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Jose de Galvez came up with a plan:<br />Set up missions in California!<br />
Missions are religious settlements where Spanish priests taught Native Americans the Roman Catholic faith.<br />Missionaries were <br />the priests at the <br />missions.<br />
Galvez asked priest Junipero Serra <br />to set up the missions and <br />Gaspar de Portola to lead <br />the expedition.<br />They called it a “Sacred Expedition”.<br />3 groups went by sea and 2 by land to San Diego from Baja California.<br />
Junipero Serra began building the 1st mission in SanDiego in 1769. <br />He named it San Diego de Alcala.<br />
Portola and Father Crespi led an expedition to Monterey Bay.<br />
They marched north past LA, Santa Barbara and San Simeon all the way to the Santa Clara Valley and San Francisco. Later this route was named El Camino Real (or The Kings Highway).<br />
Although the expedition passed Monterey Bay, they didn’t realize it. They turned around and returned to San Diego In January, 1770.<br />Later that year (April) they tried again, this time with Father Serra along.<br />
This time they reached it (in June).<br />Father Serra founded the second mission in Monterey . He called it San Carlos Borromeo.<br />
In total 21 missions <br />were founded from <br />San Diego to Sonoma.<br />
Life at the Missions<br />Life at the missions involved farming and religious services.<br />
Daily life was like this:<br />After breakfast: church and learning about Christianity<br />Morning: Work (farming, carpentry, blacksmithing, making things the mission needed)<br />Lunchtime: More prayers<br />Evening: More work or choir practice. <br />
Native Americans Revolt<br />Once Native Americans came to live at a mission, or was born in a mission, they were called neophytes.<br />Native Americans born in the missions were not allowed to leave or go outside of the mission until they were 7 years old.<br />
Many Native Americans did not like living at the missions. They would pretend not to understand Spanish, broke tools, refused to work on purpose, ran away, stole horses and cattle, or attacked the padres.<br />
Some Native Americans began to organize revolts, or organized attacks on the missions.<br />Toypurina<br />