Present perfect rules


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Present perfect rules

  2. 2. Songs U2 Creedence
  3. 3. <ul><li>I have climbed highest mountain I have run through the fields Only to be with you Only to be with you I have run I have crawled I have scaled these city walls These city walls Only to be with you But I still haven't found what I'm looking for ( 2X ) </li></ul><ul><li>I have kissed honey lips Felt the healing in her fingertips It burned like fire This burning desire </li></ul><ul><li>I have spoke with the tongue of angels I have held the hand of a devil It was warm in the night I was cold as a stone But I still haven't found what I'm looking for ( 2X ) I believe in the kingdom come Then all the colors will bleed into one Bleed into one Well yes I'm still running You broke the bonds and you Loosed the chains Carried the cross Of my shame Of my shame You know I believed it But I still haven't found what I'm looking for </li></ul>I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For
  4. 4. HAVE YOU EVER SEEN THE RAIN ? <ul><li>Someone told me long ago </li></ul><ul><li>There's a calm before the storm, I know; It's been comin' for some time. When it's over, so they say, It'll rain a sunny day, I know; Shinin' down like water. </li></ul><ul><li>CHORUS: I want to know, Have you ever seen the rain? I want to know, Have you ever seen the rain Comin' down on a sunny day? </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday, and days before, Sun is cold and rain is hard, I know; Been that way for all my time. 'Til forever, on it goes Through the circle, fast and slow, I know; It can't stop, I wonder. </li></ul><ul><li>CHORUS </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah! </li></ul><ul><li>CHORUS </li></ul>
  5. 5. The formula of P.P.T. is this : Have ______________ Has Past participle + They have been to N.Y. She has eaten frog´s leg. You haven’t studied a lot.
  6. 6. past participle <ul><li>see saw seen </li></ul><ul><li>buy bought bought </li></ul><ul><li>go went gone </li></ul><ul><li>eat ate eaten </li></ul><ul><li>come came come </li></ul><ul><li>swim swam swum </li></ul>
  7. 7. Contracted forms <ul><li>I’ve </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve </li></ul><ul><li>He’s </li></ul><ul><li>She’s seen a ghost </li></ul><ul><li>it’s </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve </li></ul>
  8. 8. Interrogative form <ul><li>You have traveled to Japan twice. (aff) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you traveled to Japan twice? </li></ul><ul><li>(interrogative) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Have you traveled to Japan twice? <ul><li>Yes, I have. </li></ul><ul><li>No, I haven’t. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Negative form <ul><li>I have visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I have .... visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I have NOT visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t seen you for weeks ! </li></ul><ul><li>He hasn’t arrived home. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Indefinite time <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that happened in the past but we don’t know exactly when. ( indefinitive time ). The verb in Portuguese is in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>He has bought a car. ( When ? ) </li></ul><ul><li>They have been to Europe. ( When ? ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Indefinite Time I have been to New York. ( When ?? ) She has eaten frog´s leg. ( When ?? )
  13. 13. An action started in the past <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. (the verb in Portuguese is in the present). </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve lived in Limeira for three years. </li></ul><ul><li>She has studied English since January. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>I have worked here since last year. </li></ul><ul><li>( How long? ) </li></ul><ul><li>She has played tennis for 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>( How long? ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. SINCE FOR I have studied here since 1.999. I have studied here for 5 years.
  16. 16. PRESENT PERFECT + for, since Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its starting point , with since + a point in time . Since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock .
  17. 17. SINCE I’ve ridden a bike since I was a child. I’ve ridden a bike since I was 12.
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>She has lived here since 1980. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have taught at this school since 1965. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice has been married since March 2nd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have been at the hotel since last week. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month , for hours, for two hours .
  20. 20. FOR They’ve been married for 1 year. They’ve dated for 3 years.
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>She has lived here for twenty years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have taught at this school for a long time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice has been married for three months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have been at the hotel for a week. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>For and since can both be used with the past perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past </li></ul>
  24. 24. An action just completed <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that has just been completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>He has just arrived . </li></ul><ul><li>They have just finished their exercises. </li></ul>
  25. 25. JUST I have just finished my exercise. He has just had lunch.
  26. 26. A time not finished <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that finished, in a time that hasn’t finished yet.( The verb in Portuguese is in the past ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve been to the movies today. </li></ul><ul><li>She has done the shopping this afternoon. </li></ul>
  27. 27. This / Today They are used to identify a time that began in the past and hasn’t finished yet.
  28. 28. I have watched “ Harry Potter ” this year. She has seen Tony this weekend. I have been to school today . Today she has studied a lot.
