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An integrated strategy “soil-to-engine”
  for Moroccan territorial development
  and biofuels-based energy generation


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Conceiving a possible strategy
  for Moroccan territorial development
Morocco is dominated by the Mediterranean climate as rainfall occurs mostly
within the cool season, whilst the warm season is dry.
The main bioclimatic subdivisions are:
- Saharan or desert, with annual rainfall less than 100 mm and erratic. Winter
temperatures are mild along the Atlantic coast, but become cool some 10 km
inland and cold further inland;
- Arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm. This concerns
the southern fringe of the Atlas mountains, the Moulouya Valley, the Eastern
High Plateaus, the Souss plain and the plains north of the Atlas. The Pre-
Saharan zone, bound by the 100 mm and the 200 mm isohyets and extending
over 5.7 million hectares, belongs to this bioclimatic zone.

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Conceiving a possible strategy
   for Moroccan territorial development


- Semi-arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm to 600 mm. This concerns
the major cereal regions such as the plains of Doukkala, Chaouia, Gharb, Saiss,
as well as large portions of the Anti Atlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas, Central
Plateau, the Pre-Rif zone and the Eastern Rif mountain range;


-Sub-humid, with annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 800 mm, encountered
within the mountain ranges of the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and on
localised coastal area (Western Mamora cork-oak forest).




 Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
 ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                         pittalug@unige.it
 Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                         http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Conceiving a possible strategy
  for Moroccan territorial development




                Morocco physical map and annual rainfall
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Conceiving a possible strategy                                    TECNOFOREST Co.

  for Moroccan territorial development
Traditional societies resorted to tribal prayers and dance rituals to induce rain.


Morocco has taken a more scientific approach. For over three decades, the
Country has been developing high-tech solutions to fight drought, increase
snow coverage and better understand precipitation.


The chief focus is Morocco's programme to develop artificial precipitation. Rain
can be induced by flying through clouds and spreading a combination of silver,
sodium and acetone. However, clouds must be extremely cold. To determine
when they have reached a suitable temperature, the sky must be observed with
radar and other sophisticated technology.

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Conceiving a possible strategy                                    TECNOFOREST Co.

   for Moroccan territorial development
An alternative strategy could be based on soil natural fertilization as induced by
an extensive, progressive establishment of a vegetation canopy.
Whilst sub-humid zones could become candidate for self-fertilizing rapid-growth
forestation, arid zones could be positively addressed to oil-seeds cultivation.
Forestation activities may induce a progressive increase of local levels in evapo-
transpiration with remarkable improvement of local micro-climate.
On the other side, biomass (from wood) and bio-oil (from oil seeds) may become
valuable biofuels for territorial energy generation and also energy ‘commodities’
with interesting market value at international level.
Let us introduce a proposal conceived, at the University of Genova, jointly by
DIMSET/SCL and TECNOFOREST, an academic spin-off in the ‘Bio-Energies’ field.

 Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
 ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                         pittalug@unige.it
 Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                         http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Soil characterization
  and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques
TECNOFOREST is an engineering/ agronomic company, recently established
as a University spin-off (from DIMSET/SCL) endowed with a germplasm bank
 and an annexed arboreal seedlings nursery.

A germ-plasm bank is essentially an arboreal seeds’ organised collection
comprising, in sequence, the following sections:

• seeds desiccation
• seeds conservation
• activated germination

The ”Conservation area” is equipped with refrigeration systems ( - 20 °C)
suitable to strongly reduce seeds’ metabolism, in a temperature/humidity
controlled environment. By these means, seeds can be conserved for very
long times. They can also be pre-conditioned for activated germination.



Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
                                                  The Germ-Plasm Bank




       Arboreal Seeds                          Desiccation -      Refrigeration




Freezer cells
 with seeds’
  containers                                                                       Trees’
                                                                                seedlings




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
Soil characterization
and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques


 When the sowing operation is planned to start, the seeds are taken out
 from the refrigeration cells in order to undergo a bio-fermentation process
 in dedicated fermenters, at about 35 °C temperature in a saturated water
 vapor environment. These conditions induce a safe, rapid and efficient
 activation of the seeds’ germination.

 In a first scenario, named AHS, “Aerial Hydro Seeding”, situation-specific
 hydro-mixtures are prepared by properly selecting quantities and species
 of the germinating seeds. Then, these latter undergo mixing, in airborne
 “pouring tanks”, with rain water containing biodynamic nutrients and
 binding agents. Finally, from the tanks being carried by helicopters, the
 above hydro-mixtures can be sprayed over wide territorial expanses, even
 of difficult reach or at all unaccessible by land.

