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Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
       The French experience




Nicolas Enjalbert
Intern - Purpan University
Toulouse, France
with CSU Crops Testing
World fossil fuel consumption
                                                                     World Fossil Fuel Consumption
               World Population                                        Source: international Energy Annual 2004
         Source: international Energy Annual 2004
                    USA                                                                          USA
                          Europe
                    5%                                                                           25%
                            5%


                                                                                                              USA
                                                             Other                                            Europe
                                     China
                                     24%
                                                             50%
                                                                                                              China
                                                                                                              France
                                                    USA
                                                                                                   Europe     Other
                                                    Europe
 Other                                                                                              17%
 65%                                                China
                                                    France                France         China
                            France
                              1%                    Other                   2%            6%




             •World daily consumption: 82 million barrels of crude oil
             • Oil currently available: 1081 billion barrels
             •Hence: 36 years of capacity at this level of consumption

                                                •Time to find solutions
Outline

1.   Definitions
     –   Bioethanol, Biodiesel, SVO..,
     –   Characteristics

2.   Macro economic bioenergy environment in France

3.   Installation of a crushing and filtering facility for SVO
     –   Characteristics of SVO (definitions, ecological balance and energy efficiency …)
     –   How To Use SVO?
     –   Standards
     –   Economic model

4.   2 Case Studies


     –   Let’s brainstorm!
Ethanol

 Ethanol production in France               2004 World Ethanol Production

 –   From cereal (contracts with       Source: Minist ere de l'economie, des f inances et de l'indust rie




     OS): wheat.                                 10%        2%


 –   From sugar beat.                  16%
                                                                                   36%

                                                                                                            Brasil
                                                                                                            USA


 ETBE (Ethyl Tertiary Butyl                                                                                 Asia
                                                                                                            Europe


 Ether) : Ethanol + Isobutene
                                                     36%                                                    Other




 –   Is profitable for oil companies
     such as Total
Biodiesel

       Diester : EMHV (Ester Méthylique d’Huile Végétale) =
                           Biodiesel

                                                      2006 World Biodiesel Production (*,000 tons)
                                                              Sour ce: Eur opean and amer ican biodiesel boar d
                                                           8%                10%
  –   Vegetable oil + methanol + catalyst
      = Biodiesel + glycerine
                                                13%




  –   Production Contracts with OS or                                                           35%
                                                                                                                  France
                                                                                                                  Germany
      Crusher.                                 23%                                                                Italy

         Industrial fallow                                                                                        Other EU contries
                                                                                                                  USA
         Out fallow, with subsidies ($23/ac)                    11%                                               Canada
CETIOM: Technical
                               institute

ONIDOL: Coordination
                                               FOP: Federation
 of all the professional
                            PROLEA             of oilseed growers
      organizations



                           SOFIPROTEOL:
                           Run the financial
                                aspect
French energy situation

 Gas tax (TIPP): 6.6% of the government income.

 79% of gas price is tax.

 70% of cars use diesel.

 97.2% of fossil fuel is imported in Europe vs 60% in
 US
In France
 Goal for 2010:                                                                  French biofuel consumption
                                                                       Source: Ministere de l'économie des finances et de l'industrie
 7% of fuel consumption from
 biofuels which would require 6                                 8
                                                                7                                                            2009
                                                                                                                                        2010

 millions acres or 16% of the                                                                                 2008




                                                Consumption %
                                                                6

 agricultural lands.                                            5
                                                                4                              2007

 Keep in mind that before the                                   3
                                                                2
                                                                                 2006

 Industrial Revolution, farmers used                            1
                                                                    2005


 approx. 30 to 40% of their land for                            0

 animal traction feed.

 French government supports:
  –    Direct Tax credit:                    Years                                        2005                                          2010
 Ethanol: $1.85/gal (to ethanol plant)
                                                                           Fossil fuel              Biofuel               Fossil fuel          Biofuel
 Biodiesel: $1.65/gal (to biodiesel plant)
                                             Diesel                           7,750,000                  92,500              8,750,000           800,000
  – Indirect tax credit:
  Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)           Unleaded                         2,750,000                  30,000              2,125,000           250,000
    European Union
                                             Total                          10,500,000                 122,500             10,875,000          1,050,000
US Situation
   Total gasoline tax in Colorado: 40.4 cents/gal and will increase 30
   cents/ gal in the next 10 years.
   20% of cars use diesel- not including freight, trucks
   Energy policy Act of 2005:
    - Section 1501: promote the use of biofuels
                     - Goal 2006: 4 billion gallons
         (In 2006 more than 4 billon gallons of ethanol produced plus ~300
         million gallons of biodiesel)
                     - Goal 2012: 7.5 billion gallons
    - Tax credit:
- Biodiesel: $1/gal for B100 or 1 cent per percent of biodiesel in the blend.
- Ethanol: 51 cents/gal until 2010
Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) from
canola/sunflower.

