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biomedical waste management


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biomedical waste management

  1. 1. Bio-Medical Waste Management Aditya Vikram Singh (101504) Paarth Singh(101537) Jaypee University of Engineering & Technology, GUNA
  2. 2. AIM To study the status of biomedical wastes management in the hospitals situated in Guna with the following objectives: • To determine the types of waste generated in three hospitals in Guna • To evaluate their collection and disposal methods • To assess and compare the volume and quantity of waste generated in Hospitals.
  3. 3. • To assess their knowledge on hospital waste management guidelines and the level of training given to hospital waste handlers. • To make recommendations for effective hospital waste management in Guna. • Designing of waste disposal site
  4. 4. WASTES WASTES “Something which is not put into proper usage at a given time”. Wastes Solid waste Household waste Industrial waste Biomedical waste or hospital waste Liquid Waste Gaseous Waste
  5. 5. What is Bio-medical waste ? Definition – Anything tested or used on an individual, or any trash from biological experiments are medical waste Generated from – Waste generated by health care facility – Research facility – Laboratories Hazardous health care waste – 85% waste is non infectious – 10% are infectious – 5% are hazardous
  6. 6. History • In the late 1980’s – Items such as used syringes washed up on several East Coast beaches USA – HIV and HPV virus infection – Lead to development of Biomedical Waste Management Law in USA. • However in India the seriousness about the management came into lime light only after 1990’s.
  7. 7. Laws of Biomedical Waste Management On 20th July 1998 • Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India, Framed a rule known as ‘Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998,’ • Provides uniform guidelines and code of practice for Bio-medical waste management. According to this rule Bio-Medical Waste “Any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining there to or in the production of testing of biological”
  8. 8. Study Area The study was carried out in Guna. • Two Government hospitals i.e. Guna Govt. hospital and Raghogarh . • Private hospital Sahyog, Aashirwad and Jaypee hospital
  9. 9. Biomedical waste Statistics Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations among countries. In India• 1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among Govt. and Private establishments. • Approximately 506.74 tons/ day wastes generated • Out of which only 57% waste undergoes proper disposal
  10. 10. Categories of Bio-Medical Wastes Non-Infectious waste, 80% Pathological and Infectious waste, 15% Radioactive, Cytotoxic and heavy metals, 1% Sharps, 1% Chemical and Pharmaceutical waste, 3%
  11. 11. Data Collection A page of questionnaire was used to collect data on following category – • Collection, • Segregation, • Treatment, • Transportation and • Final disposal
  12. 12. Data Analysis Waste generation rate (kg/bed/day) in GUNA hospital Hospital Mean waste generation rate (day/bed/kg) Non-infectious Infectious Sharp Government 2.11 4.21 Private 0.64 1.6 0.27 2.51 2.75 5.81 0.87 9.43 Total 0.6 Total 6.92
  13. 13. • Non-infectious, infectious and sharps wastes from out-patient and in-patient services in hospitals were collected separately. • Weighing with accurate scales each types of waste were recorded on special data form . • Then the wastes were transported to a special site for storage and final disposal. • The quantities of infectious, non- infectious and sharp wastes were tabulated and analyzed in terms of kg/bed/day.
  14. 14. Rate of Waste Generation in Hospitals of GUNA city Hospitalcode NO.of bed Generation rate (day/bed/kg) Non Infectious Infectious Sharp Total Total GOVT. 200 2.11 4.21 0.6 6.92 Aashirwad 75 0.34 0.70 0.20 1.24 Jaypee 50 - - - - shayog 30 - - - -
  15. 15. • The results revealed that in all hospitals, the wastes were collected at the morning of each day. • Then collected wastes were transported to a temporary storage area by the hospital staff. • The staff employed for handling the wastes in all hospitals used personal protective equipment with Apron, gloves mask and boots Containers.
  16. 16. GUNA GOVT. HOSPITAL Intensive Care Unit Male Female Total Number of bed 10 10 20 Number of inpatient/day 5 7 Number of outpatient/day 3 2 5 Casualty Ward Number of bed 2 Number of inpatient/day 2 Number of outpatient/day 2 Maternity Ward Number of bed 20 Number of inpatient/day 17 Number of outpatient/day 8 Children Ward Number of bed 18 Number of inpatient/day 8 Number of outpatient/day 3 Total No. of inpatient/day 39 Total waste collected/day Total No. of outpatient/day 18 Avg. 80-90 kg/day
  17. 17. Aashirwad Hospital:It is a private hospital in Guna city with 50 bed capacity. Month Number of Bags Yellow Red Blue Black Aug. 85 97 75 105 Sept. 72 85 70 90 Oct. 75 90 60 95 Nov. 86 95 75 106 Waste produced by the Hospital is collect by the private contractor recognized by the GOVT. Then this waste is transferred to the disposable site where this waste is segregated and disposes according to the best method for that specified waste. Mainly landfill is done ate the site.
  18. 18. Jaypee Hospital, Saada Colony Month Number of Bags . Yellow Red Blue Black Aug. 112 123 142 178 Sept. 45 62 70 118 Oct. 48 51 10 102 Nov. 31 29 17 02 The waste collect per bag weight is around 2-5 kg depending on the category of waste it carry.
