South America


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South America

  2. 2. Map of SA
  3. 3. South America can be divided into 5 physiographic divisions.      The Andes Brazilian Highlands Guiana Highlands The Amazon basin The Deserts
  4. 4. The Andes MOUNTAINS      The Andes MOUNTAINS Run from NW Venezuela to the southern tip of Tierra Del Fuego. The mountain was formed by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath South American plate. It is the world’s longest and second highest mountain range. Andes Mountains it stretches 4,500 miles from north to south, along the west coast. The longest continental mountain range in the world
  5. 5. Andes Mountain
  6. 6. The Andes is divided into three sub regions:  Northern – Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador  Central – Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia  Southern – defines the border between Chile & Argentina (South of Santiago the mountains are lower)
  7. 7. The Brazilian Highlands One of the most important physiographical region of the continent, occupying an area of about 2 million sq. miles. Also know as Brazilian Plateau, it is made up of basaltic lava.
  8. 8. Guiana Highlands   Occupies the area of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, with parts in Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. The region is very sparsely populated. Angel Falls can be found here.
  9. 9. Angel Falls   The tallest waterfall in the world. Located in Venezuela. Over 3,000 feet tall.
  10. 10. Llanos A tropical grassland situated in between the northern Andes and Guiana Highland.  Occupies a few million square km of Venezuela and Colombia.  This region is characterized by seasonal flooding, which can be as high as a meter.  The grasslands are being cleared for agricultural purposes. Cowboy = Llaneros
  11. 11. Llanos
  12. 12. Amazon River Basin The 2nd longest river in the world, the largest by volume.
  13. 13. Amazon River  The width of the Amazon River varies from 1 mile wide to 130 miles wide and floods during the rainy season.
  14. 14. Amazon Rainforest   The Amazon Rainforest 1.4 billion acres in 9 countries, the largest part in Brazil. Deforestation is threatening many species. About 20% of earth's oxygen is produced by the Amazon rainforest.
  15. 15. VENEZUELA
  16. 16.  About 2 times the size of California  Climate: tropical, hot, humid  Population: 28 million  Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people Languages: Spanish  Religion: 96% Roman Catholic
  17. 17. Caracas   Venezuela’s capital and largest city located near the coast, separated by the Cordillera de la Costa. The metropolitan area has a population of more than 4 million.
  18. 18. Population  Males often go to war with other villages and 40% of adult males have killed someone. Women marry at a young age to males who are chosen for them.
  19. 19. Yanomami  Live in the rain forests of Venezuela and northern Brazil, population: 30,000. Yanomami means “human beings.”
  20. 20. Yanomani
  21. 21.   Mining in Venezuela Iron ore and gold are mined in Venezuela. Irresponsible mining has caused damage to the rain forests and flooding. Acid runoff from mines poisons streams. Oil – Venezuela has the biggest oil reserves outside of the Middle East. Oil was discovered under Lake Maracaibo in 1917. They have come to depend too heavily on their oil production and the economy is greatly affected by the rise and fall of oil prices.
  22. 22. Oil and Mining in Venezuela
  23. 23. COLOMBIA
  24. 24. Twice the size of Texas.  The only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea  Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%  Language: Spanish  Religion: 90% Catholic 
  25. 25. Agriculture in Colombia  Colombian agriculture is very diverse due to the extremes of climate zones. Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables, and forest products are some of the crops grown.
  26. 26. Flower Industry in Colombia  Colombia is the world’s 2nd largest exporter of flowers with over 1 billion annually. Over 75% of these are sent to the U.S.
  27. 27. The Andes Mountains divide the country.  This physical division isolates people, creating conflict about how they should be governed.
  28. 28. Violence in Colombia  A four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002. However, insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces.
  29. 29. Violence in Colombia
  30. 30. Bogotá  With a population of about 8.8 million people, Bogota sits approximately 8,660 feet above sea level in the Colombian Andes. Mexico City and New York City are the only North American cities larger than Bogotá .
  31. 31. ECUADOR
  32. 32.        Area : 110,000 sq. miles Population : 15 million Frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, floods 60,000 mi 2 of rain forest 18% of Ecuador is protected 4 World Heritage Sites Currency : US $ Dollar Language : Spanish Ethnic groups : mestizo 65%, Amerindian 25%, European 7%
  33. 33. Peru
  34. 34.  Size: slightly smaller than Alaska  Climate: tropical coastal, dry desert, frigid mountain  The source of the Amazon River is here.  Population: 30 million Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, white 15%  Language: Spanish  Religion: 94% Christian  Very high risk of infectious disease
  35. 35. Lima  Capital of Peru is located at sea level  Lima is the international air entrance to Peru City of museums Rich in colonial architecture.