 " SVO: Oils obtained from oilseed crops by simple cold pressure, without
solvant, clarified and filtered, and without chemical modification"

SVO is considered biofuel according to the European Directive 2003/30/CE
(May, 2003).

However, SVO is not recognized as biofuel by the French Legislation.
Currently, agricultural uses are tolerated but are not legally accepted.

As of January 1, 2007, SVO will be authorized as an agriculture fuel

Why should we develop SVO?
 –   Community based development
 –   Improve energy security
 –   Decrease production costs for growers
 –   To change the public image of growers
SVO, the key to limit air pollution.


                                  Regular                          EMHV             EMHV               SVO       SVO
                                                     Diesel
                                 Unleaded                          Canola         Sunflower           Canola   Sunflower




    Restutued
   energy/ Non
                                     0.873            0.917          2.99              3.16             5.45     6.33
 renewable energy
      used

 Green house gas
     emissions                       3650             3390            888              745              660      498
  (q eq. CO2/kg)

 No dangerous polluants, such as benzène, lead or other heavy metals
 Sources : Valbiom - Direction générale de l’agriculture Région Wallonne ; Jacques Lambert ADVA 31 et IFHVP
Oilseed Product and Properties

        1 ton of oilseed      1/3 SVO + 2/3 meal

1 acre of canola (2500 lbs/ac) = 95 gal oil + 1,600 lbs meal
 1 acre of sunflower (2000lbs/ac) = 75 gal oil + 1,200lbs
                             meal
   Excellent miscibility with diesel
   Flash point is higher than diesel
    –  Decreases with oil oxidation
   Corrosive nature:
    –    Advantages/Disadvantages
   High viscosity, decrease with temp
   Variable concentration of gum and wax (or
   phospholipids) can be a problem for the engine
   (especially for low/freezing temps).
European SVO Standards


    Using standardized SVO             36000


     - German norm DIN 51605 -                 36



                                               39
      Phosphorus content ≤ 12 mg/kg
      Contamination total ≤ 24 mg/kg   95      125

      Moisture content ≤ 0.075%                10


      Acid value ≤ 2mg KOH/g
                                               24



                                       6,0
    No warranty on engine if SVO is            12
            not standardized
Auger                      Tank1



                  Crusher


                                    Tank2
Canola                       Pump
                  Settling
                  tank

           Meal

                                    Tractor
Crusher and Filter
                       Unfiltered
                          oil


                           Filtered
  Seed                        oil




                Meal
SVO
Using SVO as Fuel

                          First Step - An adapted diesel engine

 If, indirect injection engine with low pressure system fuel will need to be
 blended :
  –  30% SVO in winter, 50% SVO in summer (without modification)
  –  70% SVO by modifying the injectors
  –  100% SVO by modifying the injectors and adding a fuel filter heater
  Fuel filter heater price: $50 to $100.

 If, direct injection engine low pressure system fuel will need to be blended :
  –   0 to 25% SVO if injection pump is weak (ex : Lucas)
  –   30% SVO in winter, 50% SVO in summer if adapted pump
  –   100% SVO with a Bi-Fuel Kit
  –   100% SVO if modifications of the engine
  Bi-Fuel Kit Elsett price: $3,500

 Direct injection engine high pressure fuel will need to be blended (lastest
 development) :
  –   25% SVO in winter, 30% SVO in summer
  –   100% SVO with a Bi-Fuel Kit or after engine modifications
Press: 100lbs/h             Press : 100lbs/h              Press : 250 lbs/h
                      Investment : $26,000        Investment : $61,000          Investment : $193,750
                      Surface : 40.8 ac           Surface : 312 ac              Surface : 768 ac
                      Oilseed production : 42 T   Oilseed production : 325 T    Oilseed production : 790 T
                      Utilisation time : 940 h    Utilization time : 7,200 h    Utilization time : 7,200 h
                      SVO : 3,925 gal             SVO: 30,000 gal               SVO : 75,000 gal
                      Meal : 27 T                 Meal : 205 T                  Meal : 490 T = 41 T/month




