The Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Think Santa and His Elves </li></ul>
The Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>the BUREAUCRACY is a large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday bus...
What is a bureaucracy? <ul><li>an efficient and EFFECTIVE way to organize people to do work </li></ul><ul><li>There are th...
<ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
Major Elements of the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Nearly all agencies/divisions are located within the EXECUTIVE branch </...
<ul><li>Executive branch is composed of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Office of President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
Name Game <ul><li>DEPARTMENT is reserved for agencies of Cabinet rank </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Common titles for other agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrati...
<ul><li>Often they are refereed to by their titles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPA  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRS ...
Staff and Line Agencies <ul><li>Staff Agencies serve as SUPPORT.  They AID/HELP the President and other administrators by ...
Section 2:  The Executive Office of the President
<ul><li>Some 2.7 million men and women work in the Bush Administration.  </li></ul><ul><li>The executive office and the Ca...
<ul><li>Known as the NERVE CENTER of the executive office </li></ul><ul><li>Included in this are the President’s key perso...
National Security Council <ul><li>Helps the President in areas of FOREIGN affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Members include </li><...
<ul><li>In the past they have done covert operations, such as Iran-Contra </li></ul>
Office of Homeland Security <ul><li>Newest major agency </li></ul><ul><li>Created after 9/11 to keep the President fully a...
OMB <ul><li>Prepared the BUDGET, which the President must submit to Congress in January or February of each year </li></ul...
<ul><li>Each federal agency prepares detailed estimates that they give to the OMB.  Usually this amount is reduced </li></ul>
Section 3:  The Executive Departments
Executive Departments <ul><li>Much of the work of the federal government is done by the 15 executive departments </li></ul...
<ul><li>Each department is headed by a Secretary except the DOJ, which is headed by an  Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>An informal advisory board brought together to serve the President </li></ul><ul><li>It was created through CUSTOM...
<ul><li>Influences on Presidential choice </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help in Camp...
<ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>The two roles of the Cabinet are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The individual head of one of the executive departments...
Section 4:  Independent Agencies
<ul><li>Created by Congress and are located outside of the Departments.  </li></ul><ul><li>There are nearly 150 of these <...
<ul><li>They do not fit in well within one specific DEPARTMENT </li></ul><ul><li>To protect themselves from the influence ...
Independent Executive Agencies <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>PEACE CORP...
<ul><li>They do not have CABINET status </li></ul><ul><li>Some are far from the limelight, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>They are beyond the reach of presidential direction and control </li></ul><ul><li>To REGULATE or police important ...
<ul><li>Headed by a BOARD or commission, made up of 5-7 members appointed by the President with the Senate consent but hav...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Commission - ICC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feder...
<ul><li>Within the executive branch and are subject to the President’s CONTROL and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Created by ...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMTRAK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TVA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Section 5:  The Civil Service
<ul><li>Composed of those civilian employees who preform the administrative work of the government </li></ul>
<ul><li>Washington favored members of his own party </li></ul>Beginnings
Spoils System <ul><li>Jackson was the father of the SPOILS SYSTEM which is the practice of giving offices and other favors...
<ul><li>Reasons for the spoils system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any normal intelligent person can fill offices </li></ul><...
Movement to Reform <ul><li>Pendleton Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garfield was shot by a disappointed office seeker </li>...
Civil Service Today <ul><li>Office of Personnel Management OPM - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An independent agency that is t...
<ul><li>What does it do? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertises for employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMINISTER...
<ul><li>If there is a job opening the OPM will send that agency the names of the top three persons on its register for tha...
Political Activities <ul><li>HATCH ACT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent harmful political activities in the executive ...
<ul><li>Federal Employees Political Activities Act 1993- relaxed the Hatch Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Vote </li></u...
<ul><li>CANNOT: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>run in partisan elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>engage in party wo...
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Chapter 15, VA and US Government

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Chapter 15, VA and US Government

