An integrated strategy “soil-to-engine”  for Moroccan territorial development  and biofuels-based energy generationAssembl...
Conceiving a possible strategy  for Moroccan territorial developmentMorocco is dominated by the Mediterranean climate as r...
Conceiving a possible strategy   for Moroccan territorial development- Semi-arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm...
Conceiving a possible strategy  for Moroccan territorial development                Morocco physical map and annual rainfa...
Conceiving a possible strategy                                    TECNOFOREST Co.  for Moroccan territorial developmentTra...
Conceiving a possible strategy                                    TECNOFOREST Co.   for Moroccan territorial developmentAn...
Soil characterization  and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniquesTECNOFOREST is an engineering/ agronomic compan...
TECNOFOREST Co.                                                  The Germ-Plasm Bank       Arboreal Seeds                 ...
TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques When the sowing operation is plan...
TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques                                  ...
TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniquesA very interesting variant of Hydr...
TECNOFOREST Co.Rapid-Growth Consociated ForestryIn an alternative scenario, named RGCF, “Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry...
TECNOFOREST Co.                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                            ...
TECNOFOREST Co.                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                            ...
TECNOFOREST Co.                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                            ...
TECNOFOREST Co.                              Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                            ...
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                  TECNOFOREST Co.date: July 2008,3 months from transplant...
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.                date: October 2009, 18 ...
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.                date: July 2010, 28 mon...
Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry                                   TECNOFOREST Co.                                       ...
Solid Biomass Conversion Technologies                                                   Assemblée Générale du RMEI        ...
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/...
F. Pittaluga – University of GenovaDIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratorypittalug@unige.ithttp://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it...
Assemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre          DIMSET/...
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Torrefaction is a feasible method for improving the properties of biomas...
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Geno...
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Geno...
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Geno...
Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL                                                                      Woo...
Wood-Biomass Combustion for Boiler ApplicationAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘...
Biomass Gasification at                                                DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F...
Biomass Gasification at                                                DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F...
Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL                                                                          BioSyn 10     ...
Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL                                                                            BioSyn 10   ...
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion TechnologiesAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘R...
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies                        Biomass pyrolysis processes                    Flash ...
Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies      Biomass flash-pyrolysis pilot plant at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories                                      Jatropha curcas:                          ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories                             • Cultivation is uncomplicated. Jatropha curcas    ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories                             • Flowers develop only at stems’ ends, so a good   ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories                             • Inflorescence: up to 10 fruits.                  ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories                           • Seed-oil extraction is achievable by appropriate   ...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Raba...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Raba...
Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Raba...
…and finally: Jatropha Curcas as a Multi-Purpose Tree• Full plant:    erosion control, fire wood, hedge plant• Bark:      ...
Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines   Overall Scenario of Bio-Fuels derived from Solid Biomass ...
Biorefinery processes for Biodiesel Production                              Biodiesel Reaction        Combining :         ...
Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines         Straight vegetable oil as bio-fuel for stationary e...
Bio-Oil Fueled Power Generation at DIMSET/SCL             Deutz 250 kW, 1500 rpm, diesel genset at DIMSET/SCLJoin the inte...
Analytical &Thermochemical Laboratory at DIMSET/SCL                       (for Bio-Fuels Certified Characterizations)Assem...
Operative Conclusions  •   DIMSET/SCL is ready to pursue, jointly with Moroccan institutions      and partner teams, a pro...
Operative Conclusions •   DIMSET/SCL can also provide know-how and technologies in wood     certified characterization (me...
Operative Conclusions •   DIMSET/SCL can further provide know-how and technologies in     distributed energy generation fo...
Thank you for your attentionAssemblée Générale du RMEI              F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-3...