                                                             Average plant     Average plant    Centralized
                                                                under-          Optimal use       plant
Yield (assuming 2,500 lbs/ac)                                  exploited
                                                                                   $250/T          $160/T
SCENARIO 1 : meal sale for livestock                             $250/T
                                                                                  $23.5            $41.7
Net return per acre                                              - $39
                                                                                   $187/T          $187/T
SCENARIO 2 : meal sale such as combustible                       $187/T
                                                                                   - $17            $66
Net return per acre                                              - $80
SCENARIO 3 : without meal sale
                                                                                  - $ 139          -$ 55
Net return per acre                                             - $203
                                                                                   $250/T          $150/T
SCENARIO 4 : Meal sale and DPU $130/ac                           $250/T
                                                                                   $155            $198
Net return per acre                                               $ 91
                                                                                   $250/T          250/T
SCENARIO 5:proceeds from oilseed sale                            $250/T
                                                                                    $70             $70
Net Return with DPU $130/ac                                       $70              - $60           -$60
Net Return without DPU                                           - $60
Two Case Studies of Oilseed Crushing
Systems


Mr. Gérard Donlencourt :
   Acreage: 804 acres rainfed
   Livestock:
 - 50 dairy cows
 - 80 head beef cattle
 - 440 sows
   Labor: 5 full-time employees
   Crops - 432 acres canola, wheat and
   corn
Canola Production for Shared Crusher

 96 rainfed acres among 4 growers
 Ave yield: 2500 lbs/ac
 SVO production:10,000 gal/yr
 Investment: $17,000 (4 growers)
 Blend: From 30% to 80% SVO with diesel
 and 2% unleaded gasoline and requires
 heater around the diesel filter.
 Tractor brand: CASE III 130 horsepower
 Meal utilization: 9lbs/day/cow & 8% of the
 pig ration
Crusher




                                        Command
                                          panel


Characteristics:
•>100 lbs/hr
•Manufacturer: La Mécanique
Moderne
•Price: $7,437.5
Auger of the Crusher




Auger cage




                                Characteristics:
                                •Clean after use
                                •Maintenance: replacement
                                of bearing
Bulk Bag




      Low Level Detector
         to turn off the
     crusher and the auger
Filter (3 microns)




Characteristics:
•>100gal/day
•Cleaning: 800gal/hr                         Perlit: improves the
Manufacturer : G & P,                              cleaning
 Un rue hector berlioz
38210 Tullins,
Tel: 0033 04 76 07 88 88
Price: $3,875
                                  SVO flow
Heater on the
  Tractor




                      Hot water flow
                       from radiator
      Diesel Filter
How Profitable for Gerard?

                                                                 Fixed Cost
                                                  Purchase cost                Morgage (years)       Annual cost         $/gal
Crusher                                                         $7 438                           7           $1 063        $0,.06
Filter                                                         $3 875                            7             $554        $0.055
Tank                                                            $1 450                           7             $207        $0.021
Silo                                                           $1 375                            7             $196        $0.020
Installation                                                    $3 000                           7             $429        $0.043
Total equipment                                               $17 138                                        $2 448        $0.245

Annual Fixed Cost                                            $17 138                                         $2 448       $0.245
                                                               Variable Cost
Electricity                                                      $171                                          $171        $0.017
Maintenance                                                        $56                                             $56     $0.006
Meal Storage                                                     $148                                          $148        $0.015
Oil Analysis                                                     $150                                          $150        $0.015

Annual Variable Cost                                                                                          $525        $0.053
TOTAL Crushing Cost                                                                                          $2 973       $0.297
Value of seed per gal of oil $ based on oilseed price and meal price ($260 and $160)                                        $1.56

Total Cost Per Gallon $                                                                                                    $2.11
Diesel Price for Farmers (tax credit)                                                                                            $3
Marc Lebaillif
 Acreage: 480 acres
 Production:
         - 80 dairy cows
         - Crops: canola, wheat, bean, corn.
 Marc has been crushing since 1998.
 Canola production for SVO: 8,8 acres.
 Oilseed crushed: 12 tons:
 SVO: 1,000 gal/years.
 Investment: $4,000
 Blend: two Case tractors run with 100% of SVO and others at
 30%
 His Volkswagen Golf runs with 30% of SVO
Crusher from
       Germany




        Heater to increase yield



SVO
Settling tank: 15 days
Filter (20 microns)




Second filter: 5 microns                  Pump to inject in the
                                            one micron filter
Storage tank   Meal


                      Meal size
How Profitable for Case 2?

