Export import procedures, documentation & logistics


Published on

Published in: Business

Export import procedures, documentation & logistics

  1. 1. Unit-1EXPORT IMPORT POLICY & CONTROLExim Policy or Foreign Trade Policy is a set of guidelines and instructions established by the DGFT inmatters related to the import and export of goods in India.The Foreign TradePolicy of India is guided by the Export Import in known as in short EXIM Policy of the Indian Governmentand is regulated by the Foreign Trade Development and Regulation Act, 1992.DGFT (Directorate General of Foreign Trade) is the main governing body in matters related to EximPolicy. The main objective of the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act is to provide thedevelopment and regulation of foreign trade by facilitating imports into, and augmenting exports fromIndia. Foreign Trade Act has replaced the earlier law known as the imports and Exports (Control) Act1947.EXIM PolicyIndian EXIM Policy contains various policy related decisions taken by the government in the sphere ofForeign Trade, i.e., with respect to imports and exports from the country and more especiallyexport promotion measures, policies and procedures related thereto. Trade Policy is prepared andannounced by the Central Government (Ministry of Commerce). Indias Export Import Policy also knowas Foreign Trade Policy, in general, aims at developing export potential, improving export performance,encouraging foreign trade and creating favorable balance of payments position.History of Exim Policy of IndiaIn the year 1962, the Government of India appointed a specialExim Policy Committee to review the government previous export import policies. The committee waslater on approved by the Government of India. Mr. V. P. Singh, the then Commerce Minister andannounced the Exim Policy on the 12th of April, 1985. Initially the EXIM Policy was introduced for theperiod of three years with main objective to boost the export business in IndiaExim Policy Documents1. The Exim Policy of India has been described in the following documents:2. Interim New Exim Policy 2009 - 20103. Exim Policy: 2004- 20094. Handbook of Procedures Volume I5. Handbook of Procedures Volume II6. ITC(HS) Classification of Export- Import Items
  2. 2. The major information in matters related to export and import is given in the document named "EximPolicy 2002-2007".An exporter uses the Handbook of Procedures Volume-I to know the procedures, the agencies and thedocumentation required to take advantage of a certain provisions of the Indian EXIM Policy. Forexample, if an exporter or importer finds out that paragraph 6.6 of theExim Policy is important for his export business then the exporter must also check out the sameparagraph in the Handbook of Procedures Volume- I for further details.Objectives Of The Exim Policy : -Government control import of non-essential items through the EXIM Policy. At the same time, all-outefforts are made to promote exports. Thus, there are two aspects of Exim Policy; the import policywhich is concerned with regulation and management of imports and the export policy which isconcerned with exports not only promotion but also regulation. The main objective of the GovernmentsEXIM Policy is to promote exports to the maximum extent. Exports should be promoted in such amanner that the economy of the country is not affected by unregulated exportable items speciallyneeded within the country. Export control is, therefore, exercised in respect of a limited number ofitems whose supply position demands that their exports should be regulated in the larger interests ofthe country. In other words, the main objective of the Exim Policy is:1. To accelerate the economy from low level of economic activities to high level of economicactivities by making it a globally oriented vibrant economy and to derive maximum benefitsfrom expanding global market opportunities.2. To stimulate sustained economic growth by providing access to essential raw materials,intermediates, components, consumables and capital goods required for augmentingproduction.3. To enhance the techno local strength and efficiency of Indian agriculture, industry and services,thereby, improving their competitiveness.4. To generate new employment.5. Opportunities and encourage the attainment of internationally accepted standards of quality.6. To provide quality consumer products at reasonable prices.Governing Body of Exim PolicyThe Government of India notifies the Exim Policy for a period of five years (1997-2002) under Section 5of the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation Act), 1992. The currentExport Import Policy covers the period 2002-2007. The Exim Policy is updated every year on the 31st ofMarch and the modifications, improvements and new schemes became effective from 1st April of everyyear.