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Soil to Engine Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Biofuels Energy Generation

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Soil to Engine Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Biofuels Energy Generation

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Soil to Engine Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Biofuels Energy Generation

  1. 1. An integrated strategy “soil-to-engine” for Moroccan territorial development and biofuels-based energy generationAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  2. 2. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial developmentMorocco is dominated by the Mediterranean climate as rainfall occurs mostlywithin the cool season, whilst the warm season is dry.The main bioclimatic subdivisions are:- Saharan or desert, with annual rainfall less than 100 mm and erratic. Wintertemperatures are mild along the Atlantic coast, but become cool some 10 kminland and cold further inland;- Arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm. This concernsthe southern fringe of the Atlas mountains, the Moulouya Valley, the EasternHigh Plateaus, the Souss plain and the plains north of the Atlas. The Pre-Saharan zone, bound by the 100 mm and the 200 mm isohyets and extendingover 5.7 million hectares, belongs to this bioclimatic zone.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  3. 3. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial development- Semi-arid, with annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm to 600 mm. This concernsthe major cereal regions such as the plains of Doukkala, Chaouia, Gharb, Saiss,as well as large portions of the Anti Atlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas, CentralPlateau, the Pre-Rif zone and the Eastern Rif mountain range;-Sub-humid, with annual rainfall ranging from 600 to 800 mm, encounteredwithin the mountain ranges of the Rif, the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas and onlocalised coastal area (Western Mamora cork-oak forest). Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  4. 4. Conceiving a possible strategy for Moroccan territorial development Morocco physical map and annual rainfallAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  5. 5. Conceiving a possible strategy TECNOFOREST Co. for Moroccan territorial developmentTraditional societies resorted to tribal prayers and dance rituals to induce rain.Morocco has taken a more scientific approach. For over three decades, theCountry has been developing high-tech solutions to fight drought, increasesnow coverage and better understand precipitation.The chief focus is Moroccos programme to develop artificial precipitation. Raincan be induced by flying through clouds and spreading a combination of silver,sodium and acetone. However, clouds must be extremely cold. To determinewhen they have reached a suitable temperature, the sky must be observed withradar and other sophisticated technology.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  6. 6. Conceiving a possible strategy TECNOFOREST Co. for Moroccan territorial developmentAn alternative strategy could be based on soil natural fertilization as induced byan extensive, progressive establishment of a vegetation canopy.Whilst sub-humid zones could become candidate for self-fertilizing rapid-growthforestation, arid zones could be positively addressed to oil-seeds cultivation.Forestation activities may induce a progressive increase of local levels in evapo-transpiration with remarkable improvement of local micro-climate.On the other side, biomass (from wood) and bio-oil (from oil seeds) may becomevaluable biofuels for territorial energy generation and also energy ‘commodities’with interesting market value at international level.Let us introduce a proposal conceived, at the University of Genova, jointly byDIMSET/SCL and TECNOFOREST, an academic spin-off in the ‘Bio-Energies’ field. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova ‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.it Ecole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  7. 7. Soil characterization and arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniquesTECNOFOREST is an engineering/ agronomic company, recently establishedas a University spin-off (from DIMSET/SCL) endowed with a germplasm bank and an annexed arboreal seedlings nursery.A germ-plasm bank is essentially an arboreal seeds’ organised collectioncomprising, in sequence, the following sections:• seeds desiccation• seeds conservation• activated germinationThe ”Conservation area” is equipped with refrigeration systems ( - 20 °C)suitable to strongly reduce seeds’ metabolism, in a temperature/humiditycontrolled environment. By these means, seeds can be conserved for verylong times. They can also be pre-conditioned for activated germination.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  8. 8. TECNOFOREST Co. The Germ-Plasm Bank Arboreal Seeds Desiccation - RefrigerationFreezer cells with seeds’ containers Trees’ seedlingsAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  9. 9. TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques When the sowing operation is planned to start, the seeds are taken out from the refrigeration cells in order to undergo a bio-fermentation process in dedicated fermenters, at about 35 °C temperature in a saturated water vapor environment. These conditions induce a safe, rapid and efficient activation of the seeds’ germination. In a first scenario, named AHS, “Aerial Hydro Seeding”, situation-specific hydro-mixtures are prepared by properly selecting quantities and species of the germinating seeds. Then, these latter undergo mixing, in airborne “pouring tanks”, with rain water containing biodynamic nutrients and binding agents. Finally, from the tanks being carried by helicopters, the above hydro-mixtures can be sprayed over wide territorial expanses, even of difficult reach or at all unaccessible by land.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  10. 10. TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniques Aerial Hydro-Seeding ModalitiesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  11. 