PID

Philippine Institute for the
Deaf
25 YEARS
Teaching Deaf Children to
FACILITATOR : Julie G. Esguerra

BSEEd * M.A. SPED-Speech Correction, PNU
Speech Pathology, San Jose State Univ, USA
SpEd ...
Speech Development
and Correction
For Deaf Learners
LEARNING OUTCOMES

• Understand
Learning Competencies for
Speech Development & Correction
when working with Deaf Learners;
LEARNING OUTCOMES

• Master the Northampton Charts
as a tool for Developing the
Speech of Deaf Learners,
and other special...
LEARNING OUTCOMES
AR

RHY T

TIC

AU

O
DIT

HM

RY
LA

N

A
GU

GE

• Understand the Four Learning Areas to
develop the S...
LEARNING OUTCOMES

• Understand Other Considerations to Develop
the Spoken Language of the Deaf
Lip Reading, Pitch & Voice...
LEARNING OUTCOMES
WOR DL IST
WOR DL IST
PE R
PE R
SOUND
SOUND

• Write an Initial Wordlist per
Sound and a Short Lesson Pl...
LEARNING OUTCOMES

• Learn from significant observation,
Recognize and discuss
Areas for Improvement
SEMINAR SCHEDULE of ACTIVITIES
DAY 1
* Overview
* Understanding the Speech Mechanism
* Areas in Speech Development and
Cor...
SEMINAR SCHEDULE of ACTIVITIES
DAY 2
* Mastery of the Northampton Charts
* Organizing the Speech Program
* Class Managemen...
be
o
it t
w is
Ho

af ?
de

Ca
n t
su c h e
c ee y t
d i rul
sc h n r y
oo egu
ls ?
lar

C an

th ey

und
er st
an d
whe
n...
Did you know __?
A CHILD'S BRAIN IS PROGRAMMED
TO LEARN FOUNDATIONAL
LANGUAGE SKILLS IN THE FIRST 6
YEARS OF LIFE
Importance of Speech Development
for DEAF Learners
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

To be like anyone else
To enjoy using his intact speech ...
Statement of Principles

• Deaf children are entitled to,
and must have, a languagerich educational experience.
The deaf can hear,
talk and lip read.
They only need guidance
to do all these.
They need to be reassured
that what they ar...
The teacher guides them in the
whole process so they can master
all the sounds they utter.
The Deaf Can Hear & Talk
•
•
•
•
•
•

Their speech organs are intact
The deaf has residual hearing
They have the mental ca...
Understanding the
SPEECH MECHANISM
ARTICULATION
• Initially, develop mastery of the 5 Basic
Vowel Sounds (Northampton Charts)
• Master One Consonant Sound at...
Speech = Articulation
• the act or process of articulating speech
• the adjustments and movements of
speech organs (tongue...
ARTICULATION

• Direct Imitation from the teacher’s pattern
ARTICULATION

Mastery of Individual Sounds

• Correct mouth formation based from
the Speech profile drawing
RHYTHM TRAINING
• Training in the regular beat or
tempo of words, phrases,
sentences, poems, songs, etc.
• Training in the...
RHYTHM TRAINING
* Discriminate Different Tempos
Fast

Slow

* Master Temporal Patterns
pum PUM
PUM pum
* Learn Accentuatio...
RHYTHM TRAINING
Drills on accentuation
* accent on the syllable

TAble

aGAIN

eleMENtary

1ST
SYLLABLE

2ND
SYLLABLE

3RD...
AUDITORY TRAINING
Awareness of Sounds and Discrimination of *Animal Sounds
*Noise makers
*Musical Instruments
*Vehicular S...
AUDITORY TRAINING
• Most deaf children have some residual
hearing.
• Teach a deaf child how to use residual hearing
to hav...
AUDITORY TRAINING
Although deaf children always hear distorted
sounds, with listening practice, the sounds
they hear, pres...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Develop skills to ask & answer questions
Present Question and Answer Patterns
What_? Who__? Where_? W...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
What ________?
Visual Aid
Teacher
Deaf Student
(dog’s pic)
What is this?
This is _______.
(point to c...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Who ________?
Visual Aid
(known pics)
(pic on wall
(apple’s pic)

Teacher
Who is this?
Who is that?

