Education and British Rule (Advait ' n ' group) ( Class 8 )
EDUCATION AND BRITISH
Made By :
• Advait Nandeshwar •Tanay Chauhan •Ashutosh Gohokar •Ria Verma
In earlier times , the Indians were
educated gurukuls, but today we
study in schools with English or
Hindi as the chief medium of
instruction, So , when did this
transition actually take place?
Before the British Rule, Education was imparted
through a chain of elementary schools – Pathshalas,
Maktabs and Madrasas for higher education.
The education provided in such institutions were
based on old texts like Vedas and their
Such education was not considered to be up to date
because Vedas, the basis of such education did not
kept pace with the world.
• East India Company
• Christian Missionaries
English East India Company showed a very
little interest in promotion of education in
The Only purpose of setting up some
educational institutions in India was to
ensure a steady supply of Indians to law
courts set up by the Company. Indian’s
knowledge of classical languages was used
to establish correspondence with the native
states by East India Company officials.
*The Calcutta Madrasa
*Fort William College
Christian Missionaries wanted to promote
Western Education in India because they thought
that modern education would destroy the faith of
the Indians for the own religions and they would
Main Ones :
• Charles Grant is considered as the father of modern
education in India
• He is known so because of his efforts that the Charter
Act of 1813 came into existence. This acts promotes the
modern education in India as it sanctions about one lakh
rupees for education.
Charter Act of 1813
• This act was the first step taken by
British rulers for the purpose of
educational development in India.
• Under this act, one lakh rupees were
sanctioned to promote education in
• However, this act had failed.
FAILURE OF CHARTER ACT OF 1813 THE CHARTER ACT
HAD FAILED BECAUSE OF FOLLOWING REASONS:
• It failed to state the language for medium
of instruction for educational institutes.
• It was also ambiguous about the means of
expanding English education in India.
• It was not stated that education should be
given to all or a selected few.
Orientalists and Anglicists Debate Orientalists and Anglicist
Debate was a debate between Orientalists and Anglicists due
to the issue of language for the medium of instructions in
Orientalists : People who wanted to promote
education in India through the medium of classical
languages such as Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic.
Anglicists : People who wanted to promote
Western Education in India which supported
English as a medium of instruction
Preferences of Educated Indians
such as Raja
exerted pressure on
was the only
remedy for the
social, economic and
political ills of the
MACAULAY’S SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
This system of education was introduced by Lord Macaulay in
This system put Anglicists Orientalists Debate to an end.
This system is also known as Lord Macaulay’s Minute.
MACAULAY’S SYSTEM OF EDUCATION ( MAIN PROVISIONS)
• This system clearly stated that Western Education
has to be promoted in India through the medium of
English language alone.
• Under this system, Persian was abolished as the
court language. On its place, English language was
made the court language.
• Under this system, the printing of English books
was made free and these were widely available in
markets at very low prices. This increased use of
English in India
For the implementation of this
system in India following steps
were taken by the government:
Forty two schools were set up
The presidencies were divided
into educational zones. Each
educational zone had one
For example: Bengal was
divided into nine educational
zones under Lord Auckland.
This was a written document
for the propose of promoting
education in India.
This was introduced by
Charles Wood in 1854.
It was the first
comprehensive plan for the
spread of education in India.
It was considered as the
‘Magna Carta of English
education in India’.
Wood’s Despatch – Main
English was recommended as the medium of
instruction for higher studies and Indian local
languages at school level.
Emphasis was given on female and vocational
education and on teachers’ training.
Education imparted in the government institutions
was to be secular.
A system of grants-in-aid was recommended for the
institutions that satisfied certain conditions to
encourage private enterprise.
Universities were to be set up at Calcutta, Madras
WOOD’S DESPATCH – IMPLEMENTATION
Graded schools were set up as written in
The educational institutes were run by
European Headmasters and Principals.
Missionar y enterprises played their own
In 1857, Universities in all the three
presidencies were set up.
