Bone Marrow -- All the cells of the immune system are initially derived from the bone marrow. They form through a process called hematopoiesis. During hematopoiesis, bone marrow-derived stem cells differentiate into either mature cells of the immune system or into precursors of cells that migrate out of the bone marrow to continue their maturation elsewhere. The bone marrow produces B cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes and immature thymocytes, in addition to red blood cells and platelets. Thymus -- The function of the thymus is to produce mature T cells. Immature thymocytes, also known as prothymocytes, leave the bone marrow and migrate into the thymus. Through a remarkable maturation process sometimes referred to as thymic education, T cells that are beneficial to the immune system are spared, while those T cells that might evoke a detrimental autoimmune response are eliminated. The mature T cells are then released into the bloodstream. Spleen -- The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells. In addition to capturing foreign materials (antigens) from the blood that passes through the spleen, migratory macrophages and dendritic cells bring antigens to the spleen via the bloodstream. An immune response is initiated when the macrophage or dendritic cells present the antigen to the appropriate B or T cells. This organ can be thought of as an immunological conference center. In the spleen, B cells become activated and produce large amounts of antibody. Also, old red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen. Lymph Nodes -- The lymph nodes function as an immunologic filter for the bodily fluid known as lymph. Lymph nodes are found throughout the body. Composed mostly of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, the nodes drain fluid from most of our tissues. Antigens are filtered out of the lymph in the lymph node before returning the lymph to the circulation. In a similar fashion as the spleen, the macrophages and dendritic cells that capture antigens present these foreign materials to T and B cells, consequently initiating an immune response.
The Cells of the Immune SystemT-Cells -- T lymphocytes are usually divided into two major subsets that are functionally and phenotypically (identifiably) different. The T helper subset, also called the CD4+ T cell, is a pertinent coordinator of immune regulation. The main function of the T helper cell is to augment or potentiate immune responses by the secretion of specialized factors that activate other white blood cells to fight off infection. Another important type of T cell is called the T killer/suppressor subset or CD8+ T cell. These cells are important in directly killing certain tumor cells, viral-infected cells and sometimes parasites. The CD8+ T cells are also important in down-regulation of immune responses. Both types of T cells can be found throughout the body. They often depend on the secondary lymphoid organs (the lymph nodes and spleen) as sites where activation occurs, but they are also found in other tissues of the body, most conspicuously the liver, lung, blood, and intestinal and reproductive tracts. Natural Killer Cells -- Natural killer cells, often referred to as NK cells, are similar to the killer T cell subset (CD8+ T cells). They function as effector cells that directly kill certain tumors such as melanomas, lymphomas and viral-infected cells, most notably herpes and cytomegalovirus-infected cells. NK cells, unlike the CD8+ (killer) T cells, kill their targets without a prior "conference" in the lymphoid organs. However, NK cells that have been activated by secretions from CD4+ T cells will kill their tumor or viral-infected targets more effectively. B Cells -- The major function of B lymphocytes is the production of antibodies in response to foreign proteins of bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells. Antibodies are specialized proteins that specifically recognize and bind to one particular protein that specifically recognize and bind to one particular protein. Antibody production and binding to a foreign substance or antigen, often is critical as a means of signaling other cells to engulf, kill or remove that substance from the body. Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear (PMN) Leukocytes -- Another group of white blood cells is collectively referred to as granulocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Granulocytes are composed of three cell types identified as neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, based on their staining characteristics with certain dyes. These cells are predominantly important in the removal of bacteria and parasites from the body. They engulf these foreign bodies and degrade them using their powerful enzymes. Macrophages -- Macrophages are important in the regulation of immune responses. They are often referred to as scavengers or antigen-presenting cells (APC) because they pick up and ingest foreign materials and present these antigens to other cells of the immune system such as T cells and B cells. This is one of the important first steps in the initiation of an immune response. Stimulated macrophages exhibit increased levels of phagocytosis and are also secretory. Dendritic Cells -- Another cell type, addressed only recently, is the dendritic cell. Dendritic cells, which also originate in the bone marrow, function as antigen presenting cells (APC). In fact, the dendritic cells are more efficient apcs than macrophages. These cells are usually found in the structural compartment of the lymphoid organs such as the thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. However, they are also found in the bloodstream and other tissues of the body. It is believed that they capture antigen or bring it to the lymphoid organs where an immune response is initiated. Unfortunately, one reason we know so little about dendritic cells is that they are extremely hard to isolate, which is often a prerequisite for the study of the functional qualities of specific cell types. Of particular issue here is the recent finding that dendritic cells bind high amount of HIV, and may be a reservoir of virus that is transmitted to CD4+ T cells during an activation event.