                                                            Equipment morgage (10 years)     437.5

                                                            Electricity (years consumption    250
Equipment morgage (10 years)                        437.5
                                                            Canola yield lbs/acre            4,000
Electricity (years consumption)                      250
                                                            Total production tons              12

Meal production (ton/year)                             8    Canola production cost per ton    144

SVO production (gal)                                1000    Meal market $/ton                 160

Cost/gal $ based on market pricr for oilseed and            Meal production (ton/year)          8
      meal ($269 and $160)                         2.5515
                                                            SVO production (gal)             1,000
Farmers Diesel price $                                 3
                                                            Cost/gal $                        1.14

Save per gallon $                                  0.4485
                                                            Red fuel price $                    3

                                                            Save per gallon $                 1.86
Freedom Questions?




                             Thanks!

Nicolas Enjalbert
Intern - Purpan University
Toulouse, France
with CSU Crops Testing

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Straight Vegetable Oil: The French Experience

  • 1. Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) The French experience Nicolas Enjalbert Intern - Purpan University Toulouse, France with CSU Crops Testing
  • 2. World fossil fuel consumption World Fossil Fuel Consumption World Population Source: international Energy Annual 2004 Source: international Energy Annual 2004 USA USA Europe 5% 25% 5% USA Other Europe China 24% 50% China France USA Europe Other Europe Other 17% 65% China France France China France 1% Other 2% 6% •World daily consumption: 82 million barrels of crude oil • Oil currently available: 1081 billion barrels •Hence: 36 years of capacity at this level of consumption •Time to find solutions
  • 3. Outline 1. Definitions – Bioethanol, Biodiesel, SVO.., – Characteristics 2. Macro economic bioenergy environment in France 3. Installation of a crushing and filtering facility for SVO – Characteristics of SVO (definitions, ecological balance and energy efficiency …) – How To Use SVO? – Standards – Economic model 4. 2 Case Studies – Let’s brainstorm!
  • 4. Ethanol Ethanol production in France 2004 World Ethanol Production – From cereal (contracts with Source: Minist ere de l'economie, des f inances et de l'indust rie OS): wheat. 10% 2% – From sugar beat. 16% 36% Brasil USA ETBE (Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Asia Europe Ether) : Ethanol + Isobutene 36% Other – Is profitable for oil companies such as Total
  • 5. Biodiesel Diester : EMHV (Ester Méthylique d’Huile Végétale) = Biodiesel 2006 World Biodiesel Production (*,000 tons) Sour ce: Eur opean and amer ican biodiesel boar d 8% 10% – Vegetable oil + methanol + catalyst = Biodiesel + glycerine 13% – Production Contracts with OS or 35% France Germany Crusher. 23% Italy Industrial fallow Other EU contries USA Out fallow, with subsidies ($23/ac) 11% Canada
  • 6. CETIOM: Technical institute ONIDOL: Coordination FOP: Federation of all the professional PROLEA of oilseed growers organizations SOFIPROTEOL: Run the financial aspect
  • 7. French energy situation Gas tax (TIPP): 6.6% of the government income. 79% of gas price is tax. 70% of cars use diesel. 97.2% of fossil fuel is imported in Europe vs 60% in US
