 http://icmab.es/european-companies-and-inventors-file-more-patent-applications-in-2018
  15. 15. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- Leading 2018 patent recipients: https://fortune.com/2019/01/07/ibm-tops-2018-patent-list-as-ai-and-quantum-computing-gain- prominence/
  16. 16. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- http://www.mondaq.com/india/x/716804/Patent/Trends+In+Patent+Regime+Of+India+From+20 1217+An+Efficient+Era
  17. 17. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- http://www.mondaq.com/india/x/716804/Patent/Trends+In+Patent+Regime+Of+India+From+20 1217+An+Efficient+Era
  18. 18. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- https://www.bananaip.com/ip-news-center/patent-and-design-statistics-in-india-recap-2018/
  19. 19. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- https://www.bananaip.com/ip-news-center/patent-and-design-statistics-in-india-recap-2018/
  20. 20. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Patents (The Patents Act, 1970) :- https://www.bananaip.com/ip-news-center/patent-and-design-statistics-in-india-recap-2018/
  21. 21. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Apple Inc. v/s. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. - Dispute regarding design of smart phone and tablet computers (Year 2011) - By October 2011, Litigations in 10 countries - Apple won in US and lost in South Korea, Japan, UK, Germany, Australia
  22. 22. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Novartis AG v/s. Union of India & Others (Supreme Court, Decided in April 2013) The judgment allows suppliers to continue making generic copies of Swiss firm Novartis’ Glivec or Gleevec (brand name of Imatinib), which has been shown to fight chronic blood cancer effectively. While the Novartis drug costs more than Rs 1 lakh per month, with doctors often advising patients to take it lifelong, the generic equivalents cost less than one- tenth. For incremental change patent can not be given. A patent can not be granted for substantial improvement The ruling would be a relief to some 300,000 patients in India currently taking the drug.
  23. 23. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Natco v/s. Bayer (Compulsory Licensing) India's first ever compulsory license was granted by the Patent Office on March 9, 2012, to Natco Pharma (Hyderabad, India) for the generic production of Bayer Corporation's (Germany) Nexavar, a life saving medicine used for treating Liver and Kidney Cancer. Bayers sold this drug at exorbitant rates, with one month's worth of dosage costing around Rs 2.8 Lakh. Natco Pharma offered to sell it around for Rs 9000, making it affordable for people belonging to every stratum. All the 3 conditions of section 84 were fulfilled and the decision was taken for the benefit of general public. 1. the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied 2. the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price 3. the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India.
  24. 24. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA 1987 Michael Jackson on the set of the "Smooth Criminal" video.
  25. 25. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA https://www.artfido.com/the-secret-behind-michael-jacksons-anti-gravity-lean-was-actually-a-pair-of- shoes/ Patent was awarded in 1993
  26. 26. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA https://patentyogi.com/funny/funday-this-sunday-patented-flatulence-deodorizer-to-make- your-farts-smell-like-lavenders/ Patent Information Patent Number: US 6313371 B1 Patent Title: Flatulence deodorizer Publication type: Grant Publication date: 6 Nov 2001 Filing date: 12 Apr 2000 Priority date: 12 Apr 2000 Fee status: Paid Inventors: Brian J Conant, Myra M Conant
  27. 27. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  28. 28. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Copyrights (Copyright Act, 1957) :- Copyright can be given for followings …………Copyright is not given to idea but to expression of idea 1.Original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work; 2.A cinematograph film 3.A sound recording Application to be made to Registrar of Copyrights at New Delhi Term of copyright is 60 years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the author dies. In co-author death of last author. For other it is also 60 years. Compulsory License can be given under Section 31
  29. 29. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some leading cases :- - Harry Potter (Delhi High Court, 2010) Various rights on Harry Potter theme - Adobe & Microsoft (Delhi High Court, 2009) Pirated software case - Indian Music Industry cases Music copied from foreign and Indian sources.
