Lip n cheek recons

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Lip n cheek recons

  1. 1. LIP AND CHEEK RECONSTRUCTIONBYDR MOHAMMAD AKHEELOMFS PG
  2. 2. Lip reconstruction Lip function Oral competence Deglutition Articulation Expression of emotion Symbol of beauty
  3. 3. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Topographic landmarks
  4. 4. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Muscles
  5. 5. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Motor Innervation Facial nerve VII Buccal Elevators of commissures and orbicularis oris Marginal mandibular Lip depressors Sensory innervation Trigeminal nerve V Mental nerve terminal branch of inferior alveolar nerve Lower lip Infraorbital nerve Upper lip
  6. 6. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Muscles Orbicularis oris Closes the oral sphincter Primarily horizontal fibers - compress lips Originate lateral to the commissures Mingle with cranial VII muscles at modiolus Cross the lip Decussate in the midline Insert into opposite philtral column Oblique fibers - evert lip Arise from modiolus Travel upward and medial Insert at the anterior nasal spine, nasal septum, and anterior nasalfloor
  7. 7. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Muscles Major elevators upper lip Levator labii superioris (LLS) Originates from orbital margin Curves around the alar base Inserts into ipsilateral orbicularis oris and philtral column Zygomaticus major extends from malar eminence inserts in modiolus Levator anguli oris arises just below the lateral edge of the LLS
  8. 8. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Muscles Nasalis muscle Three components Arise from bone below the piriform aperture Depressor septi muscle is the most medial of the three. Thispaired muscle arises from the periosteum over the central andlateral incisors to insert cephalad into the footplates of themedial crura (Fig. 2). Its function is primarily the depressing ofthe tip of the nose and secondarily the lifting of the uppercentral lip. The nasalis muscle alar part sends fibers to the alaand the nasalis transversus part to the nasal dorsum19.
  9. 9. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Muscles Mentalis muscle Paired Function primarily in the elevation and protrusion of the centralaspect of the lower lip. They arise from about 2 cm of alveolarperiosteum just below the vestibular sulcus and descend obliquely toinsert into the skin of the chin. Loss of these muscles below the labiomental areafollowing resection, mucosal scarring, or inadequatemuscle suture technique results in lip incompetence andlower incisor “show”
  10. 10. Lip reconstruction The depressor labii inferioris (quadratus) arises from the lowerborder of the mandible between the symphysis and the mentalforamen. The fibers pass upward and medially, interminglingsuperiorly and more medially with the orbicularis oris. This muscledisplaces the lower lip inferiorly. The depressor anguli oris(triangularis) arises inferior to the quadratus muscle and continuesupward to the modiolus. At its origin, the muscle mingles with theplatysma fibers. It functions to help draw the angle of the mouthdownward and laterally.
  11. 11. Lip reconstruction Anatomy Vascular supply Derived from the facial arteries Superior and inferior labial branches Travel tangentially deep to the orbicularis oris muscles Lymphatic drainage Primarily submental and submandibular nodes Upper lip and lateral lower lip Submandibular chain Central lower lip Submental nodal area Crossover common
  12. 12. Lip reconstruction Approach Evaluate Size and location of the defect Etiology of the lesion Patient age and gender
  13. 13. Lip reconstruction Surgical goals Complete skin cover and oral lining Semblance of a vermilion Adequate stomal diameter Sensation Competent oral sphincter
  14. 14. Lip reconstruction Vermilion Modified mucosal surface Most visible component of the lips Sensory unit of the lips Temperature Light touch Pain Scars well hidden at vermilion Avoid crossing vermilion cutaneous junction Incisions should cross at 90 degrees 1 mm discrepancy in outline of white roll visible at 3 feet
  15. 15. Lip reconstruction Vermilion reconstruction Lower vermilion most affected Target of solar radiation injury Premalignant lesions Actinic cheilitis or leukoplakia Total vermilionectomy (lip shave) Resection from white roll to contact area with opposite lip Primary closure possible Tension and dehiscence Flattening of lip
  16. 16. Lip reconstruction Vermilion reconstruction Buccal mucosal advancement flap Relaxing incision on mucosa at deep buccal sulcus Mucosa elevated deep to salivary glands and superficial toorbicularis oris muscle