The Immune ResponseAn immune response to foreign antigen requires the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC), (usually either a macrophage or dendritic cell) in combination with a B cell or T cell. When an APC presents an antigen on its cell surface to a B cell, the B cell is signalled to proliferate and produce antibodies that specifically bind to that antigen. If the antibodies bind to antigens on bacteria or parasites it acts as a signal for pmns or macrophages to engulf (phagocytose) and kill them. Another important function of antibodies is to initiate the "complement destruction cascade." When antibodies bind to cells or bacteria, serum proteins called complement bind to the immobilized antibodies and destroy the bacteria by creating holes in them. Antibodies can also signal natural killer cells and macrophages to kill viral or bacterial-infected cells. If the APC presents the antigen to T cells, the T cells become activated. Activated T cells proliferate and become secretory in the case of CD4+ T cells, or, if they are CD8+ T cells, they become activated to kill target cells that specifically express the antigen presented by the APC. The production of antibodies and the activity of CD8+ killer T cells are highly regulated by the CD4+ helper T cell subset. The CD4+ T cells provide growth factors or signals to these cells that signal them to proliferate and function more efficiently. This multitude of interleukins or cytokines that are produced and secreted by CD4+ T cells are often crucial to ensure the activation of natural killer cells, macrophages, CD8+ T cells, and PMNs is listed in the chart below.
People with allergic reaction is due to the immune system mistakes a perfectly normal and harmless substance like wheat or dust for an enemy antigen. Inappropriately, antibodies, usually the IgE type, are produced. IgE attaced itself to either basophi8l ( a white blood cell) or a mast cell ( found in the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and skin). The IgE-loaded cell grows sensitive to that allergen or antigen and antigen-antibody union initiates the release of a flood of natural body substances-mainly histamine. Excessive amount of histamine causes three basic responses.1. Constriction of certain blood vessels, dilation of their blood vessels and leakage of fluid from the blood vessel into body tissues as a result of this dilation. ALL ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN ANY PART OF THE BODY ARE CAUSED BY THE BASIC RESPONSE OF HISTAMINE.
1. Keep windows and doors closed. 2. When you come in from outside, if you’ve been exposed to allergens, take a shower and shampoo your hair. Same for the kids. 3. When allergens are at their peak, stay inside. Pollen.com provides pollen reports for the entire US and will tell you how your city is doing. Generally speaking, allergens are worse in the mornings. 4. Avoid fans because they circulate the air, especially that ceiling fan over your bed. 5. Get your bedrooms more friendly. Remove anything that collects dust – curtains, drapes, stuffed toys, rugs, books, and, alas, Fido needs to sleep elsewhere. Use blinds and linoleum or tile for flooring. Acccording to pet expert Dr. Peter Kross, DVM, the best allergy-friendly choices for a dog are Maltese, bichon frise and poodle. For a cat, the sphinx or the rex. 6. Avoid places where molds are – basement, lawn mowing and raking leaves, humidifiers, and leaving clothes in the washing machine. Don’t let wet towels lie or hang around. Take care of plumbing and roof leaks immediately. Also beware of mold in refrigerated jams and jelly, and on cured, salty meats like ham, bacon and salami, certain cheeses. Don’t sniff it, just throw it out. For more on mold and food, visit the food resource at Oregon State University. 7. Wash bedding frequently at a temperature of at least 130 degrees F. and use hypoallergenic covers for mattress, pillows and box springs. (Your bed is full of dust mites.) 8. Keep your house and lawn as uninviting to cockroaches and bug as possible. Keep food sanitary and in the garbage, not lying around. Avoid lots of ground cover near the swimming pool. Get rid of paper grocery bags. They can harbor cockroach eggs. 9. Avoid irritants such as scented candles, eucalyptus, perfume, potpourri, chalk dust, newspaper print, tobacco smoke, and markers. Use hypoallergenic makeup and cleaning products. 10. If you’re allergic to a food, avoid it. Also certain foods cross-react with certain pollens to give a double wallop. For example, elm is pollinating in January and February, and milk products should be reduced or eliminated.