  30. 30. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some leading cases :- The Chancellor, Masters & Scholars of the University of Oxford & Ors. v. Rameshwari Photocopy Services & Ors. [DU Photocopying Case] No violation of Copyright – Delhi HC (Dec. 2016)
  31. 31. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some leading cases :- Subhashchandra Shavjibhai Padasunbiya v. State of Gujarat,2018 SCC OnLine Guj 1371, decided on 03-08-2018] The Court concluded by directing to hand over the possession of the machine to the applicant by affixing the seals at the earliest and disposed of the criminal case. Owner of Industrial Drawings under Copyright Act held entitled to the machine reproduced by copying thereof https://blog.scconline.com/post/2018/08/28/copyright-registration-over-industrial-drawings- entitles-the-applicant-to-the-machine-reproduced-by-copying-thereof/ If a creative person steals your idea, he’s killing his creative ability, if he steals your art, he’s killing his art, if he makes it available to the world, it won’t create the impact you could have created, because it wasn’t from the right source.” -Michael Bassey Johnson
  32. 32. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  33. 33. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  34. 34. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Trademarks (Trade Mark Act, 1999) :- “Trade mark” means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others and may include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colours. …This may include shape, packaging and colour combinations. This mark may be a logo, symbol, brand, heading, label, name, signature, word, letter. “Well-known mark” is not registered but being used for long time and established itself as a strong brand. Protection is also available in Trade Mark law. Valid for 10 years can be renewed.
  35. 35. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  36. 36. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  37. 37. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some landmark cases :- - Benz v/s. VIP Undergarments (Delhi High Court, 1993) VIP undergarments began selling an underwear with the name ‘VIP-Benz’ - Havmour Ice Cream Case, Ahmedabad.. In Hyderabad infringement done - Cadila v/s. Amul (Delhi High Court, 2007).. Sugar Free case.. - Satyam Infoway v/s. Siffyney Solutions (SCI, 2004) Domain Name Case… Passing of Case
  38. 38. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Storm in trademark cup: HC relief for Wagh Bakri (August 2015) Read more at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/48535691.cms? utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst One more case Rajwadi Tea, Owner Bhagwandas Modi (2017)
  39. 39. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  40. 40. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Designs (Design Act, 2000) :- A Design appeals solely to the eye. The eye must be the eye of the customer on a visual test.. There should not be any functional consideration. 10 years validity registration. Can be renewed for second period of 5 years. Tetrapack (Founded in 1951 in Sweden)
  41. 41. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  42. 42. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some Leading cases :- Veet’s S – Shaped Spatula.. ..…Reckitt Benckiser launched Veet hair removal system in India 2004. Veet came up with a large S-Shaped spatula which was known as ‘perfect touch’ spatula. It obtained Design Regi. in December 2003. …Wyeth, which sells ‘Anne French’, another hair removal product offered a similar spatula according to Reckitt Benckiser.. Wyeth spatula was already registered in several foreign countries. Wyeth succeeded
  43. 43. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Crocs Inc. USA V Liberty Shoes Ltd. & Ors., on February 8, 2018, cancelled the registered design of Crocs Inc. USA and dismissed the claim of piracy of design made by the Company. The Court held that, 'it is necessary for protection of a registered design that the registered design must be an Intellectual Property Right created after application of sufficient time, labor, effort, etc. and that there must be sufficient newness or originality i.e. existence of requisite innovation and that trade variations of known designs cannot result in newness and originality.'
  44. 44. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  45. 45. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA A total of 8174 designs were registered between 1st January 2018 and 31st December 2018 as opposed to 9694 registrations in 2017 indicating a decrease of about 15.68%.
