“ Process” is preferable to “management function,” which can evoke ideas of control and top-down, one-way communications. “ Relationships” relates to public relations’ role in helping to bring together organizations and individuals with their key stakeholders. “ Publics” is preferable to “stakeholders,” as the former relates to the very “public” nature of public relations, whereas “stakeholders” has connotations of publicly-traded companies. As a management function, public relations also encompasses the following: Anticipating, analyzing and interpreting public opinion, attitudes and issues that might impact, for good or ill, the operations and plans of the organization. Counseling management at all levels in the organization with regard to policy decisions, courses of action and communication, taking into account their public ramifications and the organization’s social or citizenship responsibilities. Researching, conducting and evaluating, on a continuing basis, programs of action and communication to achieve the informed public understanding necessary to the success of an organization’s aims. These may include marketing; financial; fund raising; employee, community or government relations; and other programs. Planning and implementing the organization’s efforts to influence or change public policy. Setting objectives, planning, budgeting, recruiting and training staff, developing facilities — in short, managing the resources needed to perform all of the above.
This question aims to stimulate discussion of the essential elements of effective public relations, instead of memorizing any particular definition of public relations.
This question will stimulate discussion of the essential elements of effective public relations, instead of memorizing any particular definition of public relations.
Ch_1 What is Public Relations?
Ch 1: What isPublic Relations?
Overview● Challenges ● Public relations & journalism● Global scope ● Public relations & advertising● A variety of definitions ● Public relations & marketing● Public relations as a Process: ● An integrated perspective: R.A.C.E. Strategic communication● The components of public relations
The Challenge of Public Relations● PR is multifaceted- ○ Public relations professionals must have skills in: Written communication Interpersonal communication Research Negotiation Creativity Logistics Facilitation Problem solving Evaluation
A Variety of Definitions● A number of definitions have been formulated over the years. ○ Cutlip, Center, and Broom, Effective Public Relations Public relations is the management function that identifies, establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics on whom its success or failure depends. ○ Glen Cameron, University of Missouri Public Relations is the “strategic management of competition and conflict for the benefit of one’s own organization—and when possible—also for the mutual benefit of the organization and its various stakeholders or publics.”
The Official Definition● 2012 PRSA ○ “Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.” – focuses on the basic concept of public relations – as a communication process, one that is strategic in nature and emphasizing “mutually beneficial relationships.” – crowdsourced & public vote● 1987 PRSA ○ “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.”
What Do You Think?● What are the key terms used in the definitions that frame today’s modern PR?
Public Relations - Key Terms● Deliberate● Planned● Performance● Public interest● Two-way communication● Strategic management of competition and conflict
Global Scope● The public relations industry is growing in many nations. ○ Global public relations industry grew by slightly more than 8 percent in 2010, ending the year with fee income of at least $8.8 billion and employing about 60,000 people. ○ Edelman had the highest revenue for public relations agencies in 2010, with $531.5 million in income.● The average annual public relations budget in a publicly-owned company is $9.9 million.● The average annual public relations budget for a government agency is $16.4 million. Source: The Holmes Report - http://bit.ly/SBDk2s
PR in the US● Total communications spending, including advertising, marketing, and communications, increased 4.2% in 2011. ○ Expected to grow 5.6% this year (2012), outpacing GDP growth of 4.4%. ○ Predicted total communications spending will grow 31%, or by $343 billion, to $1.4 trillion by 2015.● Spending on traditional public relations services grew by 4.9 percent. ○ From 2005-10, to $3.7 billion.● Spending on combined public relations and word-of-mouth marketing spending will grow 14.6% this year.● Annual spending on traditional public relations services will increase at a compound annual growth rate of 8 percent, to $5.4 billion.● Annual spending on word of mouth marketing services will increase at a compound annual growth rate of 22.3 percent, to $5.6 billion. ○ Up from $2 billion in 2010. Study performed by Veronis Suhler Stevenson - http://vss.com
PR Employees● According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: ○ Over 7,000 public relations firms in the United States. ○ Community is even larger considering the public relations function within America’s: Corporations, government bodies, health care institutions, military branches, professional services firms, associations, nonprofit organizations, and other public and private entities.● In 2008 ○ 64,000 individuals employed as public relations managers (up from 63,000 in 2007). ○ 135,000 employed as public relations specialists (up from 132,000 in 2007).● Job titles vary greatly within the industry thus difficult to track. Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics - http://www.bls.gov/
Public Relations as a Process: RACEEvaluation rogra m Research g the P Eva luatin De ob Pr fin lem in s g PR Ex e cu t io n a nning am Pl ProgrCommunication Action
The Components of Public Relations● Counseling ● Workplace diversity● Research ● Special events● Media relations ● Marketing communications● Publicity/image building ● Speech writing● Employee/member relations ● Corporate communications● Community relations ● Public service● Public affairs/lobbying ● Image building● Government affairs ● Branding● Issue management ● Personal● Financial relations ● Advocacy● Industry relations ● Entertainment● Development ● Crisis● Multicultural relations ● Educational ● Many more….
Differences between Journalism and PR Journalists PR Professionals● Use only two components ● Use many components (writing and media relations) ● Are advocates● Are objective observers ● Focus on defined publics● Focus on a mass audience ● Use a variety of channels● Use only one channel
Differences between Advertising and PR Advertising Public Relations ● Works through mass media ● Relies on a variety of communication outlets tools ● Addresses external audiences ● Targets specialized audiences ● Is a communications function ● Is broader in scope ● Is a communication tool in PR ● Fills a support role ● Sells goods and services ● Creates a favorable environment for an organization’s survival
How PR Supports Marketing● Eight ways public relations supports marketing ○ Develops new prospects ○ Provides third party endorsements ○ Generates sales leads ○ Paves the way for sales calls ○ Stretches dollars ○ Provides inexpensive literature ○ Establishes credibility ○ Helps sell minor products
Differences between Marketing and PR M arketing Public Relations● Is concerned with customers •Is concerned with building relationships and the introduction for selling and generating goodwill products or services ●Deals with multiple publics, audiences,● Deals with target market, and stakeholders consumers, and customers
An Integrated Perspective: Strategic Communication● Concept of integration: ○ To use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms● Global/multicultural● Research based● Relationship focused● Internet/new media oriented● Toolbox-driven tactics