1) Citrus Most people turn to vitamin C after they've caught a cold but did you know it tops the charts of foods that keep your immune system running at 100%? Vitamin C helps increase the production of white blood cells, key to fighting infections. Because your body doesn't produce or store it, daily intake of vitamin C is essential for continued health. Almost all citrus fruits are high in vitamin C and with such a variety to choose from it's easy to add a squeeze of C to any meal. Check out the Tangerine Yogurt Sorbet or the Blushing Maid cocktail. 2) Red Bell Peppers Vitamin C not only boosts immune systems but it helps maintain healthy skin, which is the frontline in our war on colds. Think citrus fruits have the most vitamin C of any fruit or vegetable? Think again. Ounce for ounce, red bell peppers have twice as much flu-fighting vitamin C, as well as being a rich source of beta carotenes. Check out Bell Pepper Farro Salad. 3) Broccoli Broccoli is super-charged with an arsenal of vitamins and minerals ready to do battle with any germ or infection. Packed with vitamins A, C, and E, as well as numerous antioxidants, broccoli is one of the healthiest vegetables you can put on your table. The key to keeping its power intact is to cook it as little as possible, or better yet, not at all. Check out Winter Rigatoni. 4) Garlic Found in almost every cuisine around the world, garlic not only adds a little zing to foods, it's definitely a must-have for your health. Early civilizations recognized its value for fighting infections and modern science has shown that garlic helps to lower cholesterol and prevent hardening of arteries. Its immune-boosting properties seem to come from a heavy concentration of sulphur-containing compounds, such as allicin. Check out Garlic Mushrooms 5) Ginger Ginger is another ingredient many turn to after they've caught a cold. But like vitamin C, ginger can also help you prevent that cold from taking hold in the first place. While it's used in many sweet desserts, ginger packs some heat in the form of gingerol, a relative of capsaicin, which gives chili peppers their distinctive heat. Ginger may help decrease chronic pain and may possess cholesterol-lowering properties. Check out Quick Ginger Beer and Green Tea Granita 6) Spinach Spinach made our list not just because it's rich in vitamin C but because it's packed with numerous antioxidants and beta-carotene, which have been proven to increase the infection-fighting cells of our immune systems. Similar to broccoli, it is best cooked as little as possible so that its nutrients are retained. Check out Ginger Chicken Salad 7) Yogurt When selecting yogurt look for ones that have "live and active cultures" printed on the label. Recent studies suggest these cultures help stimulate your immune system to help fight diseases. Additional studies also suggest a link between low vitamin D levels and an increased risk of catching a cold, so select brands fortified with vitamin D. Check out Tangerine Yogurt Sorbet and Ginger Chicken Salad 8) Almonds When it comes to preventing and fighting off colds, vitamin E tends to take a backseat to the more commonly mentioned vitamin C, but vitamin E is also key to a healthy immune system. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it requires the presence of fat to be absorbed properly. Nuts (especially almonds) are packed with vitamin E and a half cup serving provides nearly 100% of the daily recommended amount. Check out Romesco Shrimp 9) Turmeric A key ingredient in many curries, this bright-yellow, bitter spice has been used for years as an anti-inflammatory in treating both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. High concentrations of curcumin, which gives turmeric its distinct color, have been shown to contain strong flu and cold fighting properties. Check out Almond Couscous 10) Green Tea As one of the most popular beverages in the world, green tea's health benefits have been studied for centuries. Packed with flavonoids, a type of antioxidant, both green and black teas have 150 to 200 mg per cup. Where green tea really shines is in its levels of epigallocatechin gallate, or EGCG, another powerful antioxidant. The fermentation process black tea goes through destroys a lot of the EGCG. Green tea, on the other hand, is steamed and not fermented, preserving that EGCG. If that wasn't enough, it's also a good source of the amino acid L-theanine, which aids in the production of germ-fighting compounds from your T-cells. Check out Green Tea Granita. Read more: http://www.healthline.com/hlc/10-immune-boosting-foods#ixzz1OBuXSH8zHealthline.com - Connect to Better Health
