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The Argumentative Environment


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Argumentative Environment provides us an idea about the history of argumentation that originated during the Ancient Greeks. From philosopher Corax, known as the" father "of persuasion, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and many more. This powerpoint is about Aristotle's philosophy of arguments known as Rhetorical Approach which is described as the process for discovering all of the available means of artistic persuasion on any subject.

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The Argumentative Environment

  2. 2. <ul><li>Argumentation is the act or process of forming reasons and drawing conclusions and applying them to a case or discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>RHETORICAL APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>- Is the process of discovering all of the available means of “artistic” persuasion on any subject. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>PERSUASION </li></ul><ul><li>- is achieved by the speaker’s personal character where the speech is so credible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>RHETORICAL PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>1.Truth and justice maybe guarded against falsehood and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>2. Debate maybe conducted in the absence of absolute truth </li></ul><ul><li>3. Both sides of a claim maybe presented </li></ul><ul><li>4.Proof to establish a probability of a position maybe developed </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>ELEMENTS OF PROOF IN RHETORICAL PROCESS are: </li></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>LOGOS </li></ul><ul><li>Means logic </li></ul><ul><li>The use of reason to support a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Present the situation, the alternatives, and the set of probabilities in the decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Direct our mind’s reasoning capabilities </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Means emotion </li></ul><ul><li>The use of emotional and motivational appeals to support a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional appeals are directed to the wishes, wants, desires, goals and needs of the person whose acceptance is desired </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals are directed to </li></ul><ul><li>the heart </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the use of source credibility to support a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Proof is supplied by the source of which judgment is made about his character, wisdom and goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved by the speaker’s personal character where the speech make us think him credible </li></ul>
  10. 10. Watching for Ethos <ul><li>Comments made by experts that was proven very wrong: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The horse is here to stay, but the automobile is only a novelty .” The president of a Michigan bank, advising the lawyer of Henry Ford not to invest in the Ford Motor Car Company. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Forget it Louis, no Civil War picture ever made a dime .” </li></ul><ul><li>MGM production executive Irving Thalberg talking about “ Gone </li></ul><ul><li>with the Wind “ with studio chief Louis B. Mayer in 1936. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Source of Credibility <ul><li>Initial Ethos- is based on the arguer’s credentials, status, and reputation known to the audience before they hear or read the content of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived ethos- results from what is said in the message </li></ul>