PARKING PROBLEMS IN METRO
ADITYA KUMAR SINGHAL
UNI. ROLL NO. – 111000005
Various parking sign
Ill effects of parking
• Obstruction to fire-fighting operation
• Effects on environment
Need for the study
Common terms used in parking facilities
Classification of parking facilities
• On-Street or Kerb Parking
• Off –Street Parking
Parking Study and Survey
Division of buildings according to their parking demand
Modern And Creative Methods To Reduce Parking Problems
One of the problems created by road
traffic is PARKING. Not only do
vehicles require street space to
move about, but also do they
require space to park where the
occupants can be loaded and
A systematic study of the PARKING
CHARACTERISTICS and DEMAND and
REGULATORY MEASURES that are
possible for controlling parking is
of great help to a traffic engineer
as well as town planner.
INTRODUCTION CONTINUED . . .
. . . . . • The period over which a car is parked is very great compared with the time it
is in motion. The size of average parking space is 14 m2. It is roughly
estimated that out of 8760 hours in a year, the car runs on an average for
only 400 hours, leaving 8360 hours when it is parked.
• Every car owner would wish to park the car as closely as possible to his
destination so as to minimize his walking. This results in a great demand for
parking space in those areas where the activities are concentrated.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
Various metro cities like Delhi, Bombay in India is now become a most congested city in India.
High volume of traffic consisting of both fast and slow moving vehicles is plying through the road.
The growth rates are reflected in the growth of traffic volume on the roads, thus leading to congestion
and subsequent reduction in speed. So it has become necessary to project the future traffic growth and
thereby finding out the requirement of increase in carriage way widths required to carry this traffic.
The parking space provided is not sufficient to meet the parking demand. Hence it is necessary to
conduct a detailed analysis of the traffic characteristics and parking demand of the area.
There are various effects of wrong parking
society as well as on environment -
ILL-EFFECTS OF PARKING
• One of the serious ill-effects of parking is the loss of street space and
the resulting traffic congestions.
• The capacity of the streets is reduced, the journey speed drops down and the journey
time and delay increase. The operational cost of vehicles is thereby increased, causing
serious economic loss to the community.
• The consequences associated with wrong parking and unparking are
known to cause road accidents.
• Careless opening of the doors of parked vehicles, moving out of a parked
position and bringing a car to the parking location from the mainstream of
traffic are some of the common causes of parking accidents.
OBSTRUCTION TO FIRE-FIGHTING
• Parked cars obstruct the movement of fire fighting vehicles and
greatly impede their operations. They block access to hydrants
and access to buildings.
EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT
Parked vehicles degrade the environment of the town Centre.
Stopping and starting of vehicles result in noise and fumes.
Cars parked into every little available space debase the visual
aesthetics and “buildings seems to rise from a plinth of cars”.
In spite of the above ill-effects, parking has to be allowed on the
streets or off the streets close to the user’s destination.
The well being of the community and the town Centre demands that
great thought should be bestowed with the parking needs and how
best to fulfill them.
SOME COMMON TERMS USED IN
Percentage of parking bays actually occupied by parked
vehicles as compared to the theoretical number available.
The total number of vehicles parked in an area at a
The number of vehicles parked in a particular area over a given
period of time. It is usually measured in vehicles per day.
The area under the parking accumulation curve during a
The length of time spent by a parked vehicle in a parking
ON – STREET OR KERB PARKING
OFF – STREET PARKING
ON-STREET OR KERB PARKING
In this type of parking vehicles
are parked on the kerb or
sections which may be designed
Kerb parking is quite
convenient for those who could
find a suitable space to park
their vehicles near to the place
they wish to stop, but for others
who could not find a parking
space it is a problem and often
they may have to park their
vehicles at a far off place you
know and walk done to
On-street parking can only solve a part of the paring problem. For a
satisfactory solution various types of off-street parking facilities are also
be considered. The types of off-street facilitates commonly considered
SURFACE CAR PARKS
UNDERGROUND CAR PARKS
SURFACE CAR PARKS
Surface car parks properly
located and developed on a
piece of vacant land.