...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Start where the child is. We enter his
world and not him forced out of his to
understand us.
• Provid...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Develop rapport and establish good
friendship and chemistry to win the
child’s trust and cooperation....
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Always require the child’s full attention
and check occasionally if he’s still with
you in the on-goi...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Incidental lessons are better understood
and mastered as they experience the
sounds and situations.
•...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Record constantly significant observations
for continuing basis of IEP .
• If the child is unable to ...
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Be sensitive to all non-verbal communication
and verbalize them.
• Always attempt to encourage the ch...
STRATEGIES IN SPEECH
DEVELOPMENT
• Direct Imitation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Tadoma Method (Hand Feel of Voice)
Amplify/ Dimin...
HOMEWORK
• Complete your Wordlist of each
sound in the Northampton Charts
• Choose a Sound to teach and
write a 10-minute ...
Speech Development
and Correction
For Deaf Learners
DAY 2
ARTICULATION GAME
The first time the DEAF are presented
a word to say, they don’t have a clue
how to articulate it.
Let’s ...
Sp ez ieller
L eh r er
antidisestablishmentarianism

A Political philosophy that is opposed to the
Separation of the church and state
anti dis establishmen taria nism
28 letters
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11
Schedule of Activities
* Mastery of the Northampton Charts
* Organizing the Speech Program
* Class Management
[Speech Room...
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Speech Reading (Lip Reading)
When sounds are taught individually,
they master each mouth formation an...
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
•
•

•
•
•

Speech Reading Activities
Spelling Activity
Mastery of own name, classmates,
names of fam...
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Improvement of Pitch
Awareness of Different Pitch Levels
HIGH
MODERATE
LOW

1. We let the child know ...
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Voice Improvement
• The teacher determines if the child’s voice is
too soft or too loud
• Train to mo...
Improvement of Voice Quality
•
•
•
•
•

Hoarseness
Voice Box Disorders
Laryngeal Problems
Dysphonia
Nasality
Rhinolalia Ap...
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
ONE LANGUAGE APPROACH

1. Teacher and parents must agree on what language to
use before any remedial ...
Organizing the Speech Program
* Schedule the frequency of speech
sessions based on the severity of the
case and available ...
Organizing the Speech Program
• Progress recording and evaluation of
activities done for the day.
• Planning for the next ...
Organizing the Speech Program
LESSON PLANNING

1. Informal conversation and greetings
* Motivation Activity
2. Speech Exer...
SPEECH KIT
• Materials for Speech Exercises

•
•
•
•
•
•

*tongue cut outs, sticky candies, jam, stick-ons, candy
balls, l...
SPEECH ROOM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Wall mirror good for two heads
Small work table facing the mirror
Unlimited visual aids for...
Big Picture Motivational Aids
• At Home
* At the Playground
• In School
* In the Bathroom
• In the Market
* In the City
• ...
DEMONSTRATION
TEACHING
*
FEEDBACK * OPEN FORUM
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
01 speech devt & correction for link
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01 speech devt & correction for link

