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Ne#lix	  Cloud	  Architecture	   Velocity	  Conference	  June	  14,	  2011	               Adrian	  Cockcro=	    @adrianco	...
Who,	  Why,	  What	             Ne#lix	  in	  the	  Cloud	     Cloud	  Challenges	  and	  Learnings	                     (...
Ne#lix	  Inc.	       With	  more	  than	  23	  million	  subscribers	  in	  the	  United	       States	  and	  Canada,	  N...
Unlimited	  streaming	  for	  $7.99/month,	  large	  and	  growing	  catalog	  of	  movies	  and	  TV	  
Adrian	  Cockcro=	  •  Director,	  Architecture	  for	  Cloud	  Systems,	  Ne#lix	  Inc.	        –  Previously	  Director	...
Why	  is	  Ne#lix	  Talking	  about	                 Cloud?	  
Ne#lix	  is	  Path-­‐finding	     The	  Cloud	  ecosystem	  is	  evolving	  very	  fast	  Share	  with	  and	  learn	  from...
We	  want	  to	  use	  clouds,	               not	  build	  them	     Cloud	  technology	  should	  be	  a	  commodity	  P...
Why	  Use	  Cloud?	                           	          For	  Be@er	  Business	  Agility	  For	  Unpredictable	  Business...
Data	  Center	                  Ne#lix	  could	  not	                                       build	  new	                  ...
23	  Million	  Customers	                          2011-­‐Q1	  year/year	  customers	  +69%	  	            25	            ...
Out-­‐Growing	  Data	  Center	               h@p://techblog.ne#lix.com/2011/02/redesigning-­‐ne#lix-­‐api.html   	        ...
Ne#lix.com	  is	  now	  ~100%	  Cloud	     Account	  sign-­‐up	  is	  currently	  being	  moved	  to	  cloud	       All	  ...
Leverage	  AWS	  Scale	     “the	  biggest	  public	  cloud”	         AWS	  investment	  in	  tooling	  and	  automaOon	  ...
Leverage	  AWS	  Feature	  Set	        “the	  market	  leader”	  EC2,	  S3,	  SDB,	  SQS,	  EBS,	  EMR,	  ELB,	  ASG,	  IA...
“The	  cloud	  lets	  its	  users	  focus	           on	  delivering	  differenAaAng	           business	  value	  instead	...
We	  want	  to	  use	  clouds,	  we	  don’t	  have	  Ome	  to	  build	  them	                    Public	  cloud	  for	  ag...
Ne#lix	  EC2	  Instances	  per	  Account	            (summer	  2010,	  producOon	  is	  much	  higher	  now…)	  “Many	  Th...
Ne#lix	  Deployed	  on	  AWS	  Content	            Logs	             Play	          WWW	             API	      Video	     ...
Cloud	  Encoding	  Pipeline	                                                                     Encode	       S3	      En...
Cloud	  Architecture	           Ignite!	  
Product	  Trade-­‐off	  User	  Experience	     ImplementaOon	    Consistent	           Development	    Experience	         ...
Ne#lix	  Cloud	  Goals	  •  Faster	       –  Lower	  latency	  than	  the	  equivalent	  datacenter	  web	  pages	  and	  ...
Old	  Datacenter	  vs.	  New	  Cloud	  Arch	      Central	  SQL	  Database	          Distributed	  Key/Value	  NoSQL	   SO...
The	  Central	  SQL	  Database	  •  Datacenter	  has	  a	  central	  database	     –  Everything	  in	  one	  place	  is	 ...
The	  Distributed	  Key-­‐Value	  Store	  •  Cloud	  has	  many	  key-­‐value	  data	  stores	      –  More	  complex	  to...
The	  SOcky	  Session	  •  Datacenter	  SOcky	  Load	  Balancing	     –  Efficient	  caching	  for	  low	  latency	     –  T...
The	  Shared	  Session	  •  Cloud	  Uses	  Round-­‐Robin	  Load	  Balancing	      –  Simple	  request-­‐based	  code	     ...
Cha@y	  Opaque	  and	  Bri@le	  Protocols	  •  Datacenter	  service	  protocols	      –  Assumed	  low	  latency	  for	  m...
Robust	  and	  Flexible	  Protocols	  •  Cloud	  service	  protocols	     –  JSR311/Jersey	  is	  used	  for	  REST/HTTP	 ...
Persisted	  Protocols	  •  Persist	  Avro	  in	  Memcached	     –  Save	  space/latency	  (zigzag	  encoding,	  half	  the...
Tangled	  Service	  Interfaces	  •  Datacenter	  implementaOon	  is	  exposed	     –  Oracle	  SQL	  queries	  mixed	  int...
Untangled	  Service	  Interfaces	  •  New	  Cloud	  Code	  With	  Strict	  Layering	      –  Compile	  against	  interface...
Untangled	  Service	  Interfaces	  Two	  layers:	  •  SAL	  -­‐	  Service	  Access	  Library	      –  Basic	  serializaOon...