  3. 3. All types of changes or modifications related to the EXIM Policy is normally announced by the UnionMinister of Commerce and Industry who co-ordinates with the Ministry of Finance, the DirectorateGeneral of Foreign Trade and network of Dgft Regional Offices.EXPORT CONTRACTAn export contract (also referred to as a sales contract) is essentially an agreement between you and aforeign importer to do business. The export contract can take many different forms. For example:1. A telephonic offer to sell, covering essential issues such as the product details, quantitiesoffered, price per unit, delivery particulars and payment terms, made by the exporter to theforeign buyer (or an offer to buy from the importer to the exporter) and confirmed by thesecond party is one example of a legitimate export contract. Such an agreement may or may notbe confirmed in writing. Telephonic contracts are somewhat risky and are not that common ininternational trade. They may occur, however, between long-standing trade partners orbetween reputable firms dealing in commodities that are subject to rapid price fluctuations.2. Similarly, any written offer (quotation), either contained in a formal written contract and postedor couriered to the importer, or sent by e-mail, fax, telex or cable to the importer, andconfirmed (usually also in writing) by the importer, is another form of legitimate contract. Againthis could also be a written offer to buy, initiated by the importer, which is then confirmed bythe exporter, although this is seldom the way it works unless it is a long-standing customer.3. A proforma invoice sent by fax, e-mail, courier or post to the importer (usually on his/herrequest) and confirmed by the importer, is another common form of export contract. Theconfirmation could be as simple as the importer writing "I agree to these terms and conditions"on the proforma invoice and signing it or perhaps the importer may generate a separate, signeddocument agreeing to the proforma invoice which is then attached as reference. Alternatively,the importer may indicate that (s)he is happy with the proforma invoice, but may request aformal contract containing the terms and conditions stipulated in the proforma invoice to bedrawn up and signed by both parties.The first offer is seldom acceptedIt is seldom the case that the importer will accept the first offer made by the exporter and normally thisfirst offer will be followed by a series of counter-offers sent back and forth between the exporter andthe importer until each party is satisfied with the terms and conditions outlined in the final offer andagree to abide by it.You need to be clear and preciseWhatever form the export contract takes, you need to be careful in formulating this document as theyare drawn up between companies from countries which may have very different legal systems,regulations and attitudes to doing business. These differences may cause disputes even when tradingwith other fairly developed nations. The challenge is to make your export contracts as clear, precise andcomprehensive as is possible.
  4. 4. The provisions in the contractThe basic provision of any contract for the sale of goods is that you, the seller (in this case, the exporter),will transfer ownership of the goods to your buyer (the importer) in exchange for payment (which, ininternational trade, made be made in a foreign currency). The export contract needs to specify theterms and conditions for doing this, and should at least describe:1. Who is party to the contract2. The validity of the contracts3. The goods being sold (usually described in some detail)4. The purchase price of the goods and the currency in question5. The terms of payment6. Inspection of the goods if required7. Where the goods should be delivered8. At what point transfer of title to the goods takes place9. Any warranty and/or maintenance conditions associated with the sale10. Who is responsible for obtaining import or export licenses, if these are required11. What supporting documentation and/or certificates are required12. Who is responsible for paying import duties and other taxes13. Any contract performance security requirements, such as bank letters of guarantee14. What will happen if either of the parties defaults or cancelsThe provisions for independent mediation or arbitration to resolve disputes, and whether this wouldtake place in South Africa or the importers country, or elsewhere The contracts completion dateThe role of IncotermsTo provide a common terminology for international shipping and minimize misunderstandings overcontract terms, the International Chamber of Commerce has developed a set of terms known asIncoterms. These are the basic terms used in international sales contracts.Intellectual Property (IP)licensing contracts are particularly trickyIf the contract involves the licensing of proprietary information or technology, be very sure that itsprecise about the licensees rights. Vagueness about these rights can create serious problems and canlead to the loss of your intellectual property. If the licensee uses your technology to create othertechnologies, for example, this can severely undermine the value of your asset.Make sure the contract is signed by all contracting partiesAlso - and this would seem obvious, but its sometimes overlooked - be sure that all parties to thecontract have signed it. For instance, if youre working through a representative, be sure that the actualbuyer signs the contract. The representatives signature is not necessarily enough, because without thebuyers signature, there is no written evidence that the buyer owes you money. Last but certainly notleast, have the contract examined by a lawyer familiar with the export market.
