Second Set of Notes for Unit 4


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Second Set of Notes for Unit 4

  1. 1. Issues/Terms that relate just to HOUSE <ul><li>pages 4-5 </li></ul><ul><li>can you think of any? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Article I of the Constitution directs Congress to reapportion, or redistribute, seats in the House after each decennial census </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reapportionment <ul><li>Article I of the Constitution directs Congress to reapportion (redistribute) seats in the House after each decennial census </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Theory of Descriptive representation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected legislature should reflect the demographic characteristics of the constituency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Reapportionment Act of 1929 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent size of the House = 435, so long as Congress does not change it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Following each census, the Census Bureau in the House is to determine the number of seats each State should have. </li></ul><ul><li>When the bureau’s plan is ready, the President must send it to Congress </li></ul><ul><li>If, within 60 days, neither house rejects it, it becomes law </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>State legislators determine how the districts will be drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the 435 seats represents about 650,000 Americans </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>State legislatures determine how the districts will be drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the 435 seats represents about 650,000 people </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reapportionment in Action <ul><li>1990 Census: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redrew districts, increasing representation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African-American representation went up by 50% and Hispanic representation went up by 70% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Shaw v. Reno </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of district was 160 miles down I-85...African-American majority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White voters challenged this (first African American representatives in Congress since Reconstruction) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Many felt that it was done to the advantage of African Americans and the disadvantage of White Americans </li></ul><ul><li>redistricting on race to be held to standard of strict scrutiny by district court(compelling State interest) and must be sure to comply witht the Voting Rights Act </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>It was redrawn a few times and eventually ended up with a plurality of white voters </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that racial gerrymandering can violate the Equal Protection Clause </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Population shifts in the past 20 years have given more seats in the House to Southern States while reducing the numbers from other regions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>House of Representative Leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership carries more power in the House than Senate because of House rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House leaders do the scheduling and determine how the rules should be applied </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Elected by whichever party has the majority </li></ul><ul><li>Presides over all House meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Uses her power to help pass legislation favored by her party </li></ul>
  16. 16. Speaker Continued <ul><li>Decides who shall be recognized to speak on the floor of the House, rules whether a motion is relevant and relates to the business at hand. Decides the committee to which new bills shall be assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Influences what bills are brought up for a vote and appoints the members of special and select committees </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speaker Continued <ul><li>Third in line to presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy Pelosi </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Majority Leader of the House <ul><li>keeps party members in line </li></ul><ul><li>helps determine party policy and legislative agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Majority elects this person. Usually becomes Speaker if something happens to the Speaker and that party is still in the majority. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Steny Hoyer </li></ul>
  20. 20. Minority Leader of the House <ul><li>Does the same as the Majority Leader, only for the minority party </li></ul><ul><li>John Boehner, From Ohio </li></ul>
  21. 21. Whips <ul><li>Keep members in line and loyal to the party agenda, helps leaders stay informed, rounds up members for votes, keep count of how voting on controversial issues is likely to go </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Cantor </li></ul>
  22. 22. Evolution of House <ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington, Adams, Jefferson and House overshadowed Senate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Phase II </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson asserted power of Presidency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Party Unity shattered by slavery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership of House remained weak </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Phase III </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker Rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of House gains power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Phase IV: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House Revolts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker loses power to appoint committee chairmen and be part of the rules committee </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Phase V: Members Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Committee chairmen had to be elected by members of the majority party, no longer by seniority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to make subcommittees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Phase VI </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efforts to restore power of the Speaker </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Issues or Terms that Relate to Just the Senate <ul><li>what are some? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Filibuster <ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a senator speaks with no intention of stopping. The intent is to delay a vote on a bill and tie up the work of Senate. This was a common and unpopular feature of Senate by the end of the 19th Century. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used heavily by isolationists to keep America out of WWI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Filibuster!! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Vote of Cloture (Rule 22) <ul><li>Way to end a filibuster. </li></ul><ul><li>Places a time limit on the consideration of a bill </li></ul><ul><li>1917 - way to stop isolationists </li></ul><ul><li>Votes of 60 members in Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult when two parties are evenly represented. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Senatorial Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President of the US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dick Cheney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t do much. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The majority party chooses one of its members, usually the person with the greatest seniority. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largely an honorific position required by the Constitution so that the Senate will have a presiding officer when the VP is not there. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Byrd, West Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Majority Leader (real leadership is in the hands of this person </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps determine party policy and legislative agenda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized first by floor debate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves the needs of other officers, gives choice committee assignments, materials, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harry Reid, Nevada </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Whips, AKA Assistant Party Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senator who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rounds up members for important votes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep count of how voting on controversial issues is likely to go </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kyl (Republican) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Durbin (Democratic) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. REVIEW <ul><li>Why do we have a bicameral legislature? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Reason </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>What congressional term are we currently in? </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>What are the names of the two senators from Virginia? </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>What was the Reapportionment Act of 1929? </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Name 5 informal qualifications for House and Senate </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Who holds the real leadership in Senate? </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>What is a continuos body? </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>How were senators originally elected? </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Define the theory of “descriptive representation” </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Name 4 of the jobs the Speaker of the House fulfills </li></ul>