  19. 19. Components of Bio-medical waste • Human anatomical waste • Tissues, organs, body parts • Animal waste • Generated during research/experimentation, f rom veterinary hospitals • Laboratory • Microbiology and cultures, microbiotechnology waste organisms, human and animal cell cultures, toxins • Waste sharps • hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpels, b roken glass • Liquid waste • Generated from any of the infected areas
  20. 20. Components of Bio-medical waste  Soiled waste  Chemical waste • Dressing, bandages, plaster casts, material contaminated with blood • Alcohol, Sulphuric acid, chlorine powder, Glutaraldehyde, Picric acid, fertilizer, ammonia  Discarded medicines and cyto• Barium enema, X-rays, Cancer toxic drugs chemotherapy, tar-based products  Radioactive Components  Incineration ash • EtBr, Radioactive components
  21. 21. Pharmaceutical Waste Sharp Waste
  22. 22. The exposure to hazardous health care waste can result in 1. Infection 2. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity 3. Chemical toxicity 4. Radioactivity hazards. 5. Physical injuries 6. Public sensitivity.
  23. 23. Classification of Waste Category as per WHO standard Cat- 1 Human Anatomical Wastes Cat- 2 Animal Anatomical Wastes Cat- 3 Microbiology and Biotechnology wastes Cat- 4 Waste Sharps Cat- 5 Discarded medicines and Cytotoxic drugs
  24. 24. Classification of Waste Category as per WHO standard Cat- 6 Sailed Wastes Cat- 7 Solid Wastes Cat- 8 Liquid wastes Cat- 9 Incineration Ash Cat-10 Chemical wastes
  25. 25. Pharmaceutical Waste Blood bags found in the municipal waste stream in violation of rules for such waste.
  26. 26. Storage • The implementation schedule (Schedule II) in the municipal solid waste rules specified activities to be taken by the municipality/operator to ensure that storage of municipal solid waste takes place, after collection and segregation and before it is transported for processing and disposal.
  27. 27. Activities for storage to be undertaken by the municipality Done Not done Not verifiable Total 1. Storage facilities established based upon the quantities of waste generated 1 2 1 4 2. Storage facilities so designed that wastes stored are not exposed to open 1 atmosphere and are aesthetically acceptable and user-friendly. 3 - 4 1 3 4 Performance of most Agencies poor 3. Bins for storage of biodegradable wastes have been painted green, those for storage of recyclable wastes painted white and those for storage of other wastes painted black Most complete in the sampled Agency 4. Storage facilities set up by municipal authorities (tender passed to private 1 agencies) attended daily for clearing of wastes and the bins or containers cleaned beforethey start overflowing 3 - 4
  28. 28. Transportation • The implementation schedule (Schedule II) in the municipal solid waste rules specified activities to be undertaken by the municipality/operator to ensure that transportation of municipal solid waste for processing/disposal takes place in a hygienic manner and does not cause littering of waste. • It was seen that out of 4 sampled municipalities, only few of sampled municipality’s agencies were using covered trucks for transportation.
  29. 29. Processing • The implementation schedule (Schedule II) in the municipal solid waste rules specified that municipal authorities adopt suitable technology or combination of such technologies to make use of wastes to minimize burden on landfill. • The role of municipalities in relation to establishment of processing facilities was examined in audit in 4 sampled municipalities agencies.
  30. 30. Color Coding For Segregation of BMW COLOR Yellow Red WASTE TREATMENT Human & Animal anatomical waste / Micro-biology waste and soiled cotton/dressings/linen/beddings etc. Incineration / Deep burial Tubing, Catheters, IV sets. Autoclaving / Microwaving / Chemical treatment Blue / White Waste sharps Autoclaving / Microwaving / ( Needles, Syringes, Scalpels, blades etc. Chemical treatment & ) Destruction / Shredding Black Regular waste Disposal in secured landfill or recycling
  31. 31. Activities for processing of waste to be Done undertaken by the municipality Not done Not verifiable Total 1. Biodegradable wastes processed by 2 composting, vermi-composting, anaerobic digestion or any other appropriate biological processing for stabilization of wastes. 1 1 4 2. Use of incineration with or without energy recovery including pelletisatio for processing wastes in specific cases 4 - 4 3. Waste processing or disposal facilities include 2 composting, incineration, pelletisation, energy recovery or any other facility duly approved byCPCB. 2 - 4 Total 7 1 12 4
  32. 32. • It can be seen that waste processing facilities were almost nonexistent; with only 4 agencies having waste processing capabilities while a huge 60% did not have any waste processing facilities. • Hardly any waste processing facilities existed in the selected municipality agencies. This would only aggravate the landfilling operations. High temperature burning of waste in plant
  33. 33. Hospital waste disposal
  34. 34. Disposal • The implementation schedule (Schedule II) in the municipal solid waste rules specified that landfilling should be restricted to non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological and that landfilling of mixed waste should be avoided. • It was seen in audit that only 1 landfills were established in the sampled 4municipalities agencies.
  35. 35. • • • • • • Survey of waste generated. Segregation of hospital waste. Collection & Categorization of waste. Storage of waste.( Not beyond 48 hrs. ) Transportation of waste. Treatment of waste.
  36. 36. Source Reduction • Source Reduction - ways to lessen the amount of material – Segregation - keeping noninfectious waste out of the infectious waste stream – Minimization - reduce or eliminate waste at the source – Engineering controls - methods to reduce quantity of waste(smaller containers)
  37. 37. Conclusion • Thus refuse disposal cannot be solved without public education. • Individual participation is required. • Municipality and government should pay importance to disposal of waste economically. • Thus educating and motivating oneself first is important and then preach others about it.
  38. 38. Lets Make This World A Better Place to Live in. THANK YOU