IGCSE Language Exam How to answer Question 2 Writer’s style.
P.E.E. <ul><li>Q2 is really just an example of Point, Evidence, Explanation writing. </li></ul><ul><li>If you follow this format, you will ensure you cover the things the examiner is looking for. </li></ul><ul><li>The examiner wants to know what you are speaking about specifically – Point ; can you prove it – Evidence ; how it answers the question – Explanation </li></ul>
Example of an answer <ul><li>The writer uses a lot of colour adjectives to </li></ul><ul><li>describe the landscape around him , for example: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ golden-green’ and grey . This helps the reader to </li></ul><ul><li>visualize the scenery. Grey, is used to describe </li></ul><ul><li>the shadow, which may hint at something </li></ul><ul><li>mysterious. The writer also uses the repetition of </li></ul><ul><li>the words no : ‘ no sound and no movement ’ , to </li></ul><ul><li>help to establish how quiet and undisturbed this </li></ul><ul><li>place is. </li></ul>
Language/techniques used by writer <ul><li>Powerful words – either adjectives/verbs/adverbs . </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions using effective adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative language such as similes, metaphors, personification </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological effects (sound effects) such as alliteration, assonance, rhyme, onomatopoeia </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of words </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation: use of questions, exclamations </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence types: short/complex sentences. </li></ul>
Entering the American zone By referring closely to the language of the writer, show how she conveys: The attractions of the traditional eating establishments in Beirut. <ul><li>Adjectives: mouth-watering . delicious succulent, homemade, real to describe the food. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives used to describe the places: shabby (usually negative connotations but here it’s positive), bustling, comfortable, typical, open air, long established, barely fits (has positive connotations), cliff-top, cluster of old buildings, tucked out of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs/verbs: courteously, proudly , memorising (refers to service), crashes </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative language “King of the coast” is a metaphor, which descries the restaurant as great and the best. using superlatives cluttered watering hole (implies it is popular) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological effects: crash ’.(onomatopoeia) king of the coast –consonance, While watching the waves – alliteration </li></ul>
Entering the American Zone – Question 2 EXAMPLE 1 How does the writer convey the attractions of the traditional Beirut restaurants? In this article, the writer uses many language techniques to describe the attractions of the traditional eating establishments in Beirut. The writer uses many appealing adjectives to describe the food, such as “mouth – watering”, “delicious”, “real”, “homemade” and “succulent”. These are effective because they help the reader visualize the food and smell the aroma, but since the adjectives aren’t too detailed, they leave room for the imagination. They are also effective because they suggest that the western food is exactly the opposite, and so further increases the appeal. The writer also uses many adjectives such as “comfortable”, “typical”, “long-established” and “bustling” to create a homely, positive image of the traditional restaurants. But what is unusual and interesting is that the writer also uses adjectives that normally have negative connotations such as “shabby”, “cluster of old buildings” and “tucked out of sight to emphasise the cozy, intimate, personal atmosphere that are unique to the traditional restaurants in Beirut.
The writer also uses some adverbs and verbs such as “welcomes courteously”, “proudly” and “memorizing” to describe the sincere service provided by Charbel Bassil and the pride he feels. My favorite verb is “crash” because first of all it is also onomatopoeic and because it is such a strong verb and is appropriate in describing waves against rocks. It makes eating at a traditional restaurant seem like an exciting and thrilling experience. The writer uses figurative language such as the metaphorical “king of the coast” which also demonstrates the use of consonance. This is especially effective because ‘k’ is a very harsh and forceful sound and is suitable in this case in describing the dominance of Nasr. “Cluttered watering-hole” implies that the restaurant in question, Chez Andre, is extremely popular and is a life giving source.
The writer also uses phonological effects such as “while watching the waves” (alliteration) to describe the atmosphere and feel of traditional Beirut restaurants. This alliteration is effective because the ‘w’ sound is very soft and relaxing, just like the action it is describing. In conclusion, this article is an oasis of appealing adjectives, varying verbs, fantastic figurative language and phenomenal phonological effects. It therefore presents a very convincing argument that closing down the traditional Beirut restaurants and welcoming the American restaurants is a grave mistake .
Entering the American Zone: How does the writer convey the attractions of the traditional eating establishments in Beirut? Example 2 The writer often uses adjectives to describe traditional Beirut food. For example, sensory adjectives such as ‘mouth-watering’, ‘delicious’ and ‘succulent’ clearly tells us that Beirut food is tasty. Also, the writer uses adjectives such as ‘real’ and ‘homemade’ to convey the non-corporate and human manner in which traditional Lebanese food is served. To describe Lebanese restaurants, the writer uses adjectives such as ‘shabby’, ‘barely fits’, ‘cluster of old buildings’ and ‘tucked out of sight.’ It is important to note that these adjectives are most often used to describe negative connotations, but in this certain text, they are used in a positive way, as the writer condemns big-business corporate food chains. Both adverbs and verbs are frequently used by the writer to convey good qualities of the traditional Beirut restaurants. In particular, the writer pays homage to the service provided by the traditional eating establishments: examples include ‘courteously’, ‘proudly’ and ‘memorising’. The latter verb implies that the service provided by traditional restaurants is unique and unforgettable, unlike the robotic service present in American fast food restaurants.
Throughout the text, the writer effectively uses figurative language. ‘King of the coast’ is a metaphor used to convey how grand and successful the traditional restaurant was; it is also a superlative, as ‘King’ implies that it was the best among its competitors. Other metaphors, such as ‘cluttered watering-hole that is Chez Andre’ conveys the enduring popularity of traditional eating establishments, because ‘cluttered watering-hole’ invokes images of crowdedness.
Direct analysis language that will make you answer ‘sound’ right <ul><li>This illustrates …. because … </li></ul><ul><li>This shows … because … </li></ul><ul><li>The word/phrase “…” creates an image of … in the reader’s mind. </li></ul><ul><li>By comparison, the use of … conjures up an image of … </li></ul><ul><li>The writer’s use of adjectives/imagery/phonological devices … </li></ul>
Discourse markers <ul><li>Showing contrast – However, nonetheless </li></ul><ul><li>Showing contrast without contradiction – on the other hand, whereas, while </li></ul><ul><li>Showing additional information/ideas – Moreover, furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>Showing logical progression – Thus, therefore, as a result, consequently </li></ul>