11. TECNOFOREST Co.Soil characterizationand arboreal-seeds’ activated germination techniquesA very interesting variant of Hydro-Seeding technique is called Osmopriming,which has been specifically conceived for helping seeds’ germination and root-taking in arid environments. In general, seed priming is a pre-sowing strategyfor inducing seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolicactivity prior to emergence of the radicle.Osmopriming is a technique by which seeds (in particular oil-rich seeds) aresoaked in osmotic solutions, such as polyethylene glycol, characterised by apowerful and time-prolonged seed-hydration capacity. Typically, germinatingseeds, soaked into the osmotic solution, are embedded (in regular order) withinlong, biodegradable tissue strips to be deployed, row by row, even forhundredths of hectares, on arid terrains. By this means, mechanical harvestingis also remarkably favoured and enhanced.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  12. 12. TECNOFOREST Co.Rapid-Growth Consociated ForestryIn an alternative scenario, named RGCF, “Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry”,the germinating seeds are planted in a tree nursery so to become, after about10 months, seedlings (25-30 cm tall) ready to be transplanted into the targetterritory.The families and species of the tree seedlings, rich in biodiversity, belong tothe “hardwood” type (high lignin content): they, organised in so-called“consociated woods”, are characterised by peculiar soil (‘humus’) enrichingactivity and rapid growth. Their wood is particularly rich in calorific value.Typical consociated trees are the following: Syberian Elm, Field Elm, CiliateElm, Ash Oxyphyllus, Wild Cherry, Myrobalan, Prunus Mahaleb, TorminalisSorb, Bohemian Olive tree, Field Maple and some others.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  13. 13. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Tree Seedlings Nursery (TECNOFOREST Co.)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  14. 14. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  15. 15. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  16. 16. TECNOFOREST Co. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry Seedlings Transplanting (April 2008)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  17. 17. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co.date: July 2008,3 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREES date: August 2008, 4 months from transplantingAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  18. 18. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. date: October 2009, 18 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREESAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  19. 19. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. date: July 2010, 28 months from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREESAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  20. 20. Rapid-Growth Consociated Forestry TECNOFOREST Co. Consociated Wood at Carpi (Emilia Region) 8 years from transplanting RAPID GROWTH OF THE TREESAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  21. 21. Solid Biomass Conversion Technologies Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  22. 22. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  23. 23. F. Pittaluga – University of GenovaDIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratorypittalug@unige.ithttp://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  24. 24. Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  25. 25. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Torrefaction is a feasible method for improving the properties of biomass as a fuel. It consists of a slow heating of biomass in an inert atmosphere to a maximum temperature of 300 °C. The treatment yields a solid uniform product with quite lower volume and moisture contents and sensibly higher heat values compared to those in the initial biomass. It is a predictable, flexible fuel with optimum combustion and transport economies. Due to the low moisture content of torrefied wood, the transport cost is lower and the quality as a fuel is higher. It is easily packaged, standardised and transported, and thus constitutes an efficient fuel.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  26. 26. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  27. 27. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  28. 28. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  29. 29. Wood-Biomass Thermal Pre-Treatments at DIMSET/SCL Wood Torrefaction MachineAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  30. 30. Wood-Biomass Combustion for Boiler ApplicationAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  31. 31. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  32. 32. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  33. 33. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL BioSyn 10 Gasifier operational on its ‘power pallet’Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  34. 34. Biomass Gasification at DIMSET/SCL BioSyn 10 Gasifier operational on its ‘power pallet’Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  35. 35. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion TechnologiesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  36. 36. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies Biomass pyrolysis processes Flash Fast Medium Slow >106 W/m2 >105 W/m2 >104 W/m2 >103 W/m2 Gas Bio-oil CharAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  37. 37. Liquid Biofuel Energy Conversion Technologies Biomass flash-pyrolysis pilot plant at DIMSET/SCLAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  38. 38. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories Jatropha curcas: a “powerful, grow-it anywhere” oil plant Fruits kanpurdehat.nic.in http://www.weihenstephan.de/blm/l eu/forschung/abbildungen/pugier Family: Euphorbiaceae Seeds Subfamily: Crotonoideae Tribe: Jatropheae Genus: Jatropha Species: curcasAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  39. 39. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Cultivation is uncomplicated. Jatropha curcas grows in tropical and subtropical regions. • The plant can grow on almost any terrain, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. • It can thrive in poor and stony soils. • Complete germination is achieved within 9 days. • No manure adding is needed during germination. • It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  40. 40. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Flowers develop only at stems’ ends, so a good ramification yields the greatest amount of fruits. • The plants are self-compatible (self-fertilizing). • Jatropha thrives on a mere 250 mm of rain a year. • Only during its first two years it needs some water in the closing days of the dry season. • This shrub has a life expectancy of 40 years. • Pesticides are not needed: curcas is poisonous, pesticidal and fungicidal by itself. • The plant starts yielding from 9–12 months time, best yields are obtained after 2 – 3 years time.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  41. 41. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Inflorescence: up to 10 fruits. • Each fruit contains 3 dark seeds about 1.5 - 2 cm long and 0.7 - 1 g weight. • Seed production is around 0.7 - 2 kg/plant which corresponds to 3.5 tons/hectare • Propagation through seed (sexual propagation) leads to high genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield, oil content. Clonal techniques can help in optimizing this issue. • Vegetative propagation can be achieved by stem cuttings, grafting, budding and air layering.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  42. 42. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan Territories • Seed-oil extraction is achievable by appropriate technologies, of mechanical or hydraulic type. • Seed-oil content varies from 28% to 35%: one hectare of plantation will thus give from 1.6 to 2 ton of oil, for average soils. • Jatropha oil is not edible, as it induces strong vomiting and diarrhea (“spurge”). • The oily seeds are processed into oil, which may be used directly (“straight vegetable oil") to fuel stationary internal combustion engines or may be subjected to transesterification to produce biodiesel for road vehicle applications.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  43. 43. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  44. 44. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  45. 45. Bio-Oil Production on Moroccan TerritoriesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  46. 46. …and finally: Jatropha Curcas as a Multi-Purpose Tree• Full plant: erosion control, fire wood, hedge plant• Bark: rich in tannin, dark blu dye• Leaves: rearing of silkworm, dyeing, anti-inflammatory substance• Latex: has pesticidal and mollusc control properties• Flowers: attract bees, potential use honey production• Seed oil: soap production, insecticide, lubrificant, fuel• Seed cake: fertiliser, biogas, fodder (detoxified varieties)• Seed shells: combustibile• Fruit hulls: green manure, biogas• Roots: oil with anti-helminthic propertiesAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  47. 47. Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines Overall Scenario of Bio-Fuels derived from Solid Biomass and Oily-SeedsAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  48. 48. Biorefinery processes for Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Reaction Combining : Yields: Vegetable Oil (100 kg) Biodiesel + (100 kg) Methanol or + Ethanol (10 kg) Glycerin + (10 kg) Sodium Hydroxide as catalyst (5 kg)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  49. 49. Power generation by means of bio-oil fueled int. comb. engines Straight vegetable oil as bio-fuel for stationary engines Liquid Bio-Fuels Compatible with Engine Manufacturers’ SpecificationsAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  50. 50. Bio-Oil Fueled Power Generation at DIMSET/SCL Deutz 250 kW, 1500 rpm, diesel genset at DIMSET/SCLJoin the international Jatropha Club at: www.futureenergyevents.com/jatrophaAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  51. 51. Analytical &Thermochemical Laboratory at DIMSET/SCL (for Bio-Fuels Certified Characterizations)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  52. 52. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL is ready to pursue, jointly with Moroccan institutions and partner teams, a programme of agronomic/ technological initiatives aimed at territorial sustainable development and intelligent energy solutions deployment • TECNOFOREST can provide agronomic know-how, resources and related technologies: arboreal seeds selection and development , arboreal seedlings supply (from Italy) and local settlements (in Morocco) of seedlings’ nurseries , hydroseeding technologies, rapid growth consociated forestry technologies and growth monitoring, jatropha curcas seeds’ genetic development and propagation technologies.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  53. 53. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL can also provide know-how and technologies in wood certified characterization (mechanical and thermo-chemical properties), thermal pre-treatments (desiccation, torrefaction, carbonisation) and energy utilisation (combustion, gasification, conversion to liquid fuels). • TECNOFOREST , jointly with DIMSET/SCL, can supply expertise for jatropha curcas cultivation, periodic harvesting, bio-oil extraction and analytical/thermo-chemical characterization.Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  54. 54. Operative Conclusions • DIMSET/SCL can further provide know-how and technologies in distributed energy generation for local cogeneration of heat and power (biomass fueled power-plants via combustion or gasification, bio-oil fueled internal combustion engines) and related heat-and-power distribution networks (smart grids) • DIMSET/SCL is closely linked with manufacturers and providers of biorefinery technologies (oil seeds milling, extraction and purification, bio-oil chemical conversion to biodiesel, fermentation reactors, etc.)Assemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/
  55. 55. Thank you for your attentionAssemblée Générale du RMEI F. Pittaluga – University of Genova‘Rabat 2011’ - 29-30 Septembre DIMSET/SCL – Savona Combustion Laboratory pittalug@unige.itEcole Nationale de l’Industrie Minérale http://proxy.sv.inge.unige.it/SCL/

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