  29. 29. I went to school this morning. I have gone to school this morning. Which one is correct? ?
  30. 30. BOTH are correct !! I went to school this morning. ( now is more than midday, the morning has already finished !!) I have gone to school this morning. ( now is still morning, it hasn’t finished yet !!)
  31. 31. J ust E ver A lready N ever S ince F or Y et Pay attention to these words :
  32. 32. YET Have you taken a shower yet ? No, I haven’t taken it yet . INTERROGATIVE YET NEGATIVE
  33. 33. YET <ul><li>We use yet to show that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Has it stopped raining yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you finished the homework y et ? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet . </li></ul>
  34. 34. ALREADY I have already taken a shower. AFFIRMATIVE ALREADY INTERROGATIVE
  35. 35. ALREADY <ul><li>We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to post the letter ! I’ve already posted it. </li></ul><ul><li>What time is Mark leaving ? He’s already gone . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition. <ul><li>I've already drunk three coffees this morning . (and you're offering me another one!) </li></ul><ul><li>Don't write to John, I've already done it. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>It is also used in questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Have you already written to John? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she finished her homework already ? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>already can be placed before the main verb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(past participle) or at the end of the sentence: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have already been to Tokyo. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have been to Tokyo already . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you met Judy yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet . </li></ul><ul><li>Has he arrived yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>They haven't eaten yet . </li></ul>Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence .
  39. 39. Have you already eaten lobster? No, I haven’t eaten it yet . Have you eaten shrimp yet ? Yes, I have already eaten it. MD
  40. 40. EVER NEVER Have you ever ridden a horse? I have never ridden a horse.
  41. 41. EVER AND NEVER <ul><li>Have you ever studied German? No, I’ve n ever studied German. </li></ul><ul><li>Has she ever been to the USA ? No, she has never been to the USA </li></ul>
  42. 42. Have you ever seen a witch? No, I haven’t. I’ve never seen a witch.
  43. 43. Have you ever sung in a choir? Yes, I have.
  44. 44. <ul><li>The adverbs ever and never express the idea </li></ul><ul><li>of an unidentified time before now </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever visited Berlin? </li></ul><ul><li>'Ever' is used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. in questions. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Prime Minister? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>b. in negative questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. and in negative statements using the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pattern nothing.......ever , nobody.......ever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>'Never' means at no time before now , and is the same as not ..... ever : </li></ul><ul><li>I have never visited Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>BE CAREFUL! You must not use never and not together: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy. </li></ul></ul></ul>Ever and Never are always placed before the main verb ( past participle )
  47. 47. To fail - failed - failed
  48. 48. To dance - danced - danced ballet
  49. 49. To drive - drove - driven
  50. 50. To have - had - had
  51. 51. To fly - flew - flown
  52. 52. To receive - d - d a love letter
  53. 53. Chess set To have - had - had
  54. 54. wallet To find - found - found
  55. 55. To lose - lost - lost Something valuable
  56. 56. And there are more words... Lately / Recently / for a while I haven’t seen him lately . She has practiced tennis recently . You haven’t tried it for a while .
  57. 57. ... and more , Once / twice / 3 times / 4 times / etc. We have fought once . He has traveled to Chicago twice . I have had a cold 3 times this year.