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
Soil characterization
and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques




                                       Aerial Hydro-Seeding Modalities




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
Soil characterization
and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques



A very interesting variant of Hydro-Seeding technique is called Osmopriming,
which has been specifically conceived for helping seeds’ germination and root-
taking in arid environments. In general, seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy
for inducing seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic
activity prior to emergence of the radicle.

Osmopriming is a technique by which seeds (in particular oil-rich seeds) are
soaked in osmotic solutions, such as polyethylene glycol, characterised by a
powerful and time-prolonged seed-hydration capacity. Typically, germinating
seeds, soaked into the osmotic solution, are embedded (in regular order) within
long, biodegradable tissue strips to be deployed, row by row, even for
hundredths of hectares, on arid terrains. By this means, mechanical harvesting
is also remarkably favoured and enhanced.
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry

In an alternative scenario, named RGCF, “Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry”,
the germinating seeds are planted in a tree nursery so to become, after about
10 months, seedlings (25-30 cm tall) ready to be transplanted into the target
territory.

The families and species of the tree seedlings, rich in biodiversity, belong to
the “hardwood” type (high lignin content): they, organised in so-called
“consociated woods”, are characterised by peculiar soil (‘humus’) enriching
activity and rapid growth. Their wood is particularly rich in calorific value.

Typical consociated trees are the following: Syberian Elm, Field Elm, Ciliate
Elm, Ash Oxyphyllus, Wild Cherry, Myrobalan, Prunus Mahaleb, Torminalis
Sorb, Bohemian Olive tree, Field Maple and some others.


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry




                                                            Tree Seedlings Nursery
                                                            (TECNOFOREST Co.)



Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry




                                                                    Seedlings
                                                                    Transplanting
                                                                    (April 2008)




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry




                                                                    Seedlings
                                                                    Transplanting
                                                                    (April 2008)




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
TECNOFOREST Co.
                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry




                                                                    Seedlings
                                                                    Transplanting
                                                                    (April 2008)




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                  TECNOFOREST Co.




date: July 2008,
3 months from transplanting

 RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES                           date: August 2008,
                                                     4 months from transplanting

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.




                date: October 2009, 18 months from transplanting

                     RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.




                date: July 2010, 28 months from transplanting

                     RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.




                                                      Consociated Wood
                                                      at Carpi (Emilia Region)

                                                      8 years from transplanting




                                                    RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Solid Biomass Conversion Technologies




                                                   




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
pittalug@unige.it
http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL




 Torrefaction is a feasible method for improving the properties of biomass as
 a fuel. It consists of a slow heating of biomass in an inert atmosphere to a
 maximum temperature of 300 °C. The treatment yields a solid uniform
 product with quite lower volume and moisture contents and sensibly higher
 heat values compared to those in the initial biomass.

 It is a predictable, flexible fuel with optimum combustion and transport
 economies. Due to the low moisture content of torrefied wood, the transport
 cost is lower and the quality as a fuel is higher. It is easily packaged,
 standardised and transported, and thus constitutes an efficient fuel.


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL




                                                                      Wood
                                                                      Torrefaction
                                                                      Machine




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Wood-Biomass Combustion for Boiler Application




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Biomass Gasification at
                                                DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Biomass Gasification at
                                                DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL




                                                                          BioSyn 10
                                                                          Gasifier
                                                                          operational
                                                                          on its
                                                                          ‘power
                                                                          pallet’




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL




                                                                            BioSyn 10
                                                                            Gasifier
                                                                            operational
                                                                            on its
                                                                            ‘power
                                                                            pallet’




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies
                        Biomass pyrolysis processes

                    Flash        Fast       Medium        Slow
                  >106 W/m2    >105 W/m2   >104 W/m2    >103 W/m2




                                                                           Gas

                                                                           Bio-oil

                                                                           Char




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies
      Biomass flash-pyrolysis pilot plant at DIMSET/SCL




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories
                                      Jatropha curcas:
                                      a “powerful, grow-it anywhere” oil plant



                                                                   Fruits


                                        kanpurdehat.nic.in

  http://www.weihenstephan.de/blm/l
  eu/forschung/abbildungen/pugier
 Family:       Euphorbiaceae                                       Seeds
 Subfamily:    Crotonoideae
 Tribe:        Jatropheae
 Genus:        Jatropha
 Species:      curcas

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories


                             • Cultivation is uncomplicated. Jatropha curcas
                                grows in tropical and subtropical regions.
                             • The plant can grow on almost any terrain, even on
                                gravelly, sandy and saline soils.
                             • It can thrive in poor and stony soils.
                             • Complete germination is achieved within 9 days.
                             • No manure adding is needed during germination.
                             • It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields
                                faster results than multiplication by seeds.




