Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. Chapter 12: The Media
  2. 2. What is mass media? <ul><li>Mass Media: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Means of communication that are technologically capable of reaching most people and economically affordable to most </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Important Journalism Periods <ul><li>Party Press </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians of various factions and parties created, sponsored, and controlled newspapers to further their interests </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists had the “Gazette of the United States” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans had the “National Gazette” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Popular Press </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in technology made possible the rise of self-supporting, mass readership daily newspapers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You attract a larger readership with sensationalism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>publishers could become strong political forces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Hearst to Remington - “you furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Magazines of Opinion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class was repelled by yellow journalism. These magazines discussed issues of public policy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now, the magazines that focus mainly on politics and government affairs account for only a small and declining portion of the national magazine market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Electronic Journalism <ul><li>1920s-Radio </li></ul><ul><li>1940s-TV </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts permit public officials to speak directly to the audiences without their remarks being filtered through editors and reporters </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2000, over half of all American households has at least one computer, 4/10 have the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Youtube debates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Action of the National Press <ul><li>Gatekeeper- </li></ul><ul><li>Influence what subjects become political issues and for how long. Auto safety, water pollution, quality of prescription drugs were not major political issues until the national press began giving them substantial attention. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Scorekeeper </li></ul><ul><li>keep track of and help political reputations, note who is being mentioned, help decide who is winning, who is losing </li></ul><ul><li>Watchdog - </li></ul><ul><li>Close scrutiny. Expose scandals </li></ul>
  11. 11. Equal Time Rule <ul><li>A FCC rule that says if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, he or she must sell equal time to other candidates </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Questions to ask about media bias </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do members of the media have a distinctive political attitude? -- **Great majority of journalists are liberal** </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does that attitude affect what they write or say? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does what they write or say affect what citizens believe? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Adversarial Press <ul><li>The tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Sensationalism in the media </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one reported FDR’s affair. JFK’s affair was not that big of a deal. MLK Jr’s affair also not a big deal in the media. Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are so many channels to chose from. A news-broadcast needs to get viewers somehow. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Bias <ul><li>Ideological Bias - Is it liberal or conservative? (FOX News, MSNBC, NPR) How do the journalists spin the issue? (As a whole, the media tends to be more liberal though) </li></ul><ul><li>Selection Bias - How do editors decide which stories to print. Are some more newsworthy than others? </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Bias - Journalists fight over stories. Who gets to be the one to break Watergate? Monica Lewinsky? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>let's take a look </li></ul>
  17. 17. Government Influence on the Media <ul><li>Newspapers are almost entirely free from government regulation. BUT they can be sued for libel, obscenity, or incitement of illegal act. </li></ul><ul><li>The FCC issues licenses that must be renewed periodically </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Stories <ul><li>Routine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regularly covered stories such as public events. These are clear and easily described. All journalists tend to report these similarly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Featured Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not routinely covered. These require reporter initiative. Selection might involve a reporter or editor’s perception of what is important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Insider Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating or political leaks. These require reporters to select which facts to use so the journalists or editors ideology might show </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Presidential Coverage is dominated by sound bites and photo ops, not necessarily the meat of the issue </li></ul><ul><li>What are some drawbacks? </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal slips </li></ul><ul><li>uh oh </li></ul><ul><li>and again </li></ul>