  • 8. In France Goal for 2010: French biofuel consumption Source: Ministere de l'économie des finances et de l'industrie 7% of fuel consumption from biofuels which would require 6 8 7 2009 2010 millions acres or 16% of the 2008 Consumption % 6 agricultural lands. 5 4 2007 Keep in mind that before the 3 2 2006 Industrial Revolution, farmers used 1 2005 approx. 30 to 40% of their land for 0 animal traction feed. French government supports: – Direct Tax credit: Years 2005 2010 Ethanol: $1.85/gal (to ethanol plant) Fossil fuel Biofuel Fossil fuel Biofuel Biodiesel: $1.65/gal (to biodiesel plant) Diesel 7,750,000 92,500 8,750,000 800,000 – Indirect tax credit: Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Unleaded 2,750,000 30,000 2,125,000 250,000 European Union Total 10,500,000 122,500 10,875,000 1,050,000
  • 9. US Situation Total gasoline tax in Colorado: 40.4 cents/gal and will increase 30 cents/ gal in the next 10 years. 20% of cars use diesel- not including freight, trucks Energy policy Act of 2005: - Section 1501: promote the use of biofuels - Goal 2006: 4 billion gallons (In 2006 more than 4 billon gallons of ethanol produced plus ~300 million gallons of biodiesel) - Goal 2012: 7.5 billion gallons - Tax credit: - Biodiesel: $1/gal for B100 or 1 cent per percent of biodiesel in the blend. - Ethanol: 51 cents/gal until 2010
  • 10. Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) from canola/sunflower. " SVO: Oils obtained from oilseed crops by simple cold pressure, without solvant, clarified and filtered, and without chemical modification" SVO is considered biofuel according to the European Directive 2003/30/CE (May, 2003). However, SVO is not recognized as biofuel by the French Legislation. Currently, agricultural uses are tolerated but are not legally accepted. As of January 1, 2007, SVO will be authorized as an agriculture fuel Why should we develop SVO? – Community based development – Improve energy security – Decrease production costs for growers – To change the public image of growers
  • 11. SVO, the key to limit air pollution. Regular EMHV EMHV SVO SVO Diesel Unleaded Canola Sunflower Canola Sunflower Restutued energy/ Non 0.873 0.917 2.99 3.16 5.45 6.33 renewable energy used Green house gas emissions 3650 3390 888 745 660 498 (q eq. CO2/kg) No dangerous polluants, such as benzène, lead or other heavy metals Sources : Valbiom - Direction générale de l’agriculture Région Wallonne ; Jacques Lambert ADVA 31 et IFHVP
  • 12. Oilseed Product and Properties 1 ton of oilseed 1/3 SVO + 2/3 meal 1 acre of canola (2500 lbs/ac) = 95 gal oil + 1,600 lbs meal 1 acre of sunflower (2000lbs/ac) = 75 gal oil + 1,200lbs meal Excellent miscibility with diesel Flash point is higher than diesel – Decreases with oil oxidation Corrosive nature: – Advantages/Disadvantages High viscosity, decrease with temp Variable concentration of gum and wax (or phospholipids) can be a problem for the engine (especially for low/freezing temps).
  • 13. European SVO Standards Using standardized SVO 36000 - German norm DIN 51605 - 36 39 Phosphorus content ≤ 12 mg/kg Contamination total ≤ 24 mg/kg 95 125 Moisture content ≤ 0.075% 10 Acid value ≤ 2mg KOH/g 24 6,0 No warranty on engine if SVO is 12 not standardized
  • 14. Auger Tank1 Crusher Tank2 Canola Pump Settling tank Meal Tractor
  • 15. Crusher and Filter Unfiltered oil Filtered Seed oil Meal SVO
  • 16. Using SVO as Fuel First Step - An adapted diesel engine If, indirect injection engine with low pressure system fuel will need to be blended : – 30% SVO in winter, 50% SVO in summer (without modification) – 70% SVO by modifying the injectors – 100% SVO by modifying the injectors and adding a fuel filter heater Fuel filter heater price: $50 to $100. If, direct injection engine low pressure system fuel will need to be blended : – 0 to 25% SVO if injection pump is weak (ex : Lucas) – 30% SVO in winter, 50% SVO in summer if adapted pump – 100% SVO with a Bi-Fuel Kit – 100% SVO if modifications of the engine Bi-Fuel Kit Elsett price: $3,500 Direct injection engine high pressure fuel will need to be blended (lastest development) : – 25% SVO in winter, 30% SVO in summer – 100% SVO with a Bi-Fuel Kit or after engine modifications