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Natural Way to StrengthenThe Immune System<br />Cathryn Hu, Ph.D., O.M.D.,L.Ac. <br />Advanced Acupuncture, Inc. <br />Wellness Class 2011<br />
Cells of the Immune System <br />T-Cells<br />Natural Killer Cells<br />B-Cells<br />Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes<br />Macrophages<br />Dendritic Cells <br />Communication between these cells occurs by interference and other chemical messages that govern the immune system. <br />There should be a balance between the helper and suppressor T-cells. <br />
T- Lymphocytes<br />T cells originated from thymus gland. <br />They directly attack foreign invaders. <br />There are different kinds of T cells. Each has a different function. <br />
T Cells<br />Cytovic T Cells<br />Helper T Cells <br />T cells that kill cells attack only one kind of infected cell or agent such as cancer cells, viruses, etc. <br />These T cells stimulate B cells<br /> to produce antibodies.<br />T- Suppressor Cells<br />These shut off helper T cells once enough antibodies produced. <br />
B-Lymphocytes<br />These B cells were the first to be discovered. <br />They produce circulating antibodies. <br />Antibodies attacks antigens. <br />Each of the B cells produces only one kind of antibody. <br />
Natural Killer Cells<br />Constantly patrolling the body for dangerous foreign cells. <br />When they find the threat, they attach & release toxic chemicals that destroy the invading cells. <br />
The Immune Response <br />Antigen---Antigen Presenting Cell ( APC)--- B cell---Proliferate --- produce specific antibodies--- antigen/antibody complex----engulf ---kill--- cascade<br />
Macrophages, B Cells, Pathogens, Antibody Immune Response<br />
What are immune related diseases ?<br />Common colds<br />Allergies<br />Asthma<br />Recurrent UTI<br />Candidacies<br />Chronic fatigue<br />Hepatitis<br />AIDS<br />Autoimmune disease<br />
Allergic Reaction<br />Definition: <br />An abnormal reaction or sensitivity to a harmless substance that does not bother most people and is usually hereditary<br />Mechanism:<br />When an allergy-prone individual is exposed to an antigen (foreign bodies perceived by the body’s defense system), his body reacts by producing antibodies <br />Immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgM, IgG<br />Reaction sequences: <br />IgE- sensor <br />IgM----IgG-----IgA <br /> IgD- co-expressed with IgM <br />
Allergy Prevention<br /> 1. Keep windows and doors closed. 2. Take a shower and shampoo your hair when you come in from outside. 3. Stay inside. Pollen.com provides pollen reports. 4. Avoid fans. 5. Make your bedrooms more friendly. 6. Avoid places where molds are. Visit the food resource at Oregon State University. 7. Wash bedding frequently. 8. Keep your house and lawn clean.9. Avoid irritants. 10. Avoid allergic sources: food, pollens, etc. <br />
Flu Prevention<br />The best way is to get vaccinated as early as possible.<br />Flu is seasonal and unique each season.<br />H1N1(swine) Flu is contagious and infects more people.<br />Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds every time.<br />Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough with a tissue or your upper shirt sleeve. Throw out used tissues.<br />Wash your hands after sneezing or coughing.<br />Use an alcohol-based hand cleaner.<br />Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.<br />
Secret of Green Tea<br />Catechin Polyphenols -epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)<br />Is a powerful anti-oxidant.<br />Inhibits the growth of cancer cells, without harming normal tissue.<br />Lowers LDL levels.<br />Inhibits the abnormal formation of blood clots. (thrombosis-cause of heart attacks and strokes) <br />
