Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
PARKING PROBLEMS IN METRO 
CITIES 
SUBMITTED BY: 
ADITYA KUMAR SINGHAL 
C.E. (3A-1) 
UNI. ROLL NO. – 111000005
CONTENT 
Introduction 
Various parking sign 
Ill effects of parking 
• Congestion 
• Accident 
• Obstruction to fire-fi...
INTRODUCTION 
One of the problems created by road 
traffic is PARKING. Not only do 
vehicles require street space to 
move...
INTRODUCTION CONTINUED . . . 
. . . . . • The period over which a car is parked is very great compared with the time it 
i...
NEED FOR THE STUDY 
Various metro cities like Delhi, Bombay in India is now become a most congested city in India. 
High v...
VARIOUS PARKING SIGN
There are various effects of wrong parking 
on 
society as well as on environment - 
CONGESTION ACCIDENTS 
OBSTRUCTION 
TO...
CONGESTION 
• One of the serious ill-effects of parking is the loss of street space and 
the resulting traffic congestions...
ACCIDENTS 
• The consequences associated with wrong parking and unparking are 
known to cause road accidents. 
• Careless ...
OBSTRUCTION TO FIRE-FIGHTING 
OPERATION 
• Parked cars obstruct the movement of fire fighting vehicles and 
greatly impede...
EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT 
Parked vehicles degrade the environment of the town Centre. 
Stopping and starting of vehicles res...
SOME COMMON TERMS USED IN 
PARKING FACILITIES 
PARKING ACCUMULATION 
PARKING VOLUME 
PARKING LOAD 
PARKING DURATION 
Perce...
CLASSIFICATION 
OF PARKING 
FACILITIY 
ON – STREET OR KERB PARKING 
OFF – STREET PARKING
ON-STREET OR KERB PARKING 
 In this type of parking vehicles 
are parked on the kerb or 
sections which may be designed 
...
THE VARIOUS PATTERNS OF 
“KERB PARKING”
OFF-STREET PARKING 
On-street parking can only solve a part of the paring problem. For a 
satisfactory solution various ty...
SURFACE CAR PARKS 
 Surface car parks properly 
located and developed on a 
piece of vacant land. 
 Great care is needed...
ROOF CAR PARKS 
 A very popular method of solving 
the parking problems adopted in 
many cities is to park the vehicles 
...
UNDERGROUND CAR 
PARKS 
 The great advantage of 
underground car parks is that , 
least inappropriate welcome 
they cause...
PERIPHERAL PARKING SCHEMES 
There are some alternatives parking options which 
serves better parking facilities in the are...
PARK and WALK 
 Under this scheme the motorist are made to park their vehicles at 
the outskirts of the town. 
 After th...
PARK and RIDE 
 This scheme provide for peripheral parking facilities and public transport 
side to the destinations in t...
PARKING STUDIES 
and 
SURVEYS 
Parking studies usually are prerequisite to developing 
new or expanded parking programs. T...
PARKING STUDIES 
 Parking studies provide the data essential to develop programs to meet 
parking needs. 
 A parking stu...
PARKING SURVEYS 
The types of parking surveys are usually conducted 
as follows: 
Parking Space in inventory 
Parking Us...
Parking Space in inventory 
The first step in a parking survey is to collect data and amount, 
type and location of space ...
Questionnaire Type Parking usage survey 
The questionnaire Type Parking usage survey involves interviews with 
the driver...
Land use survey 
Parking mainly depends upon the land-use pattern.Shopping centers 
attract more people towards them than ...
DIVISION OF BUILDINGS 
ACCORDING TO PARKING DEMAND 
For all the sections need parking the buildings are 
divided into : 
...
No Customer attractive Shops Non-Customer attractive shops 
1 Textile Electricals 
2 Vegetable Shop Printing Shop 
3 Resta...
MODERN AND CREATIVE METHODS 
TO REDUCE PARKING PROBLEM IN 
METRO CITIES 
Basically there are two method which are largely ...
MULTISTORIED CAR 
PARKS 
 Multistoried parking garages are 
restored to when the floor space 
available for the parking g...
Some of the desirable standards for 
designing of the multistoried car parks 
are : 
 GRADIENT OF THE RAMP : 1 in 10 gene...
PUZZLE CAR PARKING
CONTD. . 
• This System Is 
Electromechanically 
Operated. Fast IN & OUT 
Of The Cars Is Possible. 
• Combination Of Multi...
CONCLUSION 
As we know, The Numbers of vehicles are going on increasing at an 
alarming rate and commercialization of the ...
THANK YOU 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

parking problems in metro cities

6,913 views

Published on

presentation contain different problems related to parking aspects in metro cities and its ongoing solution including modern ways to reduce parking problems in metro cities.