  1. 1. PID Philippine Institute for the Deaf 25 YEARS Teaching Deaf Children to
  2. 2. FACILITATOR : Julie G. Esguerra BSEEd * M.A. SPED-Speech Correction, PNU Speech Pathology, San Jose State Univ, USA SpEd Teacher, 41 yrs, Phils.* SpEd Trainor, 5 yrs, USA One of the “100 Women Who Made a Difference” Phil. Centennial Celebration, 1999 One of the 10 Outstanding Manilans, 2002 International Public Speaking Champion, USA, 1999 One of the 10 Incredible Pinoys (Inquirer TV) Woman of Distinction, Soroptimist International Founder/President–Phil. Institute for the Deaf (ORAL) Founder/President–Touching Lives, Inc. USA
  3. 3. Speech Development and Correction For Deaf Learners
  4. 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Understand Learning Competencies for Speech Development & Correction when working with Deaf Learners;
  5. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Master the Northampton Charts as a tool for Developing the Speech of Deaf Learners, and other special considerations;
  6. 6. LEARNING OUTCOMES AR RHY T TIC AU O DIT HM RY LA N A GU GE • Understand the Four Learning Areas to develop the Spoken Language of the deaf Articulation*Rhythm*Auditory*Language
  7. 7. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Understand Other Considerations to Develop the Spoken Language of the Deaf Lip Reading, Pitch & Voice Improvement
  8. 8. LEARNING OUTCOMES WOR DL IST WOR DL IST PE R PE R SOUND SOUND • Write an Initial Wordlist per Sound and a Short Lesson Plan for Hands On Practice Teaching;
  9. 9. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Learn from significant observation, Recognize and discuss Areas for Improvement
  10. 10. SEMINAR SCHEDULE of ACTIVITIES DAY 1 * Overview * Understanding the Speech Mechanism * Areas in Speech Development and Correction * Guiding Principles * Strategies in Speech Development • Understanding the Main Tool – The Northampton Charts
  11. 11. SEMINAR SCHEDULE of ACTIVITIES DAY 2 * Mastery of the Northampton Charts * Organizing the Speech Program * Class Management [Speech Room, Kit, Lesson Plan, Aids] * One Language Approach * Demonstration Teaching * Evaluation * Open Forum * Summation
  12. 12. be o it t w is Ho af ? de Ca n t su c h e c ee y t d i rul sc h n r y oo egu ls ? lar C an th ey und er st an d whe n w e ta w it h lk ou r lip s ? C an t h e DEA F r eally b e ab le t o list en ? an d SPEA K ? t ey h an h C it or h lly a ar e on c ng i er v eo p
  13. 13. Did you know __? A CHILD'S BRAIN IS PROGRAMMED TO LEARN FOUNDATIONAL LANGUAGE SKILLS IN THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE
  14. 14. Importance of Speech Development for DEAF Learners • • • • • • • To be like anyone else To enjoy using his intact speech organs To understand sounds in his environment To be connected with anyone he likes To cope in regular schools To achieve his dream career To be independent and self reliant
  15. 15. Statement of Principles • Deaf children are entitled to, and must have, a languagerich educational experience.
  16. 16. The deaf can hear, talk and lip read. They only need guidance to do all these. They need to be reassured that what they are saying is acceptable and understood because they cannot hear their own voice to correct themselves.
  17. 17. The teacher guides them in the whole process so they can master all the sounds they utter.
  18. 18. The Deaf Can Hear & Talk • • • • • • Their speech organs are intact The deaf has residual hearing They have the mental capacity They can be like anyone else They just need a model to imitate from They just need to master in their mind how words are pronounced • They just need constant practice to master the art of speaking & conversing
  19. 19. Understanding the SPEECH MECHANISM
  20. 20. ARTICULATION • Initially, develop mastery of the 5 Basic Vowel Sounds (Northampton Charts) • Master One Consonant Sound at a time • Speech Drills : - Nonsense Syllables - Phrases - Words - Sentences (Q/A) • Master Other Vowel Sounds (One at a time) • Recite Rhymes, Poems, Action Songs, etc.
  21. 21. Speech = Articulation • the act or process of articulating speech • the adjustments and movements of speech organs (tongue, lips, teeth, jaw, nose, etc.) involved in pronouncing a particular sound and taken as a whole • effective production of comprehensible speech so the listeners may understand one’s thoughts, feelings and ideas
  22. 22. ARTICULATION • Direct Imitation from the teacher’s pattern
  23. 23. ARTICULATION Mastery of Individual Sounds • Correct mouth formation based from the Speech profile drawing
  24. 24. RHYTHM TRAINING • Training in the regular beat or tempo of words, phrases, sentences, poems, songs, etc. • Training in the accentuation • Training to produce a cluster of sounds or words in one breath arc
  25. 25. RHYTHM TRAINING * Discriminate Different Tempos Fast Slow * Master Temporal Patterns pum PUM PUM pum * Learn Accentuation 1st Syllable 2nd Syllable 3rd Syllable * Phrasing and Paraphrasing (Use of breath arcs)
  26. 26. RHYTHM TRAINING Drills on accentuation * accent on the syllable TAble aGAIN eleMENtary 1ST SYLLABLE 2ND SYLLABLE 3RD SYLLABLE * accent on the word a BLUE ball 2nd WORD use a GUN 3RD WORD
