Introduction to IT


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Introduction to IT

  1. 1. What is InformationTechnology?
  2. 2. What is Information Technology Fusion of Computer Technology and Communication Technology Computer Technology  programmable, multiuse machine that accepts data and processes it into usable information  summaries, totals, or reports  used to speed up problem solving and increase productivity.
  3. 3. What is Information Technology Communication Technology  consists of electromagnetic/optical devices and systems for communicating over long distances InfoTech or IT is any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information merges computing with high-speed communication links, carrying data, sound, and video
  4. 4. Some examples of IT Image Morphing  changing (or morphing) one image into another through a seamless transition
  5. 5.  Image Morphing?  Turbo Teen
  6. 6. Some examples of IT Video Conferencing
  7. 7. Information Systems Why Do People Need Information?  Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment  Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and control
  8. 8. Data, Information and Systems Data vs. Information  Data  A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture  Represents something in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information  Information  Data that have meaning within a context  Data in relationships  Data after manipulation
  9. 9. The Computer Defined A device that computes Electronic device Converts data into information Modern computers are digital  Two digits combine to make data (1s and 0s) Older computers were analog  A range of values made data
  10. 10. Computers For Individual Use Desktop computers  The most common type of computer  Sits on the desk or floor  Performs a variety of tasks Workstations  Specialized computers  Optimized for science or graphics  More powerful than a desktop
  11. 11. Computers For Individual Use Notebook computers  Small portable computers  Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds  About 8 ½ by 11 inches  Typically as powerful as a desktop  Can include a docking station
  12. 12. Computers For Individual Use Tablet computers  Newest development in portable computers  Input is through a pen  Run specialized versions of office products
  13. 13. Contd… Handheld computers  Very small computers  Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)  Note taking or contact management  Data can synchronize with a desktop Smart phones  Hybrid of cell phone and PDA  Web surfing, e-mail access
  14. 14. Smart Phone: Black Berry Features  Phone  IM  Internet (Email, Browsing)  Camera  Video Recording
  15. 15. Computers For Organizations Network servers  Centralized computer  All other computers connect  Provides access to network resources  Multiple servers are called server farms  Often simply a powerful desktop
  16. 16. Computers For Organizations Mainframes  Used in large organizations  Handle thousands of users  Users access through a terminal  Dumb Terminal  Intelligent Terminal
  17. 17. Computers For Organizations Minicomputers  Called midrange computers  Power between mainframe and desktop  Handle hundreds of users  Used in smaller organizations  Users access through a terminal
  18. 18. Computers For Organizations Supercomputers  The most powerful computers made  Handle large and complex calculations  Process trillions of operations per second  Found in research organizations
  19. 19. Specialized Computers Microcontrollers  also called embedded computers.  tiny, specialized microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles.
  20. 20. Computers Everywhere Not just Desktops, Workstations, Tablet PCs, Handheld PCs (PDAs), Servers, Mainframe computers, Minicomputers But also…  Cell phones  Alarm Clocks  Microwave Ovens  Lighting control in a building  Washing Machines
  21. 21. Computers In Society More impact than any other invention  Changed work and leisure activities  Used by all demographic groups Computers are important because:  Provide information to users  Information is critical to our society  Managing information is difficult
  22. 22. Assignment 1 Generate a list of ways the computer/IT has impacted the world.  Include both positive changes and negative changes.  think creatively. How difficult would it be to live without computers?
  23. 23. Communication Defined Communication: To transfer data/information from one point to another  Using Wires  Electrical Signals  Optical Signals (Light)  Wirelessly  ElectroMagnetic Waves  Acoustic Waves (Sound) ….?  Using Analog Signals  Using Digital Signals
  24. 24. Data, Information and Systems Data Manipulation  Example: customer survey  Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.  When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.
  25. 25. Data, Information and Systems Generating Information  Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output. Input-process-output
  26. 26. Data, Information and Systems Information in Context Characteristics of useful information
  27. 27. Data, Information and Systems What Is a System?  System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal  Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal  Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems  Open system: System that interfaces with other systems
  28. 28. Data, Information and Systems Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.
  29. 29. Data, Information and Systems  Information and Managers  Systems thinking  Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making.  Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.
  30. 30. Data, Information and Systems Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy
  31. 31. What is Processing? Conversion of Data into Information Data  The raw facts and figures that are processed into information Information  Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making
  32. 32. Types of Data Numeric  Record Daily Milk Expenses  Sun 20 Rs  Mon 30 Rs  Tues 35 Rs  Wed 23 Rs  Thurs 34 Rs  Fri 50 Rs  Sat 30 Rs
  33. 33. Types of Data Numeric  Processing Data  Finding Weekly expenditure on Milk  Finding a Daily Average of milk expenditure 20,30,35,23, Find Total/Average 222/31.7 34,50,30
  34. 34. Types of Data Text  Raw: one of the most important concepts students must understand is the fundamental difference between data and information  Processed (1): Formatted “One of the most important concepts students must understand is the fundamental difference between data and information.”
  35. 35. Contd…  Processed (2): Words arranged alphabetically and between concepts data difference fundamental important information is most must of one students the the understand
  36. 36. Types of Data Image  Raw  Processed
  37. 37. Types of Data Image  Other Examples  Fingerprint Recognition  Arrangement of your photo albums on PC
  38. 38. Types of Data Audio  Raw: Conversation between people in cockpit of aircraft and Flight Controller recorded in Black box  Processed: In case of air crash, the recorded audio will be converted to digital form, background noise will be removed, and the clarity of speech will be improved to assist investigators
  39. 39. Types of Data Video  Raw: Old Black and White movies  Processed: Black and white movie made colored  Raw: Any Video in foreign language  Processed: Dub it in Urdu
  40. 40. Assignment 2 Think and name any other form of Data. Other than numeric, text, image, audio, video Think and describe in what ways can that form of Data be processed.
  41. 41. Related IT terms What is a Network?  communications system connecting two or more computers with/without wires What does being online mean?  using a computer or other information device, connected through a voice or data network, to access information and services from another computer or information device
  42. 42. Contd… Cyberspace  encompasses the whole wired and wireless world of communications The Internet  the “network of all networks” Multimedia  technology that presents information in more than one medium, such as text, still images, moving images, and sound World Wide Web  “graphical side of the Internet”  global network of linked documents on the Internet
  43. 43. Contd… The E-word ; E Stands for Electronic  E-mail  E-learning  E-business  E-commerce  E-government
  44. 44. Where Is Information Technology Headed?Three Directions of Computer Development Miniaturization Speed Affordability Then Now
  45. 45. Where Is Information Technology Headed? Three Directions of Communication Development  Connectivity  Interactivity  Multimedia Auto PCImage Courtesy:
  46. 46. When Computers & Communications Combine: Convergence, Portability, & Personalization  Convergence  Portability  PersonalizationImage courtesy:
  47. 47. Assignment 3 What should be the next Technology?  What can be the applications of that technology?  Your own ideas/thoughts