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories

                             • Flowers develop only at stems’ ends, so a good
                               ramification yields the greatest amount of fruits.
                             • The plants are self-compatible (self-fertilizing).
                             • Jatropha thrives on a mere 250 mm of rain a year.
                             • Only during its first two years it needs some water
                               in the closing days of the dry season.
                             • This shrub has a life expectancy of 40 years.
                             • Pesticides are not needed: curcas is poisonous,
                               pesticidal and fungicidal by itself.
                             • The plant starts yielding from 9–12 months time,
                               best yields are obtained after 2 – 3 years time.


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories

                             • Inflorescence: up to 10 fruits.
                             • Each fruit contains 3 dark seeds about 1.5 - 2 cm
                                 long and 0.7 - 1 g weight.
                             • Seed production is around 0.7 - 2 kg/plant which
                                 corresponds to 3.5 tons/hectare
                             •   Propagation through seed (sexual propagation)
                                 leads to high genetic variability in terms of growth,
                                 biomass, seed yield, oil content. Clonal techniques
                                 can help in optimizing this issue.
                             • Vegetative propagation can be achieved by stem
                                 cuttings, grafting, budding and air layering.


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories
                           • Seed-oil extraction is achievable by appropriate
                              technologies, of mechanical or hydraulic type.
                           • Seed-oil content varies from 28% to 35%: one
                              hectare of plantation will thus give from 1.6 to 2 ton
                              of oil, for average soils.
                           • Jatropha oil is not edible, as it induces strong
                              vomiting and diarrhea (“spurge”).
                           • The oily seeds are processed into oil, which may be
                              used directly (“straight vegetable oil") to fuel
                              stationary internal combustion engines or may be
                              subjected to transesterification to produce biodiesel
                              for road vehicle applications.

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
…and finally: Jatropha Curcas as a Multi-Purpose Tree
• Full plant:    erosion control, fire wood, hedge plant
• Bark:          rich in tannin, dark blu dye
• Leaves:        rearing of silkworm, dyeing, anti-inflammatory substance
• Latex:         has pesticidal and mollusc control properties
• Flowers:       attract bees, potential use honey production
• Seed oil:      soap production, insecticide, lubrificant, fuel
• Seed cake:     fertiliser, biogas, fodder (detoxified varieties)
• Seed shells: combustibile
• Fruit hulls:   green manure, biogas
• Roots:         oil with anti-helminthic properties




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines


   Overall Scenario of Bio-Fuels derived from Solid Biomass and Oily-Seeds




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Biorefinery processes for Biodiesel Production
                              Biodiesel Reaction
        Combining :                                                  Yields:



       Vegetable Oil
         (100 kg)                                                 Biodiesel
             +                                                    (100 kg)
       Methanol or
                                                                      +
         Ethanol
          (10 kg)                                                 Glycerin
             +                                                     (10 kg)
    Sodium Hydroxide
    as catalyst (5 kg)


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines

         Straight vegetable oil as bio-fuel for stationary engines




    Liquid Bio-Fuels Compatible with Engine Manufacturers’ Specifications


Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Bio-Oil Fueled Power Generation at DIMSET/SCL




             Deutz 250 kW, 1500 rpm, diesel genset at DIMSET/SCL


Join the international Jatropha Club at: www.futureenergyevents.com/jatropha

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Analytical &Thermochemical Laboratory at DIMSET/SCL
                       (for Bio-Fuels Certified Characterizations)




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Operative Conclusions

  •   DIMSET/SCL is ready to pursue, jointly with Moroccan institutions
      and partner teams, a programme of agronomic/ technological
      initiatives aimed at territorial sustainable development and intelligent
      energy solutions deployment


  •   TECNOFOREST can provide agronomic know-how, resources and
      related technologies: arboreal seeds selection and development ,
      arboreal seedlings supply (from Italy) and local settlements (in
      Morocco) of seedlings’ nurseries , hydroseeding technologies, rapid
      growth consociated forestry technologies and growth monitoring,
      jatropha curcas seeds’ genetic development and propagation
      technologies.
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Operative Conclusions




 •   DIMSET/SCL can also provide know-how and technologies in wood
     certified characterization (mechanical and thermo-chemical properties),
     thermal pre-treatments (desiccation, torrefaction, carbonisation) and
     energy utilisation (combustion, gasification, conversion to liquid fuels).