Great care is needed in their
design and operation. A variety
of layouts is possible depending
upon the area.
A stall size of 2.5 x 5m is
probably adequate for INDIAN
CONDITIONS , predominated
by small size cars.
for AMERICAN CONDITIONS
2.6 x 5.5m is recommended
ROOF CAR PARKS
A very popular method of solving
the parking problems adopted in
many cities is to park the vehicles
on ROOF -TOPS.
Access ramps or mechanical lifts
provide the necessary access to
To economies, many roofs may be
linked together served by a single
An extensive system of linked car
parks at roof level, integrated with
multi level, integrated with
multistoried parking garages is in
The great advantage of
underground car parks is that ,
least inappropriate welcome
they cause to the aesthetics of a
These parking can be built in
the basement of any
multistoried building or below
Since the work involves large
quantities of excavation,
construction of retaining walls,
ventilation and lighting such car
parks tend to be very costly.
PERIPHERAL PARKING SCHEMES
There are some alternatives parking options which
serves better parking facilities in the area, having
less space. These are : -
PARK AND WALK
PARK AND RIDE
PARK and WALK
Under this scheme the motorist are made to park their vehicles at
the outskirts of the town.
After that the rider / driver have to walk down to the town
The attraction is in the form of lower parking charges at the
periphery than at the town Centre or no parking charges at all.
The less charges and other attractions should be very much
attractive if the scheme has to succeed.
PARK and RIDE
This scheme provide for peripheral parking facilities and public transport
side to the destinations in the town centre.
This is an attractive scheme and has been tried with success in many
For success, the total travel time including parking time, waiting time at
the bus stop and travel time by bus should not be excessively high to make
him look at it with disfavour and decide to bring the car to the town centre
in spite of the high parking charges there.
Also, the cost of peripheral parking plus the charges for his journey by
bus should be less than the cost of travel by his car plus the charges for
parking at the town centre.
Parking studies usually are prerequisite to developing
new or expanded parking programs. The studies should
be designed to :
Inventory of existing parking space supply and measure current
levels of space usage (accumulation and space turn over).
Identify salient parking characteristics (duration, purpose, trip
destination and walking distances to destination).
Qualify demands and needs.
Estimate facility capital and operating costs, usage and revenues.
Parking studies provide the data essential to develop programs to meet
A parking study may be concerned with an individual trip generator or facility,
such as a hospital or office building, or with the entire CBD. It should
determine not only where motorists can and do park, but also where they
would like to park and how there parking practices affect other transportation
Full scale, comprehensive parking studies involving extensive data collection
through parker interviews and other means, and detailed analysis provide a
sound basis for estimating parking usage and determining appropriate actions.
A limited parking study may rely on measuring parking usage by hourly
accumulation counts of parked vehicles or facility occupancy checks.
The types of parking surveys are usually conducted
Parking Space in inventory
Parking Usage Survey by Patrol
Questionnaire Type Parking Usage Survey
Parking Space in inventory
The first step in a parking survey is to collect data and amount,
type and location of space actually or potentially available for
parking in an area.The area to be surveyed should first
described.The Central Business District [CBD] is usually the
area where the parking survey is needed.The items to be
recorded include the following :
FREQUENCY OF PATROL : Generally half N hour.
METHOD OF OBSERVATION : A tape recorded may also be used to record
the registration numbers of vehicles.
TIMING OF THE SURVEY : During working days.
EQUIPMENT AND FORM OF RECORDING : Each observer will be equipped
with a watch, pencil, supply of forms, a map of the street and a form.
Questionnaire Type Parking usage survey
The questionnaire Type Parking usage survey involves interviews with
the drivers who use the parking facilities.
As a result it is possible to collect information on the extend to which
existing facilities are being used, the parking requirements at the
process existing at the time of survey, the distribution of demand over
the area and time and journey purposes of car parkers.