  58. 58. Have you ever eaten PRETZELS ? <ul><li>No. I’ve neve r eaten pretzels. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I have already eaten pretzels. </li></ul><ul><li>No, I haven’t eaten pretzels. yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I have just eaten pretzels. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Let’s practice <ul><li>I have ________ some muffins. </li></ul><ul><li>(eaten/ate) </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>They have ________ a nice cocktail. </li></ul><ul><li>(drunk/drank) </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Mr Jones has ______ nice book. </li></ul><ul><li>(read/readen) </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>We’ve _________ to the circus. (gone/went) </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>He’s _________ under the tree. </li></ul><ul><li>(slept/sleeps) </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Have you ______ seen a mummy? (ever/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve ______ eaten snails. </li></ul><ul><li>(never/ever) </li></ul><ul><li>Doug has _______ had his breakfast. (already/yet) </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Have you finished your work ______? (already/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you _______ called Susan? (already/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>Jack has ______ gone to work. (just/yet) </li></ul>
  66. 66. Make up sentences... <ul><li>NEVER </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>ALREADY - AFF. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>EVER </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>NEVER </li></ul>
  70. 70. Simple Past or Present Perfect
  71. 71. <ul><li>Simple Past Completed events at a definite time in the past : </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Last Saturday </li></ul><ul><li>Last night </li></ul><ul><li>Last weekend/week </li></ul><ul><li>Last month </li></ul><ul><li>Last semester </li></ul><ul><li>Last year </li></ul><ul><li>Present Perfect Events with a time period up to the present: </li></ul><ul><li>This weekend/week </li></ul><ul><li>This month </li></ul><ul><li>This year </li></ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul><ul><li>Lately </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Once / twice / three times </li></ul>
  72. 72. Compare these sentences
  73. 73. <ul><li>Have you ever had a picnic with friends ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have a picnic last weekend ? </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten snails ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat snails last night ? </li></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>Have you ever tried seafood ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat seafood yesterday ? </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten frog’s leg ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat frog’s leg last week ? </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Have you ever had dinner at the restaurant with a friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have dinner at the restaurant last night ? </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Have you ever tried snails ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you try snails last weekend ? </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>Have you ever visited New York ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you visit New York last year ? </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten an American breakfast ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat an American breakfast in Los Angeles last vacation ? </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Have you ever kissed someone in public ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you kiss someone in public last weekend ? </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Have you ever been to a drive-in movie ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you go to a drive-in movie last Saturday ? </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Have you ever driven an old car ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you drive an old car last month ? </li></ul>
  84. 84. Let’s Practice
  85. 85. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever had an American breakfast ? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever had eggs and bacon for breakfast ? </li></ul>
  86. 86. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you visit Rio de Janeiro last year ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you travel to Rio on your last vacation ? </li></ul>
  87. 87. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever played a musical instrument ? </li></ul>
  88. 88. Use: Present Perfect and Simple Past <ul><li>Have you ever been to Rome ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you visit Rome on your last vacation ? </li></ul>
  89. 89. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you have a barbecue at home last holiday ? </li></ul>
  90. 90. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever fried an egg ? </li></ul>
  91. 91. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you drive your father’s car yesterday ? </li></ul>
  92. 92. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever traveled by plane ? </li></ul>
  93. 93. Write down the sentences. Use present perfect. Example: Snoopy / climb / onto his house. Snoopy has climbed onto his house. 1 Brian / play / football 2 Susan / read / her new book 3 I / find / some money in the street 4 Mr and Mrs Baker / have / an accident
  94. 94. 5 Tom Davis / win / the volleyball match 6 Alison Brown / lose / the swimming match 7 Mr Martin / make / breakfast for the boys 8 The girls / bring / some wood for the fire 9 The Snows / buy / a van for their holidays 10 Mrs Black / wash / the dishes
  95. 95. 11 The dog / eat / bone. 12 Fred / write / a letter. 13 The singer / sing / a song. 14 My friend and I/ meet/ the famous actor. 15 Titanic / sink / in the ocean. 16 The teachers / teach / the lesson. 17 The players / play / recently. 18 The cat / scratch / the sofa. MD
  96. 96. SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  97. 97. 1. I ______________a great film yesterday. (see) 2. ________________a new car? (you ever buy) 3. Sue ______________the flu last winter. (have) 4. A few days ago we ______to his uncle. (drive) 5. They ____ bingo Wednesday afternoon. (play) 6. _________the bus to get there. (already take) 7. Last week my rabbit ___________away. (run)
  98. 98. 8. We ________________a lot last Sunday. (do) 9. ___________________to India? (she ever be) 10. I _______________him last Monday. (meet) 11. She __________________yet. (not wake up) 12. I _______her since last Thursday. (not meet) 13. Bob _______________well last night. (sleep) 14. I _____a letter from her two days ago. (get) 15. They ________ in Germany. (already arrive)
  100. 100. 1 I haven't been to Italy____________ 10 years. 2 She has lived in Paris _____________January. 3 Jim has studied__________ three hours. Now he is tired. 4 My friend has been ill __________a long time. 5 I haven't seen him____________ Easter. 6 He hasn't had a holiday __________last summer.
  101. 101. 7 The pilots have been on strike___ two months. 8 We've had terrible weather ________Saturday. 9 I've known Tom __________1990. 10 He hasn't done any work _________a month. 11 We have had this car _________1998. 12 We have been here __________ two hours.
  102. 102. 13 She hasn't written _________Christmas. 14 Carol hasn't eaten meat ___________ages. 15 We worked in his office _______three years. 16__________ how long have they lived here? 17 Nobody has seen him _________ last Friday. 18 It has been foggy ___________ some days.
  103. 103. ARE YOU EXPERIENCED ? <ul><li>Extra paper </li></ul>
  104. 104. PPT – drills <ul><li>DrillsPPT #1.doc – exercises ( word ) </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect – exercises ( word ) </li></ul>
  105. 105. sites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>