  1. 1. The Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Think Santa and His Elves </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>the BUREAUCRACY is a large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization (in this case, the United States Government) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a bureaucracy? <ul><li>an efficient and EFFECTIVE way to organize people to do work </li></ul><ul><li>There are three features of the American Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchal Authority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job Specialization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formalized Rules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Work done by UNELECTED policy makers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Elements of the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Nearly all agencies/divisions are located within the EXECUTIVE branch </li></ul><ul><li>This is the MACHINE through which the President exercises his/her power </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Executive branch is composed of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Office of President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 Cabinet Departments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large # of Independent Agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Name Game <ul><li>DEPARTMENT is reserved for agencies of Cabinet rank </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Justice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Interior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Defense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Common titles for other agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Often they are refereed to by their titles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TVA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Staff and Line Agencies <ul><li>Staff Agencies serve as SUPPORT. They AID/HELP the President and other administrators by offering advice and other assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Line Agencies actually perform the TASKS for which the organization exists </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 2: The Executive Office of the President
  12. 12. <ul><li>Some 2.7 million men and women work in the Bush Administration. </li></ul><ul><li>The executive office and the Cabinet are the central unit of this huge executive branch </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Known as the NERVE CENTER of the executive office </li></ul><ul><li>Included in this are the President’s key personnel and political staff </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Chief of Staff, Press Secretary </li></ul>White House Office
  14. 14. National Security Council <ul><li>Helps the President in areas of FOREIGN affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Members include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VP, Sec. of State, Sec. of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Director of the CIA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>In the past they have done covert operations, such as Iran-Contra </li></ul>
  16. 16. Office of Homeland Security <ul><li>Newest major agency </li></ul><ul><li>Created after 9/11 to keep the President fully aware of all ongoing efforts to protect this country against any and all acts of terrorism </li></ul>
  17. 17. OMB <ul><li>Prepared the BUDGET, which the President must submit to Congress in January or February of each year </li></ul><ul><li>The federal budget is an ESTIMATE of receipts and expenditures of the fiscal year </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Each federal agency prepares detailed estimates that they give to the OMB. Usually this amount is reduced </li></ul>
  19. 19. Section 3: The Executive Departments
  20. 20. Executive Departments <ul><li>Much of the work of the federal government is done by the 15 executive departments </li></ul><ul><li>Examples Include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Labor, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Homeland Security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Each department is headed by a Secretary except the DOJ, which is headed by an Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>Each department head is a primary link between PRESIDENTIAL POLICY and their own department </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSECRETARIES aid in the process and are appointed by President and confirmed by Senate </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>An informal advisory board brought together to serve the President </li></ul><ul><li>It was created through CUSTOM and usage </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the heads of the 15 departments and each head is subject to confirmation by Senate </li></ul>The Cabinet
  23. 23. <ul><li>Influences on Presidential choice </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help in Campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The two roles of the Cabinet are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The individual head of one of the executive departments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advise the President </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Section 4: Independent Agencies
  27. 27. <ul><li>Created by Congress and are located outside of the Departments. </li></ul><ul><li>There are nearly 150 of these </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>They do not fit in well within one specific DEPARTMENT </li></ul><ul><li>To protect themselves from the influence of POLITICAL PARTIES and specific POLITICIANS </li></ul><ul><li>By accident - no one thought these issues would ever come up </li></ul>Why do we have independent agencies?
  29. 29. Independent Executive Agencies <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>PEACE CORPS </li></ul><ul><li>CIVIL RIGHTS COMMISSION </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>They do not have CABINET status </li></ul><ul><li>Some are far from the limelight, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen’s Stamp Advisory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Battle Monuments Commission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>They are beyond the reach of presidential direction and control </li></ul><ul><li>To REGULATE or police important aspects of the nation’s economy </li></ul>Independent Regulatory Commission
  32. 32. <ul><li>Headed by a BOARD or commission, made up of 5-7 members appointed by the President with the Senate consent but have terms of great length </li></ul><ul><li>Appointments are staggered </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Commission - ICC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve - The Fed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Within the executive branch and are subject to the President’s CONTROL and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Congress to carry out certain business-like activities </li></ul>Government Corporations
  35. 35. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMTRAK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TVA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Postal Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FDIC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Section 5: The Civil Service
  37. 37. <ul><li>Composed of those civilian employees who preform the administrative work of the government </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Washington favored members of his own party </li></ul>Beginnings
  39. 39. Spoils System <ul><li>Jackson was the father of the SPOILS SYSTEM which is the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends </li></ul><ul><li>“To the victor goes the spoils” </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Reasons for the spoils system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any normal intelligent person can fill offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation in office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long service can lead to tyranny and inefficiency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Movement to Reform <ul><li>Pendleton Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garfield was shot by a disappointed office seeker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>laid the foundation of the current system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hiring for classified workers (upper levels) should be based on merit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Civil Service Today <ul><li>Office of Personnel Management OPM - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An independent agency that is the central CLEARINGHOUSE in the federal recruiting, examining, and hiring process of civil servants (those people who work for the government/bureaucrats) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>What does it do? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertises for employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADMINISTERS EXAMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INTERt and are VIEWS CANDIDATES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>list those applicants that pass its test and are qualified for employment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>If there is a job opening the OPM will send that agency the names of the top three persons on its register for that particular type of position </li></ul>
  45. 45. Political Activities <ul><li>HATCH ACT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent harmful political activities in the executive branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows federal workers to vote in elections, but it forbade them to take part in partisan political activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Federal Employees Political Activities Act 1993- relaxed the Hatch Act </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can help register new voters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can contribute money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can participate in campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can hold office in a political party </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>CANNOT: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>run in partisan elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>engage in party work on gov’t property or on the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect $ for politics from subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use government position to influence elections </li></ul></ul></ul>

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