In this interview of actual parkers, the information collected should
• Address of origin of trip
• Address of destination of trip
• Trip purpose
• Time of arrival at the parking place
• Time of departure from the parking place
• Type of parking space used
• Type of vehicle used
Land use survey
Parking mainly depends upon the land-use pattern.Shopping centers
attract more people towards them than most other land-uses. But, the
parking requirements of different Commercial centers are not the same.
They vary from one to one. Some Commercial centre attracts more
customers to it.
Commercial centers are classified into two :
Customer attractive Commercial centers
Non-customer attractive Commercial centers
The nature of the Commercial centre was decided by making observations at the
particular site for 1 hour. Commercial centre in which more than 5 customers visited
within 1 hour was taken as CUSTOMER ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL CENTRE ;
otherwise it was taken as NON-CUSTOMER ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL CENTRE.
Shops like textiles attracted more customers whereas in Beauty Parlors, Printing shops
DIVISION OF BUILDINGS
ACCORDING TO PARKING DEMAND
For all the sections need parking the buildings are
divided into :
Customer Attractive Shops (CAS)
Non-customer Attractive Shops (NCAS)
Customer Attractive Office (CAO)
Non-customer Attractive Office (NCAO)
No Customer attractive Shops Non-Customer attractive shops
1 Textile Electricals
2 Vegetable Shop Printing Shop
3 Restaurant Furniture
4 Stationery Grocery Shop
5 Flower marts Beauty Parlour
6 Fancy Shop Tailoring Shop
7 Internet café Hotel
8 Photostat shop Mill
9 STD Booth Appliances
10 Bakery Electronics Shop
In some offices, there was not any customer whereas customers in addition to employees
were seen in some other offices. The parking space required for the latter type is more.
Based on this the offices are classified as customer attractive and Non-customer attractive
Number Customer attractive Office Non-Customer attractive Office
1 Bank School
MODERN AND CREATIVE METHODS
TO REDUCE PARKING PROBLEM IN
Basically there are two method which are largely adopting in various
metropolitan cities like Delhi , Noida , Bangalore and Mumbai etc.
Multistoried Car Parks
Puzzle Car Parking
Multistoried parking garages are
restored to when the floor space
available for the parking garage is
less and is very costly.
It is possible to construct
multistoried garages to park a large
number of cars at a time.
It is necessary to provide the inter
floor travel facility for the vehicles,
such as elevators, ramps, etc.
Multistoried car parks are
designed for a capacity of about
400 to 500 cars.
Some of the desirable standards for
designing of the multistoried car parks
GRADIENT OF THE RAMP : 1 in 10 generally and 1 in 8 for very short ramps
PARKING STALL DIMENSIONS : 2.5m x 5m
CLEAR HEIGHT BETWEEN FLOORS : 2.1m
INSIDE RADIUS OF CURVES : 7m
WIDTH OF TRAFFIC LANE ON RAMPS AND ENTRANCES : 3.75m
GRADIENT OF SLOPPING FLOORS : Not steeper than 1 in 20
• This System Is
Operated. Fast IN & OUT
Of The Cars Is Possible.
• Combination Of Multiple
Levels Vertically &
Horizontally Is Possible
• Mostly Preferred In
Residential Complexes, IT
Complexes, Malls, Hotels
Suitable for :
Sedan Car For All levels &
SUV Car For only ground level.
As we know, The Numbers of vehicles are going on increasing at an
alarming rate and commercialization of the area is also happening at a
fast rate, thus demanding more parking spaces near the destination. All
these factors correspond to generate various parking
problems.Consequently it have various Congestion, Accidental problems
and it adversely affect the fire-fighting operation and Nature.
Thus Parking structures will need to be reconsider the
technology especially if they are located in heavy traffic areas. The
available legal parking spaces will have to be utilized to highest
efficiency. We have to follow the various parking policy while meeting
some parking needs and also lower the personal vehicle travel and urban-peak
traffic to reduce congestion, accidents and pollution. Now there is a
need of modifying existing parking facilities and construction of new