Education after 1858
• After the revolt of 1857,
many changes took place
in the whole country. As a
result of the revolt,
education system was also
*Hunter Commission was a commission
appointed by the British Government to
review the progress of education in the
country since the Wood’s Despatch of
*Hunter Commission was set up in 1882
under the chairmanship of W W Hunter.
*This commission emphasized its
recommendations on primary and
• It was a commission appointed by the British government
to suggest measures to improve the conditions of Indian
It was set up in
• This act was passed in 1904 under Lord Curzon.
• This act was based on the recommendations of the
• People of India condemned for this act because :It increased the government’s control over the universities.
They saw it as an attempt to restrict education and to
discipline the educated to show loyalty to the government
Indian Universities Act
• Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress
thought that western education had created a gulf
between the educated few and the masses of uneducated.
Mahatma Gandhi’s & INC’s
views about western
• This was a scheme of basic education introduced by
Zakir Husain Committee in October 1937 in Wardha
• The main principle behind this scheme was learning
• It was based on Gandhian ideas published in a series of
articles in the weekly magazine Harijan.
Wardha scheme of
• Englishmen educated Indians just for the supply of Indians in
their offices. Their main aim was not to educate Indians. This
led to a wide linguistic and cultural gulf between educated
few and masses of uneducated Indians.
• British Policies of Education declined the traditional system
of Indian Education.
• Women Education was neglected under the British
POLICIES – LIMITATIONS
British followed the
Downward Filtration Theory
which was never practical.
There was no sort of scientific
or technological education for
the Indian under British Rule.
Growth During the first quarter of the
twentieth century, Indian nationalist
leaders formed a National Council of
Education to make out a strategy for
imparting education to all sections of
the country. Under this strategy, a
number of national schools, colleges
and universities were set up. We will
discuss here a few of them :
National Muslim University
Set up in/at : 1875/ Aligarh (UP)
(earlier known as Muhammadan
Set up by : Sir Syed Ahmed
This University was patterned
after Oxford and Cambridge
This university tuned with the
British Educational system
without compromising with
• Sir Syed visualized this national
university as he felt the need of
Muslims to get modern education
and become involved with the
public life and governmental
services of India
• In 1907, a school for girls was
established in it.
• In 1920, It was changed from
• In 1927, a school for blinds was
established in this university.
• By 1930s , this university had
developed engineering faculty
• The first chancellor of the
university was a lady, Sultan Shah
Jahan Begum. MAO ) to National
• Set up in/at : 1908 / Baroda (Gujarat)
• Set up by: Dr. Jackson
• It was earlier Baroda College.
• Dr Jackson wanted establishment of a science
institute at Baroda on an improved and independent
• Dr Jackson was principal of Baroda College in 1908
“THE BARODA UNIVERSITY”
“THE BARODA UNIVERSITY”
In 1916 and later in 1919 again, review
committees recommended setting up a
university at Baroda
In 1926, Baroda University Commission was
appointed which submitted its report in 1929.
Baroda University was finally approved by the
legislature assembly in 1949.
Central Hindu School
Set up in/at : 1898/ Benaras
Set up by: Dr Annie Besant
New English School
Set up in/at : 1880s / Benaras
Set up by : Sri Bal Gangadhar
National Council of Education
Set up in/at : 1906 / Calcutta
Set up by : Aurobindo Ghosh
Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey
Women's University (SNDT)
It was the first women university of
India. Set up in/at : 1916 / Poona
Set up by : D K Karve
She had an important contribution
towards encouraging women education
in the country.
She set up Arya Mahila Samaj in Poona.
She set up Sharda Sadan, a school for
widows in Bombay.
She was an important lady socio-religious
reformers of India.
She began her work with setting up a
school for girls in Kolkata in 1910 45
What is Gurukul ?
Gurukul – A place where
Indians imparted education
before the British rule over
About Harijan ?
Harijan – A weekly magazine which
was responsible for promoting
Gandhian principles in masses. It was
published under the guidance of