South America can be divided into
5 physiographic divisions.
The Amazon basin
The Andes MOUNTAINS
The Andes MOUNTAINS Run from NW Venezuela
to the southern tip of Tierra Del Fuego.
The mountain was formed by the subduction of
the Pacific plate beneath South American plate.
It is the world’s longest and second highest
Andes Mountains it stretches 4,500 miles from north
to south, along the west coast.
The longest continental mountain range in the world
The Andes is divided into three
– Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador
Central – Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia
Southern – defines the border between Chile
& Argentina (South of Santiago the
mountains are lower)
The Brazilian Highlands
One of the most
region of the continent,
occupying an area of
about 2 million sq. miles.
Also know as Brazilian
Plateau, it is made up of
Occupies the area of
Guyana, Suriname and
French Guiana, with parts
in Colombia, Venezuela
The region is very
sparsely populated. Angel
Falls can be found here.
The tallest waterfall in
Located in Venezuela.
Over 3,000 feet tall.
tropical grassland situated in between the
northern Andes and Guiana Highland.
Occupies a few million square km of
Venezuela and Colombia.
This region is characterized by seasonal
flooding, which can be as high as a meter.
The grasslands are being cleared for
agricultural purposes. Cowboy = Llaneros
Amazon River Basin
The 2nd longest river
in the world, the
largest by volume.
The width of the
Amazon River varies
from 1 mile wide to 130
miles wide and floods
The Amazon Rainforest
1.4 billion acres in 9
countries, the largest part
in Brazil. Deforestation is
About 20% of earth's
oxygen is produced by
the Amazon rainforest.
2 times the size of California
Climate: tropical, hot, humid
Population: 28 million
Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, Arab, German, African,
indigenous people Languages: Spanish
Religion: 96% Roman Catholic
Venezuela’s capital and
largest city located near
the coast, separated by
the Cordillera de la
The metropolitan area
has a population of
more than 4 million.
often go to war with other villages and
40% of adult males have killed someone.
Women marry at a young age to males who
are chosen for them.
Live in the rain
forests of Venezuela
and northern Brazil,
Mining in Venezuela Iron ore and gold are mined in
Venezuela. Irresponsible mining has caused
damage to the rain forests and flooding. Acid runoff
from mines poisons streams.
Oil – Venezuela has the biggest oil reserves outside
of the Middle East. Oil was discovered under Lake
Maracaibo in 1917. They have come to depend too
heavily on their oil production and the economy is
greatly affected by the rise and fall of oil prices.
Twice the size of Texas.
The only South American country with
coastlines on both the North Pacific
Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%,
Religion: 90% Catholic
Agriculture in Colombia
is very diverse due to
the extremes of climate
flowers, bananas, rice,
vegetables, and forest
products are some of
the crops grown.
Flower Industry in Colombia
Colombia is the world’s 2nd largest exporter of
flowers with over 1 billion annually. Over 75% of
these are sent to the U.S.
The Andes Mountains divide the
This physical division
creating conflict about
how they should be
Violence in Colombia
A four-decade long conflict between government
forces and anti-government insurgent groups,
heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during
the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or
popular support necessary to overthrow the
government, and violence has been decreasing
since about 2002. However, insurgents continue
attacks against civilians and large areas of the
countryside are under guerrilla influence or are
contested by security forces.
With a population of
people, Bogota sits
feet above sea level in
the Colombian Andes.
Mexico City and New
York City are the only
North American cities
larger than Bogotá .
Area : 110,000 sq. miles
Population : 15 million
Frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
60,000 mi 2 of rain forest 18% of Ecuador is
protected 4 World Heritage Sites
Currency : US $ Dollar
Language : Spanish
Ethnic groups : mestizo 65%, Amerindian 25%,
slightly smaller than Alaska
Climate: tropical coastal, dry desert, frigid
The source of the Amazon River is here.
