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Technology Education and Educational Technology  Two Fields, Very Different Representation of Women Johannes Strobel1, Heather Tillberg-Webb2 & Celia Pan1 1Purdue University & 2Johns Hopkins University First Annual Gender and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Research Symposium February 19, 2010
Agenda Background of the problem Research Questions Theoretical Framework Methodology Data Results Cultural/historical roots of technology education versus educational technology Input sought
Background Initial observation of technology education programs: perception that there is low female representation compared to educational technology programs, which seem to attract more women
Female share of S&E degrees National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering:2007, NSF 07-315 (Arlington, VA; February 2007). Available from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.
Master’s degrees in S&E vs non S&E fields
Tech Ed vs Ed Tech What are the sex representations of faculty? What are the curricular requirements? What are the cultural historical roots of each field? What are embodiments of technologies and their role?
Theoretical Framework Embodiment (Merleau-Ponty) Actions and artifacts as expressions of thought Borrowing from Religious Studies (form of cultural studies) Folk (Popular) Religion (dogma vs. lived religion) What is said vs. what is done History of Practice Yoder, Don (1974). Toward a Definition of Folk Religion. Western Folklore 33 (1): 1-15. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). Translated by Smith, C. Phenomenology of Perception London: Routledge. Orsi, R. (1997). Lived Religion in America: Toward a History of Practice. Princeton University Press
Methodological Framework Mixed Method Survey and Descriptive Statistics (TechEd and EdTech) (completed) Content and Artifact (Performance) Analysis (on-going)
Sources ITEA (International Technology Education Association) List of programs Individual Program Web sites AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Database of Educational Technology Programs Individual Program Websites
Methods Review all Technology Education and Educational Technology Select only graduate programs resulting in a Master’s degree (EdTech has two bachelor program) Identify sex of faculty from program website Identify technical curricular requirements from program website Identify – self-description (text, artifacts) Curriculum as performance
Role model effect (Rask & Bailey, 2002)
“Women were underrepresented among candidates for tenure relative to the number of female assistant professors” (NAE, 2009, p.4) NAE (2009). Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty (Free Executive Summary) http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12062.html
Technical Course Requirements Curricular prerequisites as barriers (Klein, 2007) Statistics, Programming, Other Technical courses
Curricular considerations “Curriculum narratives are not only collective but ‘selective’ stories, and in the case of technology education the selection of technology stories have been articulated from a particular, relatively small, cultural community” O’Riley, 1999 Curricular narrative (Gough, 1993)
Historical Trends
Cultural historical roots of technology education Industrial arts Vocational Training for manufacturing Situated predominantly in Cs of Engineering/Technology Historically: Technology is the end goal (move to broaden: Technological Literacy)
http://www.digital.butlercenter.org/cdm-p1532coll1/images/industrial%20education.jpg
http://www.isledegrande.com/giimages7/sidwaydickhogue53.jpg
http://www.yarrowbc.ca/images/publicschools/chs_72.jpg
Cultural historical roots of Ed Tech Audio visual education (library media services) Programmed instruction Engineering design for training Behaviorism Instructional Design Situated predominantly in Cs of Education Technology is a means to an end In support of “something else” Including of processes
http://theswca.com/images-misc/yb/ford-1959-p15.jpg
http://sliderulemuseum.com/Ephemera/Dr_Harvey_White_NBC_TV_show_Continental_Classroom_1958_2.jpg
http://www.woldgate50.com/computer%201970%27s.jpg

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Technology Education and Educational Technology – Two Fields, Very Different Representation of Women. By Johannes Strobel, Heather Tillberg-Webb and Celia Pan.

