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Elements and Principles of Design


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The presentation will give you a good understanding about the significance, meaning and the types of designing elements and principles. For more visit our website

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Elements and Principles of Design

  1. 1. The Elements & Principles of Design By: ADMEC Multimedia Institute
  2. 2. Introduction  I'm giving you the basic overview about the Elements and Principles of Designing.  The presentation will give you a good understanding about the significance, meaning and the types of designing elements and principles . What are they?? Why they were used??
  3. 3. Significance of the Topic Sometimes we have to give our opinion about likes or dislikes on a piece of art or a design, and it’s easy to say just “ I like this, or I don’t like that…”. But if we are asked to give the reasons for it , then it proves to be a very difficult to find out the reason. This generally happens because we judge the designs on its appeal rather than on its articulate sub-factors. Therefore it’s imperative to know the meaning and the types of the designing elements and principles. Can you evaluate this piece of art???
  4. 4. Designer who knows the design Elements & Principles can evaluate the design/page in terms of line, color, balance, texture, etc. Designing Elements and Principles proves to be an analyzing frame for the designers. A designer can express his thought & intentions with the elements of design and does it effectively along with the design principles, i.e. they serves as an expressing tool for designers. Now, let us discus these Elements & Principles!!!
  5. 5. Elements Of Design
  6. 6. Meaning “Elements of Design are the components or part which can be isolated & defined in any visual design or work of art. They structure and carry the work.”
  7. 7. Basic Elements of Design  Following are the seven basic elements of design which are common throughout the field of designing. 1. Point / Mark 2. Line 3. Shape 4. Forms 5. Space 6. Color 7. Texture Can someone tell us about the Elements of Design???
  8. 8. Point (Mark)  A point or mark is the smallest and most basic element . It can vary in size, value, regularity or irregularity, and can be used alone as a unit in a group.  Marks can be used to form a value or pattern ( placed close together forms a darker value, further apart forms a lighter value), or to delineate space ( larger means closer,etc.)
  9. 9. Line  A line is a form with width and length, but no depth.  Artist use lines to create edges, the outlines of objects. The direction of a line can convey mood.  Broadly lines can be categorized into three types 1. Horizontal 2. Vertical 3. Diagonal
  10. 10. Example of Horizontal Lines  Horizontal lines are calm and quiet.
  11. 11. Example of Vertical Lines  Vertical lines suggest more of a potential for movement.
  12. 12. Example of Diagonal Lines  Diagonal lines strongly suggest movements and give more of a feeling of vitality to a picture.
  13. 13. Shape  Shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or texture.  A shape is formed when a line encloses an area.  Shapes have two dimensions, length and width and can be geometric or free-form.
  14. 14. Forms  Forms describes volumes and mass, or the 3D aspects of objects that take up space.  Forms can and should be viewed from any angles. For example: When you hold a baseball, or a small sculpture, you are aware of their curves, angles, indentations, & edges i.e. their forms.
  15. 15. Space  Space is a 3D volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has width, height, and depth.  Space that appears three- dimensional in a 2D painting is an illusion that creates a feeling of actual depth.  Several techniques can be used to show such visual depth or space, for example, overlapping, linear perspective, etc.. Example for Overlapping
  16. 16. Other Examples Detail (aerial or atmospheric perspective) Linear perspective ( converging lines )
  17. 17. Color  Color has three properties. The first is hue, which is the name of the colors. - the primary hue are Yellow, Red, and Blue. - secondary colors are made by mixing two primaries. - intermediate colors are mixtures of a primary & adjacent secondary color.  The second property is Value, which refers to the lightness or darkness of hue.  The third property is Intensity, which refers to the purity of the hue also known as “Chroma”.
  18. 18. Examples Color Wheel Value Scale
  19. 19. Texture  Texture refers to the surface quality, both simulated and actual, of artwork.
  20. 20. Meaning “The Principles of Design are the artistic guidelines used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design.”
  21. 21. Basic Principles of Designing  Following are the six basic principles of effective design which are common throughout the field of designing (i.e. from print design to lithography, typography, & industrial design). 1. Balance 2. Contrast 3. Emphasis 4. Pattern 5. Rhythm/Movement 6. Unity Principles ???
  22. 22. Balance  Balance refers to the appropriate arrangement of objects in a design to create the impression of equality in weight or importance. Balance provides stability and structure to a design. Balance may be symmetrical and asymmetrical, but the goal should be to achieve equilibrium.  Symmetrical Balance can be described as having equal “weight” on equal sides of a centrally placed fulcrum. It is also known as formal balance.  Asymmetrical Balance is more complex and difficult top envisage. It involves placement of objects in a way that will allow objects of varying visual weight to balance one another around a fulcrum point. It is also known as informal balance.
  23. 23. Examples Balance is formal when both sides are symmetrical in terms of arrangement. Balance is informal when sides are not exactly symmetrical, but the resulting image is still balanced.
  24. 24. Rhythm  Rhythm or movement is regarded as a visual temp or beat. It refers to a regular repetition of elements to produce the look and feel of a movement.  Rhythm can be achieved through the careful placement of repeated components. It can be directed for example, along edges & by means of shape and colour.  Rhythm can be categorized Random, Regular, Alternating, Progressive, and Flowing.
  25. 25. Emphasis  The term emphasis literally means to give importance.  Emphasis in designing refers to give special attention to one part of a work of art.  It can be achieved through placement, contrast, colour, size, repetition, etc. For example: A dark shape in a light composition
  26. 26. Contrast  Contrast refers to the juxtaposition of different elements of design (for example: rough & smooth textures, dark & light values)in order to highlight their differences or create visual interest , or a focal point.  Contrast allows us to emphasize or highlight key elements in your design.
  27. 27. Pattern  Pattern in a design simply refers to keeping your design in a certain format.  It is often described as a regular arrangement of alternated or repeated elements (shapes, lines, colors) or motifs. For example: One could plan to have curved lines all around a design as a pattern.
  28. 28. Unity  Unity refers to the arrangement of elements to give the viewer the feeling that all the parts of the design or piece form a coherent whole i.e. designs must be in harmony in which all sections of the pattern make other sections feel complete.  It enables the design to be seen as one complete piece of art or design.
  29. 29. Absolute examples of Designing Elements & Principles!!! One can create such aesthetic piece of art if he strictly adhere to all Elements & Principles of Designing. Paintings by student of ADMEC
  30. 30. Compiled By Pooja Jindal ADMEC Multimedia Institute For more info you can visit For course related enquiry, ring us at: 9811-81-81-22, 011-3130-5055, 011-3203-5055 Can send feedback at: @admecinstitute