Population: 30 million Amerindian 45%,
Mestizo 37%, white 15%
Religion: 94% Christian
Very high risk of infectious disease
of Peru is located at sea level
Lima is the international air entrance to
Peru City of museums Rich in colonial
about 3 times the size of Montana
Population: 10 million
Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Mestizo 30%,
Aymara 25%, white 15%
Languages: Spanish (official) 61%, Quechua
(official) 21%, Aymara (official) 15%
Religion: 100% Catholics
Bolivian Economy is one of the poorest and least
developed countries in Latin America. 51% live below the
-represents the forests of the country
Yellow rhombus- its mineral wealth;
Blue circle and stars - depict the sky over
Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15
November 1889 - The number of stars has
changed with the creation of new states and
has risen from an original 21 to the current 27
is the largest country in South America.
It is the 5th largest county in the world, and
only slightly smaller than the U.S.
The Amazon Rain Forest covers about 1/3 of
South America and is the largest rain forest in
approximately 200 million (5 th
highest in the world)
Ethnic Groups: White 53.7%, Mulatto
(mixed white and black) 38.5%, Black 6.2%
About 25% of Brazilians are farmers.
About 80% live in cities
Official language: Portuguese
Religion: 90% Catholics
is believed to have the largest
populations of indigenous people living in
isolation from the outside world.
of them have no knowledge
whatsoever of life outside of their villages.
Others are being pushed out of their native
lands by illegal logging.
Sao Paolo is the largest
city in Brazil and the
largest in the Southern
In Sao Paolo, about 4
million people live in
Rio de Janeiro
The former capital of Brazil
and is the most-visited city
in South America.
overlooking Rio is the
largest art deco statue in
the world, at 130 feet tall.
It is made of reinforced
and was constructed in the
festive season celebrated in Catholic
countries and occurs immediately before Lent
Carnival includes parades and street parties.
People often dress in masquerade. Rio’s
carnival is sometimes called the “biggest
party in the world.”
of Brazil Characterized by large
and well-developed agricultural, mining,
manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's
economy outweighs that of all other South
In 2011, it became the 7th largest economy in
the world based on GDP. Agricultural
products include: coffee, soybeans, wheat,
rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Occupies the area of
Chile, Argentina, Peru
It is the driest desert
of the world.
In some areas, no rain
has ever been
Population: 3.3 million
Ethnic Groups: White 88%, Mestizo 8%, black
Languages: Spanish (official), Portunol , and
Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mixes)
81% Christian, 17% atheist or
agnostic Literacy: 98%
Education: 16 years
of Uruguay – characterized by an
export-oriented agricultural sector, a welleducated work force, and high levels of social
3/4 of the country in Uruguay is grassland,
ideal for raising cattle and sheep. Uruguay
has more cattle than people. It is one of the
world’s largest exporters of wool.
Size: Slightly smaller than California
Population: 6.5 million
Ethnic Groups: Mestizo 95%
Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Religion: 97% Christian
Education: 12 years
One of the region's poorest and least-developed
Ethnic Groups: White and White-Amerindian
95.4%, Mapuche 4%
Languages: Spanish (official), Mapudungun,
Religion: 86% Christian
of Chile a market-oriented
economy characterized by a high level of
foreign trade and a reputation for strong
financial institutions. Chile is the world’s
largest exporter of copper. Fruits grow well
in the central valleys, including peaches,
nectarines, apples, pears, and plums. Some
of the best vineyards in the world are located
make up Chile's largest
centuries. Most of
Population: 42 million
Ethnic Groups: White (mostly Spanish and Italian)
Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English,
German, French, indigenous
Religion: 94% Christian, but most of those are nonpracticing Catholics
Literacy: 97% Education: average of 16 years
(college education is free at state universities)
of Argentina benefits from rich
natural resources, a highly literate population,
an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
diversified industrial base. Many of the
major car companies have plants in
Argentina. This is GM chassis in production.
Sunflowers are grown to produce sunflower
300,000 sq miles. High winds and wildfires
are common. Gauchos are the SA version of
cowboys and are a symbol of Argentinean