Published in: Engineering
  • I have experienced a lot more semen and comfort ejaculating. ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/semenax101
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

parking problems in metro cities

  1. 1. PARKING PROBLEMS IN METRO CITIES SUBMITTED BY: ADITYA KUMAR SINGHAL C.E. (3A-1) UNI. ROLL NO. – 111000005
  2. 2. CONTENT Introduction Various parking sign Ill effects of parking • Congestion • Accident • Obstruction to fire-fighting operation • Effects on environment Need for the study Common terms used in parking facilities Classification of parking facilities • On-Street or Kerb Parking • Off –Street Parking Parking Study and Survey Division of buildings according to their parking demand Modern And Creative Methods To Reduce Parking Problems Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION One of the problems created by road traffic is PARKING. Not only do vehicles require street space to move about, but also do they require space to park where the occupants can be loaded and unloaded. A systematic study of the PARKING CHARACTERISTICS and DEMAND and REGULATORY MEASURES that are possible for controlling parking is of great help to a traffic engineer as well as town planner.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION CONTINUED . . . . . . . . • The period over which a car is parked is very great compared with the time it is in motion. The size of average parking space is 14 m2. It is roughly estimated that out of 8760 hours in a year, the car runs on an average for only 400 hours, leaving 8360 hours when it is parked. • Every car owner would wish to park the car as closely as possible to his destination so as to minimize his walking. This results in a great demand for parking space in those areas where the activities are concentrated.
  5. 5. NEED FOR THE STUDY Various metro cities like Delhi, Bombay in India is now become a most congested city in India. High volume of traffic consisting of both fast and slow moving vehicles is plying through the road. The growth rates are reflected in the growth of traffic volume on the roads, thus leading to congestion and subsequent reduction in speed. So it has become necessary to project the future traffic growth and thereby finding out the requirement of increase in carriage way widths required to carry this traffic. The parking space provided is not sufficient to meet the parking demand. Hence it is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the traffic characteristics and parking demand of the area.
  6. 6. VARIOUS PARKING SIGN
  7. 7. There are various effects of wrong parking on society as well as on environment - CONGESTION ACCIDENTS OBSTRUCTION TO FIRE FIGHTING OPERATIONS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMET ILL-EFFECTS OF PARKING
  8. 8. CONGESTION • One of the serious ill-effects of parking is the loss of street space and the resulting traffic congestions. • The capacity of the streets is reduced, the journey speed drops down and the journey time and delay increase. The operational cost of vehicles is thereby increased, causing serious economic loss to the community.
  9. 9. ACCIDENTS • The consequences associated with wrong parking and unparking are known to cause road accidents. • Careless opening of the doors of parked vehicles, moving out of a parked position and bringing a car to the parking location from the mainstream of traffic are some of the common causes of parking accidents.
  10. 10. OBSTRUCTION TO FIRE-FIGHTING OPERATION • Parked cars obstruct the movement of fire fighting vehicles and greatly impede their operations. They block access to hydrants and access to buildings.
  11. 11. EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT Parked vehicles degrade the environment of the town Centre. Stopping and starting of vehicles result in noise and fumes. Cars parked into every little available space debase the visual aesthetics and “buildings seems to rise from a plinth of cars”. In spite of the above ill-effects, parking has to be allowed on the streets or off the streets close to the user’s destination. The well being of the community and the town Centre demands that great thought should be bestowed with the parking needs and how best to fulfill them.
  12. 12. SOME COMMON TERMS USED IN PARKING FACILITIES PARKING ACCUMULATION PARKING VOLUME PARKING LOAD PARKING DURATION Percentage of parking bays actually occupied by parked vehicles as compared to the theoretical number available. PARKING INDEX The total number of vehicles parked in an area at a specified moment. The number of vehicles parked in a particular area over a given period of time. It is usually measured in vehicles per day. The area under the parking accumulation curve during a specified period. The length of time spent by a parked vehicle in a parking space.
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF PARKING FACILITIY ON – STREET OR KERB PARKING OFF – STREET PARKING