  • 1. Technology Education and Educational Technology Two Fields, Very Different Representation of Women Johannes Strobel1, Heather Tillberg-Webb2 & Celia Pan1 1Purdue University & 2Johns Hopkins University First Annual Gender and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Research Symposium February 19, 2010
  • 2. Agenda Background of the problem Research Questions Theoretical Framework Methodology Data Results Cultural/historical roots of technology education versus educational technology Input sought
  • 3. Background Initial observation of technology education programs: perception that there is low female representation compared to educational technology programs, which seem to attract more women
  • 4. Female share of S&E degrees National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering:2007, NSF 07-315 (Arlington, VA; February 2007). Available from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.
  • 5. Master’s degrees in S&E vs non S&E fields
  • 6. Tech Ed vs Ed Tech What are the sex representations of faculty? What are the curricular requirements? What are the cultural historical roots of each field? What are embodiments of technologies and their role?
  • 7. Theoretical Framework Embodiment (Merleau-Ponty) Actions and artifacts as expressions of thought Borrowing from Religious Studies (form of cultural studies) Folk (Popular) Religion (dogma vs. lived religion) What is said vs. what is done History of Practice Yoder, Don (1974). Toward a Definition of Folk Religion. Western Folklore 33 (1): 1-15. Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). Translated by Smith, C. Phenomenology of Perception London: Routledge. Orsi, R. (1997). Lived Religion in America: Toward a History of Practice. Princeton University Press
  • 8. Methodological Framework Mixed Method Survey and Descriptive Statistics (TechEd and EdTech) (completed) Content and Artifact (Performance) Analysis (on-going)
  • 9. Sources ITEA (International Technology Education Association) List of programs Individual Program Web sites AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Database of Educational Technology Programs Individual Program Websites
  • 10. Methods Review all Technology Education and Educational Technology Select only graduate programs resulting in a Master’s degree (EdTech has two bachelor program) Identify sex of faculty from program website Identify technical curricular requirements from program website Identify – self-description (text, artifacts) Curriculum as performance
  • 11. Role model effect (Rask & Bailey, 2002)
  • 12. “Women were underrepresented among candidates for tenure relative to the number of female assistant professors” (NAE, 2009, p.4) NAE (2009). Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty (Free Executive Summary) http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12062.html
  • 13. Technical Course Requirements Curricular prerequisites as barriers (Klein, 2007) Statistics, Programming, Other Technical courses
  • 14. Curricular considerations “Curriculum narratives are not only collective but ‘selective’ stories, and in the case of technology education the selection of technology stories have been articulated from a particular, relatively small, cultural community” O’Riley, 1999 Curricular narrative (Gough, 1993)
  • 16. Cultural historical roots of technology education Industrial arts Vocational Training for manufacturing Situated predominantly in Cs of Engineering/Technology Historically: Technology is the end goal (move to broaden: Technological Literacy)
  • 20. Cultural historical roots of Ed Tech Audio visual education (library media services) Programmed instruction Engineering design for training Behaviorism Instructional Design Situated predominantly in Cs of Education Technology is a means to an end In support of “something else” Including of processes
  • 24. Seek your input Further investigation: Artifacts (Marketing material; Self-description) Data mining and word-clouds of textual information Boundaries of text – which, where to stop? Syllabi? Historio-graphical literature?

Editor's Notes

  1. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering:2007, NSF 07-315 (Arlington, VA; February 2007).Available from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.This NSF graph breaks down the female share of S&E graduate degrees by discipline. We can see that some fields do a very good job of creating an equitous environment, such as biology and social sciences (which would include education). Psychology skews in a different direction of representation, with a much higher percentage of women than men.
  2. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and EnThis graph depicts sex distribution of Master’s degrees awarded in S&E versus non S&E fieldsWomen have earned 40% of Ph.D.s in STEM disciplines in the U.S., yet their representation inacademic STEM faculty and administrative positions has not wholly reflected this distribution(Hoffer, 2007; NSF, 2007): Women constitute on average only 20% of the faculty in fields related toscience, technology, engineering and mathematics (NSF, 2000) a number which did not changeproportionally to the degrees earned.gineering:2007, NSF 07-315 (Arlington, VA; February 2007).Available from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.
  3. Research questions
  4. Industrial Arts class (e.g., wood shop)http://www.digital.butlercenter.org/cdm-p1532coll1/images/industrial%20education.jpg
  5. http://www.isledegrande.com/giimages7/sidwaydickhogue53.jpg
  6. Nice pic, but canadianhttp://www.yarrowbc.ca/images/publicschools/chs_72.jpg
  7. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v7n1/foster.jte-v7n1.htmlhttp://www.digitalhumanities.org/humanist/Archives/Virginia/v05/0775.htmlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v13n2/Foster.html
  8. http://theswca.com/images-misc/yb/ford-1959-p15.jpgAudio visualAlso highly “masculine” in the 60s, obviously from images
  9. Science Edhttp://sliderulemuseum.com/Ephemera/Dr_Harvey_White_NBC_TV_show_Continental_Classroom_1958_2.jpgThis website in general has very interesting historical engineering & science images
  10. http://www.woldgate50.com/computer%201970%27s.jpg