  17. 17. Lip reconstruction Vermilion reconstruction Tongue flaps Two stage procedures Tongue mucosa Red with poor cosmetic match Feminizing effect in men Unpleasant experience for patients
  18. 18. Lip reconstruction Vermilion reconstruction Vermilion muscle advancement flap Defect less than 1/3 lower vermilion Based on axial labial artery
  19. 19. Lip reconstruction Vermilion reconstruction Lip switch (Kawamoto) Correction of large vermilion volume deficiency Hemifacial atrophy Transverse centrally based flap Turn 180 degrees Pedicle divided 10-14 days
  20. 20. Lip reconstruction Lower lip Advantage over upper lip Increased soft tissue laxity No dominant central structure Philtrum Nose Disadvantage Effect of gravity on repair Greater need for tone to prevent drooling and oralincompetence
  21. 21. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Primary closure V or W wedge resection Can provide inadequate margin at lower portion of resection Shield or double or single barrel excision Avoid crossing the labiomental fold Improves aesthetic result Grafts Unreliable survival of composite grafts Average width 1 cm
  22. 22. Lip reconstruction Lower lipreconstruction Orbicularis oris flap Rectangular excision oflower lip lesion V-Y advancement Bipedicled orbicularis oris Vermilion reconstruction Labial mucosaadvancement flap Preserves muscle integrityand nerve supply
  23. 23. Lip reconstruction Lower lipreconstruction Rectangular flaps Lower lip rectangularflaps Labiomental region Rotated medially Vermilion Bilateral buccalmucosa flaps
  24. 24. Lip reconstruction Lower lipreconstruction Step method Horizontal componentof step excisions ½ width of defect Vertical dimension 8-10 mm 2 to 4 steps are made Can be used to closedefects up to 2/3 of liplength
  25. 25. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Abbe flap Lip switch Two stage procedure 14-21 days of lip apposition before pedicle division Indications Medium sized defects Defect not involving commissure Cooperative patients EMG studies Return of muscle function to flap at recipient site
  26. 26. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Abbe flap Flap design Junction of middle and lateral 1/3s of upper lip Away from philtral columns and commissure Paper template useful Medial or lateral pedicle Distal flap Tapered to nasolabial fold Rectangle Maximum flap size 2 to 3 cm
  27. 27. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Abbe flap Flap elevation White roll marked Full thickness division of non pedicle side Locate exact position of labial artery Allows precise dissection on pedicle side Vascular pedicle should have soft tissue support Post operative Liquid and soft diet Antiseptic rinses Pedicle division at 2 to 3 weeks
  28. 28. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Abbe flap Bilateral extraphiltral cross lip flaps
  29. 29. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Estlander flap Laterally based lip switch Pivots at corner of mouth Indications Defect at commissure Advantages Maintains continuity of orbicularis oris Oral competence Disadvantages Poor commissure definition Needs secondary revision
  30. 30. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Estlander flap Flap design Full thickness Medial based flap of lateral lip Supplied by contralateral labial artery ½ size of lower lip defect Distal edge of flap tapered to nasolabial fold
  31. 31. Lip reconstruction Lower lipreconstruction Estlander flap Modified Estlander Transposition of flaps Preserves commissure Estlander flap withmedial advancement oflateral lip Large central defects
  32. 32. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Fan flap Indications Total or near total lower lip reconstruction Gillies fan flap Modification of Estlander flap Preservation of portion of oral sphincter EMG confirmed nerve regeneration
  33. 33. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Karapandzic flap Indications Modification of Gillies fan flap Defects not requiring new lip tissue Central 3.5 to 7.0 cm defects Lateral with commissure involvement Preservation of neurovascular supply Oral sphincter function maintained
  34. 34. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Karapandzic flap Advantages Sensation and sphincter function Preferable to Bernard Burow’s repair Single stage procedure and less risk of flap loss Compared to Abbe flap Disadvantages Microstomia Inferior aesthetic result Circumoral scarring noticeable