  46. 46. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  47. 47. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Geographical Indication (Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999) “geographical indication”, in relation to goods, means an indication which identifies such goods as agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods as originating, or manufactured in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of such goods is essentially attributable to its geographical origin and in case where such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the production or of processing or preparation of the goods concerned takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be Validity for 10 years and can be renewed also
  48. 48. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Darjeeling Tea (First Regi GI in India) (Himachal Pradesh)
  49. 49. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Registered GIs :- - Darjeeling Tea (First Regi GI in India)(Himachal Pradesh) - Mysore Silk (Karnataka) - Kutchh Embroidery (Gujarat) - Feni (Goa) - Bikaneri Bhujia (Rajasthan) - Tirupati Laddu (Andhra Pradesh) - Nagpur Orange (Maharashtra) - Scotch Whisky (United Kingdom) - Porto, Douro (Portugal) etc.. As on April 2019 , Total 344 GIs have been registered http://www.ipindia.nic.in/writereaddata/Portal/Images/pdf/Registered_GI_01_04_19.pdf
  50. 50. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Registered GIs :- http://www.ipindia.nic.in/writereaddata/Portal/Images/pdf/Registered_GI_01_04_19.pdf Kesar Mango Tirupati Laddu Kolhapuri Chappal Patan Patola
  51. 51. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Registered GIs :- Odisha Rasagola gets GI Tag:- Battle between West Bengal v/s. Odisha Odisha Small Industries Corporation Limited will be the registered holder of Odisha Rasagola’s GI tag https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/odisha-rasagola-gets-gi- tag/articleshow/70431428.cms Dt. July 29, 2019
  52. 52. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Traditional Knowledge :- Traditional Knowledge is passed on from one generation to the next, mostly in oral form and sometimes in writing. The knowledge comprises innovations, information, practices, customs, traditions etc. The knowledge may be with regard to the use of natural resources, environment, plants and animals, curing diseases or nature in general. Most of knowledge is undocumented. Some leading cases :- -Basmati Rice -Neem.. Controlling fungi in plants by using neem oil -Turmeric for healthy wounds. ….. In USA patent granted. India succeed stating it was prior knowledge in India
  53. 53. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Trade Secret/Confidential information :- Three essential elements -The subject matter must be a secret capable of adding economic value -The owner must take reasonable precautions to keep it a secret. The purpose is to ensure that no one claims protections for something which was flowing freely to competitors. -In cases of breach, the owner must prove that the competitor got the information in a wrongful manner Some leading cases :- Diljeet Titus case.. Delhi based lawyer and his associates case.
  54. 54. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act, 2001 Importance of Plant Variety The breeding activities and exploitation of new varieties are the decisive factors for improving rural income and their overall economic development. Since the process of plant breeding is long and expensive, it is important to provide an effective system of plant variety protection with an aim to encourage the development of new varieties of plants for the benefit of society. What are Farmers’ rights? Farmer who has bred or developed a new variety shall be entitled for registration and other protection under PPV&FR Act, 2001 in the same manner as a breeder of a variety. Cont..
  55. 55. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Cont.. Duration of protection of a registered plant variety. The duration of protection of registered varieties is different for different crops which are as below: 1.For trees and vines - 18 years. 2. For other crops - 15 years. 3. For extant varieties - 15 years from the date of notification of that variety by the Central Government under section 5 of the Seeds Act, 1966.
  56. 56. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA PepsiCo India Holdings (PIH) announced it is withdrawing lawsuits against nine farmers in north Gujarat, after having sued 11 farmers for “illegally” growing and selling” a potato variety registered in the company’s name. (July 2019) The company had sued nine farmers in Gujarat for alleged intellectual property “rights infringement” on grounds that they “illegally” grew its registered potato variety used to make Lay’s chips. (May 2019)
  57. 57. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some Latest Issues in IPR :- Cyber Squatting (Domain Squatting) :- ……using a domain name with bad faith intent to profit from the goodwill of a trademark belonging to someone else. The cybersquatter then offers to sell the domain to the person or company who owns a trademark contained within the name at an inflated price. 1. Yahoo! Inc. v. Akash Arora and Anothers (1999) 2. www.arunjaitley.com (2009)
  58. 58. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  59. 59. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  60. 60. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  61. 61. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  62. 62. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA
  63. 63. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA The Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
  64. 64. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA IPR has shelf life of a banana – Bill Gates
  65. 65. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Some important websites :- http://www.ipindia.nic.in/ http://copyright.gov.in/ http://www.plantauthority.gov.in/ https://www.icann.org/ http://www.wipo.int/portal/en/index.html
  66. 66. (C) K L GUPTA(C) K L GUPTA Dr. Kalpeshkumar L Gupta www.klgupta.in

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