  36. 36. Lima
  37. 37. Uros People
  38. 38.  Size: about 3 times the size of Montana  Population: 10 million  Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Mestizo 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%  Languages: Spanish (official) 61%, Quechua (official) 21%, Aymara (official) 15%  Religion: 100% Catholics
  39. 39. Economy  Bolivian Economy is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. 51% live below the poverty line
  40. 40. La Paz
  41. 41. La Luna Valley  a unique phenomenon caused by the erosion of most of a clay mountain, less than 10 miles from La Paz.
  42. 42. North Yungas Road  Connects La Paz to the Bolivian jungle. It is called death road and is considered the most dangerous road in the world.
  43. 43. Death Road
  44. 44. BRAZIL
  45. 45. Flag  Green -represents the forests of the country and the  Yellow rhombus- its mineral wealth;  Blue circle and stars - depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - The number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27
  46. 46.  Brazil is the largest country in South America. It is the 5th largest county in the world, and only slightly smaller than the U.S.  The Amazon Rain Forest covers about 1/3 of South America and is the largest rain forest in the world.
  47. 47.  Population: approximately 200 million (5 th highest in the world)  Ethnic Groups: White 53.7%, Mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, Black 6.2% About 25% of Brazilians are farmers.  About 80% live in cities  Official language: Portuguese  Religion: 90% Catholics
  48. 48.  Brazil is believed to have the largest populations of indigenous people living in isolation from the outside world.  Some of them have no knowledge whatsoever of life outside of their villages. Others are being pushed out of their native lands by illegal logging.
  49. 49. Indigenous People in Brazil
  50. 50. Brasília  Capital city
  51. 51. Sao Paolo   Sao Paolo is the largest city in Brazil and the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. In Sao Paolo, about 4 million people live in complete poverty.
  52. 52. Rio de Janeiro    The former capital of Brazil and is the most-visited city in South America. Christ the Redeemer overlooking Rio is the largest art deco statue in the world, at 130 feet tall. It is made of reinforced concrete and soapstone, and was constructed in the 1920’s.
  53. 53. Carnival A festive season celebrated in Catholic countries and occurs immediately before Lent in February.  Carnival includes parades and street parties. People often dress in masquerade. Rio’s carnival is sometimes called the “biggest party in the world.”
  54. 54.  Economy of Brazil Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries.  In 2011, it became the 7th largest economy in the world based on GDP. Agricultural products include: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
  55. 55. Atacama Desert    Occupies the area of Chile, Argentina, Peru and Bolivia It is the driest desert of the world. In some areas, no rain has ever been recorded.
  56. 56. Uruguay
  57. 57. URUGUAY Population: 3.3 million  Ethnic Groups: White 88%, Mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent) Languages: Spanish (official), Portunol , and Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mixes)  Religion: 81% Christian, 17% atheist or agnostic Literacy: 98%  Education: 16 years 
  58. 58.  Economy of Uruguay – characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a welleducated work force, and high levels of social spending.  3/4 of the country in Uruguay is grassland, ideal for raising cattle and sheep. Uruguay has more cattle than people. It is one of the world’s largest exporters of wool.
  59. 59. PARAGUAY
  60. 60.         Size: Slightly smaller than California Population: 6.5 million Ethnic Groups: Mestizo 95% Languages: Spanish (official), Guarani (official) Religion: 97% Christian Literacy: 94% Education: 12 years One of the region's poorest and least-developed countries
  61. 61. CHILE
  62. 62.  Population: 17 million  Ethnic Groups: White and White-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%  Languages: Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English  Religion: 86% Christian  Literacy: 96%
  63. 63.  Economy of Chile a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions. Chile is the world’s largest exporter of copper. Fruits grow well in the central valleys, including peaches, nectarines, apples, pears, and plums. Some of the best vineyards in the world are located near Santiago.
  64. 64. Mapuches  make up Chile's largest ethnic group, approximately 600,000. They have been struggling for independence for centuries. Most of them live on reservations in southern
  65. 65. ARGENTINA
  66. 66.      Population: 42 million Ethnic Groups: White (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous Religion: 94% Christian, but most of those are nonpracticing Catholics Literacy: 97% Education: average of 16 years (college education is free at state universities)
  67. 67.  Economy of Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Many of the major car companies have plants in Argentina. This is GM chassis in production. Sunflowers are grown to produce sunflower oil.
  68. 68. Pampas  fertile lowlands, covering almost 300,000 sq miles. High winds and wildfires are common. Gauchos are the SA version of cowboys and are a symbol of Argentinean tradition.
  69. 69. Pampas
  70. 70. Tierra del Fuego  an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The islands are shared between Chile and Argentina.
  71. 71. Falkland Islands
  72. 72.  an archipelago of almost 800 islands about 300 miles east of South America. It is a territory of the U.K., although Argentina attempted to invade it in 1982. Only about 3,000 people live here.