  14. 14. ON-STREET OR KERB PARKING  In this type of parking vehicles are parked on the kerb or sections which may be designed for parking.  Kerb parking is quite convenient for those who could find a suitable space to park their vehicles near to the place they wish to stop, but for others who could not find a parking space it is a problem and often they may have to park their vehicles at a far off place you know and walk done to destination. PARALLEL PARKING
  15. 15. THE VARIOUS PATTERNS OF “KERB PARKING”
  16. 16. OFF-STREET PARKING On-street parking can only solve a part of the paring problem. For a satisfactory solution various types of off-street parking facilities are also be considered. The types of off-street facilitates commonly considered are :  SURFACE CAR PARKS  ROOF PARKS  MECHANICAL PARKS  UNDERGROUND CAR PARKS
  17. 17. SURFACE CAR PARKS  Surface car parks properly located and developed on a piece of vacant land.  Great care is needed in their design and operation. A variety of layouts is possible depending upon the area.  A stall size of 2.5 x 5m is probably adequate for INDIAN CONDITIONS , predominated by small size cars.  for AMERICAN CONDITIONS 2.6 x 5.5m is recommended
  18. 18. ROOF CAR PARKS  A very popular method of solving the parking problems adopted in many cities is to park the vehicles on ROOF -TOPS.  Access ramps or mechanical lifts provide the necessary access to roofs.  To economies, many roofs may be linked together served by a single access ramp.  An extensive system of linked car parks at roof level, integrated with multi level, integrated with multistoried parking garages is in use.
  19. 19. UNDERGROUND CAR PARKS  The great advantage of underground car parks is that , least inappropriate welcome they cause to the aesthetics of a place.  These parking can be built in the basement of any multistoried building or below open spaces.  Since the work involves large quantities of excavation, construction of retaining walls, ventilation and lighting such car parks tend to be very costly.
  20. 20. PERIPHERAL PARKING SCHEMES There are some alternatives parking options which serves better parking facilities in the area, having less space. These are : -  PARK AND WALK  PARK AND RIDE
  21. 21. PARK and WALK  Under this scheme the motorist are made to park their vehicles at the outskirts of the town.  After that the rider / driver have to walk down to the town Centre.  The attraction is in the form of lower parking charges at the periphery than at the town Centre or no parking charges at all.  The less charges and other attractions should be very much attractive if the scheme has to succeed.
  22. 22. PARK and RIDE  This scheme provide for peripheral parking facilities and public transport side to the destinations in the town centre.  This is an attractive scheme and has been tried with success in many towns.  For success, the total travel time including parking time, waiting time at the bus stop and travel time by bus should not be excessively high to make him look at it with disfavour and decide to bring the car to the town centre in spite of the high parking charges there.  Also, the cost of peripheral parking plus the charges for his journey by bus should be less than the cost of travel by his car plus the charges for parking at the town centre.
  23. 23. PARKING STUDIES and SURVEYS Parking studies usually are prerequisite to developing new or expanded parking programs. The studies should be designed to :  Inventory of existing parking space supply and measure current levels of space usage (accumulation and space turn over).  Identify salient parking characteristics (duration, purpose, trip destination and walking distances to destination).  Qualify demands and needs.  Estimate facility capital and operating costs, usage and revenues.
  24. 24. PARKING STUDIES  Parking studies provide the data essential to develop programs to meet parking needs.  A parking study may be concerned with an individual trip generator or facility, such as a hospital or office building, or with the entire CBD. It should determine not only where motorists can and do park, but also where they would like to park and how there parking practices affect other transportation facilities.  Full scale, comprehensive parking studies involving extensive data collection through parker interviews and other means, and detailed analysis provide a sound basis for estimating parking usage and determining appropriate actions.  A limited parking study may rely on measuring parking usage by hourly accumulation counts of parked vehicles or facility occupancy checks.
  25. 25. PARKING SURVEYS The types of parking surveys are usually conducted as follows: Parking Space in inventory Parking Usage Survey by Patrol Questionnaire Type Parking Usage Survey Cordon Count
  26. 26. Parking Space in inventory The first step in a parking survey is to collect data and amount, type and location of space actually or potentially available for parking in an area.The area to be surveyed should first described.The Central Business District [CBD] is usually the area where the parking survey is needed.The items to be recorded include the following :  FREQUENCY OF PATROL : Generally half N hour.  METHOD OF OBSERVATION : A tape recorded may also be used to record the registration numbers of vehicles.  TIMING OF THE SURVEY : During working days.  EQUIPMENT AND FORM OF RECORDING : Each observer will be equipped with a watch, pencil, supply of forms, a map of the street and a form.