Why Green Tea?<br />Green, oolong, black tea all come from the leaves of the camellia sinensis plant.<br />Green tea leaves are steamed, which prevents the EGCG compound from being oxidized.<br />Oolong & black tea are made from fermented leaves.<br />EGCG is converted into other compounds that are not as effective in preventing and fighting disease.<br />
Green Tea Effects on Immune System<br />L-theanine from tea reacts in the liver to create another chemical that is involved in the production of T cells.<br />T cells are a large part of our bodies response mechanism to bacterial infection.<br />Both black and green tea contains L-theanine.<br />Drinking 5 cups/day could markedly improve your bodies response to infectious diseases.<br />
Food & Your Immune System<br />Eating tasty food makes you feel good and boosts your immune system. <br />Research tests added flavoring to the food eaten by people in a retirement home.<br />Flavored food increased two important components of the immune system. <br /> ( IgG, and IgM) <br />
Food Allergy Affects Behavior <br />The behavior of some children with allergies improves significantly when allergies are addressed. <br /> If it’s suspected that a child has a food allergy, testing and changing eating habits could make a big difference. <br />Watch for a child’s behavior after eating chocolate. The caffeine and sugar can give some children more energy than they can handle. <br />
Food Allergy Prevention<br />If you are allergic to eggs, do not receive seasonal flu or the H1N1 vaccine (made using chicken egg cells).<br />If you have food allergies and also have asthma, you may have serious complications if you get the flu.<br />Do not get flu shot while you are having symptoms.<br />Be cautious for children, seniors and people with weak immune systems. <br />
Can I have acupuncture treatments even If I do not feel good?<br />Acupuncture can:<br />Have a preventive effect<br />Strengthen your body’s resistance<br />Help fight pathogens<br />
Why acupuncture can help? <br />The immune system contains receptors for endorphins & neuropeptides.<br />There are connections between the immune system and central nervous system. <br />The immune system responds to chemicals and secrets chemical messages.<br />The immune system has nerve cells which connect the brain to the spleen and other organs producing immune cells. <br />
How can acupuncture strengthen the immune system?<br />Qi (vital energy) is the fundamental substance.<br />If Qi is strongly reinforced, then body resistance is strengthened. <br />Acupuncture promotes Qi and blood circulation, providing essential nutrition and oxygen to body parts and tissues.<br />The system can function normally and properly. <br />
Stimulate the Immune System with Acupuncture<br />Acupuncture points: <br /> St 36, Li 4, Li 11, Gv. 14.<br />Using tonify methods.<br />Twice a week for 5 weeks, <br /> then once a month <br /> for maintenance.<br />Best combined with <br /> individualized formulas.<br />
How to enhance my immune system with natural Chinese herbs? <br />Herbs are natural food.<br />Stimulate blood flow.<br />Benefit metabolism and endocrine system.<br />Individualized formula to fit body needs.<br />Enhance absorption of nutrients and minerals. <br />
What are some common Chinese herbs effective for preventive care?<br />Ginseng<br />Dang-Kuei<br />Astragalus<br />Seek professional help.<br />Be aware the side effects and contraindications.<br />Proper dosage and long term use side effects.<br />
Herbal Prescription # 6 <br />Strengthen Capsule<br />Functions: Enhance the immune system by increasing producing antibody IgG level. These activities protect against invasion by pathogenic organisms and damage to the all important lymph system.<br />Indications: Immune system deficiency, chronic fatigue syndrome, weakness, weight loss, chronic non-healing sores.<br />Dosage: 2 times daily, two capsules each time. <br />
Prevention by Acupressure<br />Acupuncture points:<br />Allergy - Li 4, Sinus headache - Bl 2 <br />Asthma - Lung 7 Sneezing - Li 20 <br />Fatigue - St 36 Itchiness - Li 11<br />