  • 17. Press: 100lbs/h Press : 100lbs/h Press : 250 lbs/h Investment : $26,000 Investment : $61,000 Investment : $193,750 Surface : 40.8 ac Surface : 312 ac Surface : 768 ac Oilseed production : 42 T Oilseed production : 325 T Oilseed production : 790 T Utilisation time : 940 h Utilization time : 7,200 h Utilization time : 7,200 h SVO : 3,925 gal SVO: 30,000 gal SVO : 75,000 gal Meal : 27 T Meal : 205 T Meal : 490 T = 41 T/month Average plant Average plant Centralized under- Optimal use plant Yield (assuming 2,500 lbs/ac) exploited $250/T $160/T SCENARIO 1 : meal sale for livestock $250/T $23.5 $41.7 Net return per acre - $39 $187/T $187/T SCENARIO 2 : meal sale such as combustible $187/T - $17 $66 Net return per acre - $80 SCENARIO 3 : without meal sale - $ 139 -$ 55 Net return per acre - $203 $250/T $150/T SCENARIO 4 : Meal sale and DPU $130/ac $250/T $155 $198 Net return per acre $ 91 $250/T 250/T SCENARIO 5:proceeds from oilseed sale $250/T $70 $70 Net Return with DPU $130/ac $70 - $60 -$60 Net Return without DPU - $60
  • 18. Two Case Studies of Oilseed Crushing Systems Mr. Gérard Donlencourt : Acreage: 804 acres rainfed Livestock: - 50 dairy cows - 80 head beef cattle - 440 sows Labor: 5 full-time employees Crops - 432 acres canola, wheat and corn
  • 19. Canola Production for Shared Crusher 96 rainfed acres among 4 growers Ave yield: 2500 lbs/ac SVO production:10,000 gal/yr Investment: $17,000 (4 growers) Blend: From 30% to 80% SVO with diesel and 2% unleaded gasoline and requires heater around the diesel filter. Tractor brand: CASE III 130 horsepower Meal utilization: 9lbs/day/cow & 8% of the pig ration
  • 20. Crusher Command panel Characteristics: •>100 lbs/hr •Manufacturer: La Mécanique Moderne •Price: $7,437.5
  • 21. Auger of the Crusher Auger cage Characteristics: •Clean after use •Maintenance: replacement of bearing
  • 22. Bulk Bag Low Level Detector to turn off the crusher and the auger
  • 23. Filter (3 microns) Characteristics: •>100gal/day •Cleaning: 800gal/hr Perlit: improves the Manufacturer : G & P, cleaning Un rue hector berlioz 38210 Tullins, Tel: 0033 04 76 07 88 88 Price: $3,875 SVO flow
  • 24. Heater on the Tractor Hot water flow from radiator Diesel Filter
  • 25. How Profitable for Gerard? Fixed Cost Purchase cost Morgage (years) Annual cost $/gal Crusher $7 438 7 $1 063 $0,.06 Filter $3 875 7 $554 $0.055 Tank $1 450 7 $207 $0.021 Silo $1 375 7 $196 $0.020 Installation $3 000 7 $429 $0.043 Total equipment $17 138 $2 448 $0.245 Annual Fixed Cost $17 138 $2 448 $0.245 Variable Cost Electricity $171 $171 $0.017 Maintenance $56 $56 $0.006 Meal Storage $148 $148 $0.015 Oil Analysis $150 $150 $0.015 Annual Variable Cost $525 $0.053 TOTAL Crushing Cost $2 973 $0.297 Value of seed per gal of oil $ based on oilseed price and meal price ($260 and $160) $1.56 Total Cost Per Gallon $ $2.11 Diesel Price for Farmers (tax credit) $3
  • 26. Marc Lebaillif Acreage: 480 acres Production: - 80 dairy cows - Crops: canola, wheat, bean, corn. Marc has been crushing since 1998. Canola production for SVO: 8,8 acres. Oilseed crushed: 12 tons: SVO: 1,000 gal/years. Investment: $4,000 Blend: two Case tractors run with 100% of SVO and others at 30% His Volkswagen Golf runs with 30% of SVO
  • 27. Crusher from Germany Heater to increase yield SVO
  • 29. Filter (20 microns) Second filter: 5 microns Pump to inject in the one micron filter
  • 30. Storage tank Meal Meal size
  • 31. How Profitable for Case 2? Equipment morgage (10 years) 437.5 Electricity (years consumption 250 Equipment morgage (10 years) 437.5 Canola yield lbs/acre 4,000 Electricity (years consumption) 250 Total production tons 12 Meal production (ton/year) 8 Canola production cost per ton 144 SVO production (gal) 1000 Meal market $/ton 160 Cost/gal $ based on market pricr for oilseed and Meal production (ton/year) 8 meal ($269 and $160) 2.5515 SVO production (gal) 1,000 Farmers Diesel price $ 3 Cost/gal $ 1.14 Save per gallon $ 0.4485 Red fuel price $ 3 Save per gallon $ 1.86
  • 32. Freedom Questions? Thanks! Nicolas Enjalbert Intern - Purpan University Toulouse, France with CSU Crops Testing