  27. 27. AUDITORY TRAINING Awareness of Sounds and Discrimination of *Animal Sounds *Noise makers *Musical Instruments *Vehicular Sounds *Household Sounds *Environmental Sounds *Simple Story Lines *Talking on the phone *Natural Phenomenon *Names (Esp. Own Name) *People’s Voices *Recorded Songs *Everyday Expressions *Commands *Simple News *Others
  28. 28. AUDITORY TRAINING • Most deaf children have some residual hearing. • Teach a deaf child how to use residual hearing to have access to spoken language • The speech signal is redundant. Since it carries excess information, it is not necessary to hear every sound to understand a message • Additionally, there is also a great emphasis on speech and speech reading. • The ultimate educational goal is to place the child in a mainstream school environment. • Early intervention is key. 
  29. 29. AUDITORY TRAINING Although deaf children always hear distorted sounds, with listening practice, the sounds they hear, presented with visuals, they will learn to associate such sounds to appropriate concepts and meanings. Eventually, they will master these sounds and converse with more confidence.
  30. 30. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Develop skills to ask & answer questions Present Question and Answer Patterns What_? Who__? Where_? Where_? When_? Why_? What kind_? How_? How much_? Whose_? Whom_? Do/does_? Did_? Can_? Will_? Should_? Would_? Yes/No Qs + Critical Thinking Questions Language must be experienced to be mastered
  31. 31. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT What ________? Visual Aid Teacher Deaf Student (dog’s pic) What is this? This is _______. (point to ceiling) What is that? That is _______. (apple’s pic) What color is it? It is _________. Reverse Roles Deaf Student Teacher (unknown things) What is this? It is ________. (touch something in the room What is it? It is ________. he may not know) Do endless Q/A
  32. 32. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Who ________? Visual Aid (known pics) (pic on wall (apple’s pic) Teacher Who is this? Who is that? Deaf Student He (she) is ______. He/she is _______. What color is it? It is _________. Reverse Roles Deaf Student Teacher (unknown pics) Who is this? He/she is ______. (pic from your wallet) Who is that? He/she is ______.
  33. 33. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Start where the child is. We enter his world and not him forced out of his to understand us. • Provide activities which suit the child’s capacity, pace and academic level. • Be like a parent to a child. Set some time to do Home Visits to label important things at home, as well as, making the Home-School Partnership stronger.
  34. 34. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Develop rapport and establish good friendship and chemistry to win the child’s trust and cooperation. • Maintain a cheerful, pleasant and expressive personality with the needed intensity of energy. • Revolve around child’s interests and things very familiar to him.
  35. 35. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Always require the child’s full attention and check occasionally if he’s still with you in the on-going speech work • Recognize and praise all the little efforts the child he does even if it’s still far from accuracy. • Maintain enough balance of a love and discipline to constantly motivate the child and be in control of the class.
  36. 36. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Incidental lessons are better understood and mastered as they experience the sounds and situations. • Language must be experienced before it can be mastered. • Color the activities with a variety of techniques, aids, games to keep him going
  37. 37. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Record constantly significant observations for continuing basis of IEP . • If the child is unable to respond to your question or command, re-phrase your statements to a form and style he can understand. • Keep in mind that the speech organs are muscles in which movements can be managed.
  38. 38. GUIDING PRINCIPLES • Be sensitive to all non-verbal communication and verbalize them. • Always attempt to encourage the child to directly imitate your speech patterns. • Always end each session with a positive note. • Rate the child’s performance periodically and report them to the parents so they may also do the necessary follow thru.
  39. 39. STRATEGIES IN SPEECH DEVELOPMENT • Direct Imitation • • • • • • • • • • Tadoma Method (Hand Feel of Voice) Amplify/ Diminish the sounds/letters Speech Profile Drawing Use of breath arcs and tapping. Syllabication Comparison and Contrast Transcription Color Emphasis on Sound being Developed Visual Clues and Aids Speech Exercises to develop flexibility of tongue
  40. 40. HOMEWORK • Complete your Wordlist of each sound in the Northampton Charts • Choose a Sound to teach and write a 10-minute lesson plan • prepare pictures of each word and be ready to do a short practice teaching
  41. 41. Speech Development and Correction For Deaf Learners DAY 2
  42. 42. ARTICULATION GAME The first time the DEAF are presented a word to say, they don’t have a clue how to articulate it. Let’s experience being DEAF again. Pronounce this word ->