  35. 35. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Karapandzic flap Flap design Vertical height of defect Determines width of flap Width maintained to alar bases Full thickness incision medially Laterally at level of commissures Incision to subcutaneous tissue Labial arteries and buccal branches dissected and preserved Central defect equal mobilization Lateral defect contralateral mobilization greater
  36. 36. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Depressor anguli oris flap Innervated motor and sensory flap Muscle, skin, buccal mucosa Marginal mandibular VII and mental branch V Based superiorly at oral commissure Limited to lateral lower lip reconstruction Reach of mental nerve restricts Bilateral flaps can be raised
  37. 37. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Bernard Burow’s procedure 1st described Full thickness excision 4 triangles Two have caudal base at commissure
  38. 38. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Bernard Burow’s procedure Modifications (Webster) Excise skin and subcutaneous tissue Leave muscle intact Base triangle in nasolabial fold Paramental triangular flaps
  39. 39. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Bernard Burow’s procedure Indications Need for new lip tissue Avoidance of microstomia Advantages Brings new tissue from cheek Commissure better reconstructed Disadvantages Incomplete recovery of sensation Vermilion color mismatch Oral incontinence and drooling
  40. 40. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Bernard Burow’s procedure Flap design Excision of lower lip lesion Triangles of skin and subcutaneous tissue Excised at nasolabial fold Buccal mucosa undermined All layers advanced and approximated
  41. 41. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Dieffenbach flap Historical interest Wide inferiorly based rectangular cheek flaps Functionally impaired lip Long cheek scars
  42. 42. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Nasolabial flaps Inferiorly based Pivot on the commissures Mucosa lining flaps Everted to recreate vermilion
  43. 43. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Free flaps Radial forearm most common Ease of dissection Two team approach Thin, pliable, hairless and good colour match Can integrate palmaris longus tendon Attach to modiolus as a sling Avoid oral incompetence Can attach to malar eminence with microplate
  44. 44. Lip reconstruction Lower lip reconstruction Rational approach Based on extent of defect Small (less than 1/3) Primary closure Medium (1/3 to 2/3) Karapandzic Estlander Abbe Bernard Burow’s Large (greater than 2/3) Bernard Burow’s Karapandzic Free flap
  45. 45. Lip reconstruction Upper lip Defects less common Unique features to consider Nose Columella Cupid’s bow Philtrum Men Hairbearing – nasolabial and cheek flaps obvious Can disguise scars in a mustache Oral competence less significant
  46. 46. Lip reconstruction Upper lip Aesthetic subunits Lateral Philtral column Nostral sill Alar base Nasolabial crease Medial One half of philtrum Popularized by Burget and Menick Design Abbe flaps exactly to match subunit
  47. 47. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Primary closure Most satisfactory results Lateral defects Taper incision into nasolabial fold
  48. 48. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Perialar crescentic skin excisions Area excised conforms to alar margin Skin and subcutaneous tissue only Release of upper buccal sulcus
  49. 49. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Nasolabial flaps Skin and subcutaneous tissue from nasolabial fold For upper lip without vermilion defect Donor site closed primarily
  50. 50. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Abbe flap Lip switch from lower lip Can be combined with perialar crescentic excision flaps
  51. 51. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Reverse Karapandzic flap Inferiorly based Carry circumoral incision to commissure
  52. 52. Lip reconstruction Upper lipreconstruction Reverse fan flap
  53. 53. Lip reconstruction Upper lipreconstruction Reverse Estlanderflap
  54. 54. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Superiorly based lower cheek flaps
  55. 55. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Inverted Bernard Burow’s flap Upper lip defect replaced with midcheek tissue Skin and subcutaneous tissue Burow’s triangles excised lateralto the lower lip and alar base Orbicularis muscle not violated Vermilion reconstructed with buccal mucosa
  56. 56. Lip reconstruction Upper lipreconstruction Bilateral levatoranguli oris flap Innervated Bilateral and combinedwith Abbe flap Can be used for totallip reconstruction
  57. 57. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Rational approach to upper lip reconstruction Small (less than 1/3) Medium (1/3 to 2/3) Large (greater than 2/3)