 •   TECNOFOREST , jointly with DIMSET/SCL, can supply expertise for
     jatropha curcas cultivation, periodic harvesting, bio-oil extraction and
     analytical/thermo-chemical characterization.



Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Operative Conclusions




 •   DIMSET/SCL can further provide know-how and technologies in
     distributed energy generation for local cogeneration of heat and power
     (biomass fueled power-plants via combustion or gasification, bio-oil
     fueled internal combustion engines) and related heat-and-power
     distribution networks (smart grids)


 •   DIMSET/SCL is closely linked with manufacturers and providers of
     biorefinery technologies (oil seeds milling, extraction and purification,
     bio-oil chemical conversion to biodiesel, fermentation reactors, etc.)

Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
Thank you for your attention




Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova
‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory
                                        pittalug@unige.it
Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale
                                        http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/

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Soil to Engine Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Biofuels Energy Generation

  • 1. An integrated strategy “soil-to-engine” for Moroccan territorial development and biofuels-based energy generation Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 2. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial development Morocco is dominated by the Mediterranean climate as rainfall occurs mostly within the cool season, whilst the warm season is dry. The main bioclimatic subdivisions are: - Saharan or desert, with annual rainfall less than 100 mm and erratic. Winter temperatures are mild along the Atlantic coast, but become cool some 10 km inland and cold further inland; - Arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm. This concerns the southern fringe of the Atlas mountains, the Moulouya Valley, the Eastern High Plateaus, the Souss plain and the plains north of the Atlas. The Pre- Saharan zone, bound by the 100 mm and the 200 mm isohyets and extending over 5.7 million hectares, belongs to this bioclimatic zone. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 3. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial development - Semi-arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm to 600 mm. This concerns the major cereal regions such as the plains of Doukkala, Chaouia, Gharb, Saiss, as well as large portions of the Anti Atlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas, Central Plateau, the Pre-Rif zone and the Eastern Rif mountain range; -Sub-humid, with annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 800 mm, encountered within the mountain ranges of the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and on localised coastal area (Western Mamora cork-oak forest). Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 4. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial development Morocco physical map and annual rainfall Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 5. Conceiving a possible strategy TECNOFOREST Co. for Moroccan territorial development Traditional societies resorted to tribal prayers and dance rituals to induce rain. Morocco has taken a more scientific approach. For over three decades, the Country has been developing high-tech solutions to fight drought, increase snow coverage and better understand precipitation. The chief focus is Morocco's programme to develop artificial precipitation. Rain can be induced by flying through clouds and spreading a combination of silver, sodium and acetone. However, clouds must be extremely cold. To determine when they have reached a suitable temperature, the sky must be observed with radar and other sophisticated technology. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 6. Conceiving a possible strategy TECNOFOREST Co. for Moroccan territorial development An alternative strategy could be based on soil natural fertilization as induced by an extensive, progressive establishment of a vegetation canopy. Whilst sub-humid zones could become candidate for self-fertilizing rapid-growth forestation, arid zones could be positively addressed to oil-seeds cultivation. Forestation activities may induce a progressive increase of local levels in evapo- transpiration with remarkable improvement of local micro-climate. On the other side, biomass (from wood) and bio-oil (from oil seeds) may become valuable biofuels for territorial energy generation and also energy ‘commodities’ with interesting market value at international level. Let us introduce a proposal conceived, at the University of Genova, jointly by DIMSET/SCL and TECNOFOREST, an academic spin-off in the ‘Bio-Energies’ field. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 7. Soil characterization and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques TECNOFOREST is an engineering/ agronomic company, recently established as a University spin-off (from DIMSET/SCL) endowed with a germplasm bank and an annexed arboreal seedlings nursery. A germ-plasm bank is essentially an arboreal seeds’ organised collection comprising, in sequence, the following sections: • seeds desiccation • seeds conservation • activated germination The ”Conservation area” is equipped with refrigeration systems ( - 20 °C) suitable to strongly reduce seeds’ metabolism, in a temperature/humidity controlled environment. By these means, seeds can be conserved for very long times. They can also be pre-conditioned for activated germination. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 8. TECNOFOREST Co. The Germ-Plasm Bank Arboreal Seeds Desiccation - Refrigeration Freezer cells with seeds’ containers Trees’ seedlings Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 9. TECNOFOREST Co. Soil characterization and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques When the sowing operation is planned to start, the seeds are taken out from the refrigeration cells in order to undergo a bio-fermentation process in dedicated fermenters, at about 35 °C temperature in a saturated water vapor environment. These conditions induce a safe, rapid and efficient activation of the seeds’ germination. In a first scenario, named AHS, “Aerial Hydro Seeding”, situation-specific hydro-mixtures are prepared by properly selecting quantities and species of the germinating seeds. Then, these latter undergo mixing, in airborne “pouring tanks”, with rain water containing biodynamic nutrients and binding agents. Finally, from the tanks being carried by helicopters, the above hydro-mixtures can be sprayed over wide territorial expanses, even of difficult reach or at all unaccessible by land. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 10. TECNOFOREST Co. Soil characterization and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques Aerial Hydro-Seeding Modalities Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 11. TECNOFOREST Co. Soil characterization and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques A very interesting variant of Hydro-Seeding technique is called Osmopriming, which has been specifically conceived for helping seeds’ germination and root- taking in arid environments. In general, seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for inducing seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle. Osmopriming is a technique by which seeds (in particular oil-rich seeds) are soaked in osmotic solutions, such as polyethylene glycol, characterised by a powerful and time-prolonged seed-hydration capacity. Typically, germinating seeds, soaked into the osmotic solution, are embedded (in regular order) within long, biodegradable tissue strips to be deployed, row by row, even for hundredths of hectares, on arid terrains. By this means, mechanical harvesting is also remarkably favoured and enhanced. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 12. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry In an alternative scenario, named RGCF, “Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry”, the germinating seeds are planted in a tree nursery so to become, after about 10 months, seedlings (25-30 cm tall) ready to be transplanted into the target territory. The families and species of the tree seedlings, rich in biodiversity, belong to the “hardwood” type (high lignin content): they, organised in so-called “consociated woods”, are characterised by peculiar soil (‘humus’) enriching activity and rapid growth. Their wood is particularly rich in calorific value. Typical consociated trees are the following: Syberian Elm, Field Elm, Ciliate Elm, Ash Oxyphyllus, Wild Cherry, Myrobalan, Prunus Mahaleb, Torminalis Sorb, Bohemian Olive tree, Field Maple and some others. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 13. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Tree Seedlings Nursery (TECNOFOREST Co.) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 14. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 15. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 16. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 17. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. date: July 2008, 3 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES date: August 2008, 4 months from transplanting Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 18. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. date: October 2009, 18 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 19. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. date: July 2010, 28 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 20. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. Consociated Wood at Carpi (Emilia Region) 8 years from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 21. Solid Biomass Conversion Technologies Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 22. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 23. F. Pittaluga – University of Genova DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 24. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 25. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Torrefaction is a feasible method for improving the properties of biomass as a fuel. It consists of a slow heating of biomass in an inert atmosphere to a maximum temperature of 300 °C. The treatment yields a solid uniform product with quite lower volume and moisture contents and sensibly higher heat values compared to those in the initial biomass. It is a predictable, flexible fuel with optimum combustion and transport economies. Due to the low moisture content of torrefied wood, the transport cost is lower and the quality as a fuel is higher. It is easily packaged, standardised and transported, and thus constitutes an efficient fuel. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 26. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 27. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 28. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 29. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Wood Torrefaction Machine Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 30. Wood-Biomass Combustion for Boiler Application Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 31. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 32. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 33. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL BioSyn 10 Gasifier operational on its ‘power pallet’ Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 34. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL BioSyn 10 Gasifier operational on its ‘power pallet’ Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 35. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 36. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies Biomass pyrolysis processes Flash Fast Medium Slow >106 W/m2 >105 W/m2 >104 W/m2 >103 W/m2 Gas Bio-oil Char Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 37. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies Biomass flash-pyrolysis pilot plant at DIMSET/SCL Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 38. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories Jatropha curcas: a “powerful, grow-it anywhere” oil plant Fruits kanpurdehat.nic.in http://www.weihenstephan.de/blm/l eu/forschung/abbildungen/pugier Family: Euphorbiaceae Seeds Subfamily: Crotonoideae Tribe: Jatropheae Genus: Jatropha Species: curcas Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 39. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Cultivation is uncomplicated. Jatropha curcas grows in tropical and subtropical regions. • The plant can grow on almost any terrain, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. • It can thrive in poor and stony soils. • Complete germination is achieved within 9 days. • No manure adding is needed during germination. • It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 40. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Flowers develop only at stems’ ends, so a good ramification yields the greatest amount of fruits. • The plants are self-compatible (self-fertilizing). • Jatropha thrives on a mere 250 mm of rain a year. • Only during its first two years it needs some water in the closing days of the dry season. • This shrub has a life expectancy of 40 years. • Pesticides are not needed: curcas is poisonous, pesticidal and fungicidal by itself. • The plant starts yielding from 9–12 months time, best yields are obtained after 2 – 3 years time. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 41. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Inflorescence: up to 10 fruits. • Each fruit contains 3 dark seeds about 1.5 - 2 cm long and 0.7 - 1 g weight. • Seed production is around 0.7 - 2 kg/plant which corresponds to 3.5 tons/hectare • Propagation through seed (sexual propagation) leads to high genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield, oil content. Clonal techniques can help in optimizing this issue. • Vegetative propagation can be achieved by stem cuttings, grafting, budding and air layering. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 42. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Seed-oil extraction is achievable by appropriate technologies, of mechanical or hydraulic type. • Seed-oil content varies from 28% to 35%: one hectare of plantation will thus give from 1.6 to 2 ton of oil, for average soils. • Jatropha oil is not edible, as it induces strong vomiting and diarrhea (“spurge”). • The oily seeds are processed into oil, which may be used directly (“straight vegetable oil") to fuel stationary internal combustion engines or may be subjected to transesterification to produce biodiesel for road vehicle applications. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 43. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 44. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 45. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 46. …and finally: Jatropha Curcas as a Multi-Purpose Tree • Full plant: erosion control, fire wood, hedge plant • Bark: rich in tannin, dark blu dye • Leaves: rearing of silkworm, dyeing, anti-inflammatory substance • Latex: has pesticidal and mollusc control properties • Flowers: attract bees, potential use honey production • Seed oil: soap production, insecticide, lubrificant, fuel • Seed cake: fertiliser, biogas, fodder (detoxified varieties) • Seed shells: combustibile • Fruit hulls: green manure, biogas • Roots: oil with anti-helminthic properties Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 47. Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines Overall Scenario of Bio-Fuels derived from Solid Biomass and Oily-Seeds Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 48. Biorefinery processes for Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Reaction Combining : Yields: Vegetable Oil (100 kg) Biodiesel + (100 kg) Methanol or + Ethanol (10 kg) Glycerin + (10 kg) Sodium Hydroxide as catalyst (5 kg) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 49. Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines Straight vegetable oil as bio-fuel for stationary engines Liquid Bio-Fuels Compatible with Engine Manufacturers’ Specifications Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 50. Bio-Oil Fueled Power Generation at DIMSET/SCL Deutz 250 kW, 1500 rpm, diesel genset at DIMSET/SCL Join the international Jatropha Club at: www.futureenergyevents.com/jatropha Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 51. Analytical &Thermochemical Laboratory at DIMSET/SCL (for Bio-Fuels Certified Characterizations) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 52. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL is ready to pursue, jointly with Moroccan institutions and partner teams, a programme of agronomic/ technological initiatives aimed at territorial sustainable development and intelligent energy solutions deployment • TECNOFOREST can provide agronomic know-how, resources and related technologies: arboreal seeds selection and development , arboreal seedlings supply (from Italy) and local settlements (in Morocco) of seedlings’ nurseries , hydroseeding technologies, rapid growth consociated forestry technologies and growth monitoring, jatropha curcas seeds’ genetic development and propagation technologies. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 53. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL can also provide know-how and technologies in wood certified characterization (mechanical and thermo-chemical properties), thermal pre-treatments (desiccation, torrefaction, carbonisation) and energy utilisation (combustion, gasification, conversion to liquid fuels). • TECNOFOREST , jointly with DIMSET/SCL, can supply expertise for jatropha curcas cultivation, periodic harvesting, bio-oil extraction and analytical/thermo-chemical characterization. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 54. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL can further provide know-how and technologies in distributed energy generation for local cogeneration of heat and power (biomass fueled power-plants via combustion or gasification, bio-oil fueled internal combustion engines) and related heat-and-power distribution networks (smart grids) • DIMSET/SCL is closely linked with manufacturers and providers of biorefinery technologies (oil seeds milling, extraction and purification, bio-oil chemical conversion to biodiesel, fermentation reactors, etc.) Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  • 55. Thank you for your attention Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/