  27. 27. Questionnaire Type Parking usage survey The questionnaire Type Parking usage survey involves interviews with the drivers who use the parking facilities. As a result it is possible to collect information on the extend to which existing facilities are being used, the parking requirements at the process existing at the time of survey, the distribution of demand over the area and time and journey purposes of car parkers. In this interview of actual parkers, the information collected should include: • Address of origin of trip • Address of destination of trip • Trip purpose • Time of arrival at the parking place • Time of departure from the parking place • Type of parking space used • Type of vehicle used
  28. 28. Land use survey Parking mainly depends upon the land-use pattern.Shopping centers attract more people towards them than most other land-uses. But, the parking requirements of different Commercial centers are not the same. They vary from one to one. Some Commercial centre attracts more customers to it. Commercial centers are classified into two :  Customer attractive Commercial centers  Non-customer attractive Commercial centers The nature of the Commercial centre was decided by making observations at the particular site for 1 hour. Commercial centre in which more than 5 customers visited within 1 hour was taken as CUSTOMER ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL CENTRE ; otherwise it was taken as NON-CUSTOMER ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL CENTRE. Shops like textiles attracted more customers whereas in Beauty Parlors, Printing shops
  29. 29. DIVISION OF BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO PARKING DEMAND For all the sections need parking the buildings are divided into :  Customer Attractive Shops (CAS)  Non-customer Attractive Shops (NCAS)  Customer Attractive Office (CAO)  Non-customer Attractive Office (NCAO)
  30. 30. No Customer attractive Shops Non-Customer attractive shops 1 Textile Electricals 2 Vegetable Shop Printing Shop 3 Restaurant Furniture 4 Stationery Grocery Shop 5 Flower marts Beauty Parlour 6 Fancy Shop Tailoring Shop 7 Internet café Hotel 8 Photostat shop Mill 9 STD Booth Appliances 10 Bakery Electronics Shop  In some offices, there was not any customer whereas customers in addition to employees were seen in some other offices. The parking space required for the latter type is more. Based on this the offices are classified as customer attractive and Non-customer attractive offices - Number Customer attractive Office Non-Customer attractive Office 1 Bank School
  31. 31. MODERN AND CREATIVE METHODS TO REDUCE PARKING PROBLEM IN METRO CITIES Basically there are two method which are largely adopting in various metropolitan cities like Delhi , Noida , Bangalore and Mumbai etc.  Multistoried Car Parks  Puzzle Car Parking
  32. 32. MULTISTORIED CAR PARKS  Multistoried parking garages are restored to when the floor space available for the parking garage is less and is very costly.  It is possible to construct multistoried garages to park a large number of cars at a time.  It is necessary to provide the inter floor travel facility for the vehicles, such as elevators, ramps, etc.  Multistoried car parks are designed for a capacity of about 400 to 500 cars.
  33. 33. Some of the desirable standards for designing of the multistoried car parks are :  GRADIENT OF THE RAMP : 1 in 10 generally and 1 in 8 for very short ramps  PARKING STALL DIMENSIONS : 2.5m x 5m  CLEAR HEIGHT BETWEEN FLOORS : 2.1m  INSIDE RADIUS OF CURVES : 7m WIDTH OF TRAFFIC LANE ON RAMPS AND ENTRANCES : 3.75m  GRADIENT OF SLOPPING FLOORS : Not steeper than 1 in 20
  34. 34. PUZZLE CAR PARKING
  35. 35. CONTD. . • This System Is Electromechanically Operated. Fast IN & OUT Of The Cars Is Possible. • Combination Of Multiple Levels Vertically & Horizontally Is Possible • Mostly Preferred In Residential Complexes, IT Parks Commercial Complexes, Malls, Hotels Etc. Suitable for : Sedan Car For All levels & SUV Car For only ground level.
  36. 36. CONCLUSION As we know, The Numbers of vehicles are going on increasing at an alarming rate and commercialization of the area is also happening at a fast rate, thus demanding more parking spaces near the destination. All these factors correspond to generate various parking problems.Consequently it have various Congestion, Accidental problems and it adversely affect the fire-fighting operation and Nature. Thus Parking structures will need to be reconsider the technology especially if they are located in heavy traffic areas. The available legal parking spaces will have to be utilized to highest efficiency. We have to follow the various parking policy while meeting some parking needs and also lower the personal vehicle travel and urban-peak traffic to reduce congestion, accidents and pollution. Now there is a need of modifying existing parking facilities and construction of new
  37. 37. THANK YOU 

×