  58. 58. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Small defects Primary closure Perialar crescentic skin excisions
  59. 59. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Medium defects Central Primary closure with perialar crescentic skin excisions Greater than ½ Perialar crescentic with Abbe flap Karapandzic Lateral Commissure not involved Abbe flap Commissure involved Estlander flap
  60. 60. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Large defects Adequate cheek tissue Inverted Bernard Burow’s procedure Bilateral levator anguli oris combined with Abbe flap Inadequate cheek tissue Distant pedicle flap Free flap
  61. 61. Lip reconstruction Upper lip reconstruction Hair bearing skin Forehead flap Scalp flap Unipedicled submandibular flap Bipedicled submental flap Temporal island scalp flap Temporoparietal fascia flap Cutaneous island at vertex of skull Pivot point at tragus Tunneled under cheek Emerges at nasolabial fold
  62. 62. Lip reconstruction Commissurereconstruction Microstomia Lip vermilion 1st choice Advanced ortransposed fullthickness flap Buccal mucosa Alternative
  63. 63. Lip reconstruction Commissure reconstruction Macrostomia Congenital macrostomia Lateral orofacial cleft between maxillary and mandibularcomponents 1st branchial arch Incomplete orbicularis oris ring Upper lip orbicularis Contiguous with zygomaticus Lower lip orbicularis Contiguous with risorius
  64. 64. Lip reconstruction Commissure reconstruction Macrostomia Congenital macrostomia Operative correction Commissure positioning Reconstruction of muscle ring Upper lip orbicularis fibers placed anterior to lower liporbicularis
  65. 65. Cheek reconstruction Introduction Aesthetic units Zone I Suborbital Zone II Preauricular Zone III Buccomandibular Includes oral lining infull thickness defects
  66. 66. Cheek reconstruction Zone I Boundaries Medial: nasolabial line Lateral: anterior sideburn Inferior: gingival sulcus Superior: lower eyelid Subunits A, B & C Subunit C consists of lowereyelid skin at junction withcheek skin Orbicularis and zygomaticusorigin VII deep to zygomaticus
  67. 67. Cheek reconstruction Zone I Skin grafts Split thickness skin grafts Unfavorable contraction Ectropion and lid malposition Full thickness skin grafts Preauricular, postauricular, supraclavicular region Better suited lower eyelid (subunit C) Less contraction Subunit A and B – patchy result Poor contour replacement if defect >5mm depth
  68. 68. Cheek reconstruction Zone I Local flaps Rhomboid flap 8 flap options Donor site scar Direction of relaxed skin tension lines Base flap inferiorly Decreased edema Minimize trapdoor effect
  69. 69. Cheek reconstruction Zone I Local flaps Swing side plasty Reduces size of defect Minimize flapischemia by roundingtip Avoid narrow distaltip
  70. 70. Cheek reconstruction Zone I Cervicofacial flap More extensive zone I defects Subcutaneous plane Extensive dissection unreliable vascularity Transection of transverse branch facial artery Deep plane Beneath SMAS (subplastymal in neck) Facial nerve injury significant risk Useful in smokers and larger flaps Anchoring sutures Anterior zygomatic arch and orbital rim Tissue expansion Congenital nevi
  71. 71. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Superolateraljunction of helix andcheek Medially to malareminence Inferior to mandible Coversparotid/massetericfascia
  72. 72. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Skin grafts Skin laxity in zone II Common donor site Use of skin graft rare Camouflaged easily with hair
  73. 73. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Local flaps Rhomboid or modified rhomboid Small cheek rotation advancement flaps Subcutaneous pedicle flaps
  74. 74. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Vertical or posterior cheek advancement Facelift procedure Subcutaneous Deep plane Beneath SMAS
  75. 75. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Cervical flaps Can include platysma with cheek flap Avoid deep plane Start subcutaneous Transect platysma 4 cm below mandibular border
  76. 76. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Cervicopectoral flap Best for large defects Medially based flap Anterior thoracic perforators of internal mammary
  77. 77. Cheek reconstruction Zone II Deltopectoral flap Medially based Reliable Good skin match from shoulder and upper arm Pectoralis major flap Latissimus dorsi flap
  78. 78. Cheek reconstruction Zone III Similar to zone II Issue of buccal lining Tongue flaps Turnover or hinge flaps Folded skin flaps Free flaps Radial forearm TFL
  79. 79. THANK YOU

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