Service	  InteracOon	  Pa@ern	      Sample	  Swimlane	  Diagram	  
Service	  Architecture	  Pa@erns	  •  Internal	  Interfaces	  Between	  Services	     –  Common	  pa@erns	  as	  templates...
CLIENT	                                                                    Request	  Start	                               ...
Boundary	  Interfaces	  •  Isolate	  teams	  from	  external	  dependencies	     –  Fake	  SAL	  built	  by	  cloud	  team...
One	  Object	  That	  Does	  Everything	  •  Datacenter	  uses	  a	  few	  big	  complex	  objects	      –  Movie	  and	  ...
An	  Interface	  For	  Each	  Component	  •  Cloud	  uses	  faceted	  Video	  and	  Visitor	      –  Basic	  types	  hold	...
So=ware	  Architecture	  Pa@erns	  •  Object	  Models	     –  Basic	  and	  derived	  types,	  facets,	  serializable	    ...
Ne#lix	  Systems	  Architecture	  
API	   AWS	  EC2	                                           Front	  End	  Load	  Balancer	               Discovery	       ...
Database	  MigraOon	  •  Why	  SimpleDB?	      –  No	  DBA’s	  in	  the	  cloud,	  Amazon	  hosted	  service	      –  Work...
Cloud	  OperaOons	    Model	  Driven	  Architecture	  Capacity	  Planning	  &	  Monitoring	  
Tools	  and	  AutomaOon	  •  Developer	  and	  Build	  Tools	       –  Jira,	  Perforce,	  Eclipse,	  Jenkins,	  Ivy,	  Ar...
Model	  Driven	  Architecture	  •  Datacenter	  PracOces	     –  Lots	  of	  unique	  hand-­‐tweaked	  systems	     –  Har...
High	  Availability	  Zones	  •  Each	  zone	  is	  a	  separate	  datacenter	      –  Private	  power,	  cooling,	  netwo...
Cross	  Region	  Backups	  •  Data	  is	  backed	  up	  into	  a	  different	  cloud	  region	      –  Different	  AWS	  S3	...
Model	  Driven	  ImplicaOons	  •  Automated	  “Least	  Privilege”	  Security	     –  Tightly	  specified	  security	  group...
Ne#lix	  App	  Console	  
Auto	  Scale	  Group	  ConfiguraOon	  
Learnings	  •  Datacenter	  oriented	  tools	  don’t	  work	       –  Ephemeral	  instances	       –  High	  rate	  of	  c...
Capacity	  Planning	  &	  Monitoring	  
Capacity	  Planning	  in	  Clouds	                       (a	  few	  things	  have	  changed…)	  •    Capacity	  is	  expen...
Monitoring	  Issues	  •  Problem	     –  Too	  many	  tools,	  each	  with	  a	  good	  reason	  to	  exist	     –  Hard	 ...
Data	  Sources	                                        • External	  URL	  availability	  and	  latency	  alerts	  and	  re...
AppDynamics	          How	  to	  look	  deep	  inside	  your	  cloud	  applicaOons	  •  AutomaOc	  Monitoring	     –  Base...
Using	  AppDynamics	  (simple	  example	  from	  early	  2010)	  
Point	  Finger	  and	  Assess	  Impact	   (an	  async	  S3	  write	  was	  slow,	  no	  big	  deal)	  
Monitoring	  Summary	  •  Broken	  datacenter	  oriented	  tools	  is	  a	  big	  problem	  •  IntegraOng	  many	  differen...
Wrap	  Up	  
ImplicaOons	  for	  IT	  OperaOons	  •  Cloud	  is	  run	  by	  developer	  organizaOon	      –  Our	  IT	  department	  i...
Next	  Few	  Years…	  •  “System	  of	  Record”	  moves	  to	  Cloud	  (now)	        –  Master	  copies	  of	  data	  live...
Takeaway	                                  	  Ne9lix	  is	  path-­‐finding	  the	  use	  of	  public	  AWS	   cloud	  to	  ...
Amazon Cloud Terminology                                   See http://aws.amazon.com/jp for Japanese                      ...
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Next  Few  Years…  •  “System Netflix Velocity Conference 2011

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Next  Few  Years…  •  “System  of  Record”  moves  to  Cloud  (now)   –  Master  copies  of  data  live  only  in  the  cloud,  with  backups   –  Cut  the  datacenter  to  cloud  replicaOon  link,  turn  off  Oracle  databases  •  InternaOonal  Expansion  –  Global  Clouds  (later  in  2011)   –  Rapid  deployments  to  new  markets  •  Cloud  StandardizaOon?   –  Cloud  features  and  APIs  should  be  a  commodity  not  a  differenOator   –  DifferenOate  on  scale  and  quality  of  service   –  CompeOOon  and  scale  drives  cost  down   –  Higher  resilience  and  scalability     We  would  prefer  to  be  an  insignificant  customer  in  a  giant  cloud  

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