  43. 43. Sp ez ieller L eh r er
  44. 44. antidisestablishmentarianism A Political philosophy that is opposed to the Separation of the church and state
  45. 45. anti dis establishmen taria nism 28 letters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  46. 46. Schedule of Activities * Mastery of the Northampton Charts * Organizing the Speech Program * Class Management [Speech Room, Kit, Lesson Plan, Aids] * One Language Approach * Demonstration Teaching * Evaluation * Open Forum * Summation
  47. 47. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Speech Reading (Lip Reading) When sounds are taught individually, they master each mouth formation and begin their lip reading skills. Teachers must always present proper mouth formation and articulation for them to master lip reading.
  48. 48. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS • • • • • Speech Reading Activities Spelling Activity Mastery of own name, classmates, names of family members, names of people in school, etc Daily Expressions Greetings Commands
  49. 49. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Improvement of Pitch Awareness of Different Pitch Levels HIGH MODERATE LOW 1. We let the child know if his PITCH is not appropriate. 2. Practice High and Low to get moderate 3. Practice with animal sounds, vehicular sounds and music instruments
  50. 50. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Voice Improvement • The teacher determines if the child’s voice is too soft or too loud • Train to modulate it thru voice clues • Master the sounds to be accentuated, with a louder voice, and those not to be accentuated – using softer voice • Breathing exercises to support voice production • Practice until required voice is developed
  51. 51. Improvement of Voice Quality • • • • • Hoarseness Voice Box Disorders Laryngeal Problems Dysphonia Nasality Rhinolalia Aperta Rhinolalia Clausa • Neurological Voice Disorders Interdisciplinary Teams Voice problems caused by: of voice professionals: • abnormal control, coordinaotolaryngologists, tion, or strength of voice box muscles due to an underlying laryngologists, speech neurological disease such as: language pathologists, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and multidisciplinary multiple sclerosis etc. professionals.
  52. 52. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ONE LANGUAGE APPROACH 1. Teacher and parents must agree on what language to use before any remedial program is started. 2. The family must ensure its usage at home. 3. The family members must help each other to speak that language properly at all times. 4. Always provide the best (shortest) patterns (verbalized or written to enable the child to master the language. 5. Give up all the slang words/idioms and restrict yourselves to use the regular words/expressions found in the dictionary of books. 6. Encourage the child to communicate using voice, meaningful phrases short sentences, questions, requests 7. Recognize and reward all the child’s efforts.
  53. 53. Organizing the Speech Program * Schedule the frequency of speech sessions based on the severity of the case and available time * Prepare Speech Room requirements. * Do an initial assessment during the first meeting to write an IEP * Write the Lesson Plan based on his IEP * Prepare instructional materials
  54. 54. Organizing the Speech Program • Progress recording and evaluation of activities done for the day. • Planning for the next session’s lessons. • Writing Quarterly Progress Reports
  55. 55. Organizing the Speech Program LESSON PLANNING 1. Informal conversation and greetings * Motivation Activity 2. Speech Exercise [Tongue, Lips, Jaw, Palate Breathing, Voice Building etc.] 3. Introduction of the Sound [Direct Imitation, Speech Profile, Tadoma] 4. Speech Drills *Nonsense Syllable Drill *Phrase Drill *Word Drill *Sentence Drill (Q/A) 5. Appreciation Activity [Poem, Song, Game, Role Playing, Storytelling etc]
  56. 56. SPEECH KIT • Materials for Speech Exercises • • • • • • *tongue cut outs, sticky candies, jam, stick-ons, candy balls, lollipops, pendulum type toys, tongue depressors, tissue paper, feathers, pin wheels, water basin, confetti, mouth drawings, balloons, paper cup, bottle of water,etc. Face mirror (wall or face), face towel Tape Recorder Workbooks Crayons, colored pencils Picture cards/posters Photos of people, places and events
  57. 57. SPEECH ROOM • • • • • • • • • Wall mirror good for two heads Small work table facing the mirror Unlimited visual aids for speech drills Calendar, toy clock Weather illustrations Illustrated Word Groups Progress Chart Story Pictue Books Sound Awareness Toys/Recordings
  58. 58. Big Picture Motivational Aids • At Home * At the Playground • In School * In the Bathroom • In the Market * In the City • At the Park * In the Province • At the Beach * In the Movie House • At the Mall * During Christmas • In Church * In the Supermarket • At the Party * In the Library • In the Zoo * At the Cemetery * Every possible experience a child may enjoy talking about, esp. family souvenir pictures
  59. 59. DEMONSTRATION TEACHING * FEEDBACK * OPEN FORUM

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