  5. 5. PROCESSING OF AN EXPORT ORDERThe immediate task of the exporter is to acknowledge the export order which is different from itsacceptance. Then he should proceed to examine the export order carefully in respect of item,specification, pre-shipment inspection, payment conditions, special packaging labeling and marketingrequirements, shipping and delivery date, marine insurance, documentation, arbitration, applicable lawsand jurisdiction, etc. The various aspects relating to processing of an export order as are discussed asunder :Scrutiny :The exporter purchase order should be examined carefully and its contents scrutinized in terms of thePerforma invoice / contract sent to the foreign buyer, on the following aspects :1. Item (product) : The order has been received for the product for which quotation/offer was sent andthe exporter is still in the position to supply the product.2. Size and Specifications : Should be same as per offer / quotation.3. Pre-shipment inspection : Should be either by exporter himself or any agency easily available. If thebuyer desires the inspection to be done by an agency/agent of his choice, financial and physical aspectsof inspection should be examined and communicated to the buyer. If compulsory pre-shipmentinspection by Indian Export Inspection Agency is required, the buyer should be informed about theapplicable scheme.4. Payment Conditions : are same and stipulated. A confirmed sight and irrevocable letter of credit (L/C)has been opened, where required.5. Packaging, Labeling and Marking requirements : If any should be noted for compliance. Particularattention should be paid to the individual packaging of consumer goods required for direct sale to theconsumers. In such a case labels, price tags, poly pack/skin packing etc. would be required and supply beassured.6. Shipment and delivery date : It should be in conformity with the exporters plans and whether :1. Part shipment is allowed.2. Trans – shipment is permissible or not.3. Port of shipment/destination is same or changed.7. Documents particularly those which are required with the bill of exchange. These are :Commercial invoice as usual or there is any specific notation required thereon.Certification by an authority on the commercial invoice. For instance, it may require certificationby Embassy Consulate of the foreign country.Bill of lading ‘straight’ or ‘to order’, ‘shipped’, or ‘received for shipment’. Make sure that there isno clause in the contract which asks for the AWB or B/L. The importers using their influence with
  6. 6. the Airlines/Shipping companies manage to release the goods even before the negotiable copyof the AWB or the B/L reaches through normal banking channels.Certificate of origin whether the usual one issued by a trade association or chamber ofcommerce or special ones like that required for availing of GSP concessions or other preference.Also whether necessary certification on commercial invoice would suffice or a separatecertification of origin is required.Packaging list.Insurance policy or certificate.8. Guarantee/Warranty clause should be same as per quotation/offer.9. Force Majeure clause should cover acts of Gods and other acts, beyond the control of exporter asmentioned at quotation / offer stage by exporter.10. Arbitration as per Indian council of Arbitration clause for International contracts or other acceptableinternational clauses as agreed between the parties.11. Laws applicable and jurisdiction, in case of default / dispute arising during the execution of thecontract.Entering in to Export Contract :Export Contract should be explicit as possible and without any ambiguity regarding the exactspecification of goods and terms of sale including export price, mode of payment, storage anddistribution method, types of packaging, port of shipment, delivery schedule, etc. All theses “terms”have a special connotation and meaning in International trade which must be understood by the parties(seller & buyer).1. Product Standards and specifications : The first important element of an exporter contract is toexplicitly state the following :1. Product name including technical name2. Sizes, if any in which to be supplied3. Standard / specifications, national or international or according to specific requirements ofbuyer or as the sample approved by him.2. Quantity : Put the quantity both in figures and words clearly specifying whether it is in terms ofnumber, weight or volume. If the quantity refers to goods by weight or measurement, specify the natureof the same.3. Inspection : Whereas a number of goods are now subject to pre-shipment inspection by designatedagencies, the foreign buyer may still stipulate his own conditions and manner of inspection by any otheragency. Hence the parties must clearly states in their contracts the nature, manner, aspects and theagency for inspection of goods, different from those laid down under the Quality Control and Pre–shipment inspection rules.
  7. 7. 4. Total Value of the Contract : The total value of the contract may also be put in both figures and wordsspecifying the currency along with the name of the country.5. Terms of Delivery : Also known as type of price, terms of delivery should be clearly incorporated in thecontract. It could be f.o.b., c.i.f., c&f. etc.6. Taxes, Duties and Charges : The taxes, duties and charges relating to exportation of goods arenormally a part of price i.e. terms of delivery quoted by seller. Similarly such levies, if any in the countryof importation are to be account of the buyer.7. Period of Delivery / Shipment : As distinguished from terms of delivery, period of delivery/shipmentrelates to the actual dates of delivery/shipment. In addition, it must be place of dispatch and deliverybecause if it is not designated, the place of the business of the seller is usually deemed to be the place ofdelivery. It also depends upon the terms of delivery. Moreover, it should be clarified whether the timefor delivery will run from the date of the contract or from the date of receipt of the advance money bythe seller or from the date of receipt of the notice of issuance of the import license by the seller, etc.The importers invariably ask for a firm date of the receipt of the goods at the port in the country ofimport, whereas due to certain circumstances beyond the control of the exporter the goods do notreach the port of destination within the time frame mentioned in the contract. Hence the exportershould make sure that the L/C or contract should have specific date of dispatch from the country oforigin, rather than the arrival date in the country of import.8. Part shipment/Transshipment/Consolidation by Cargo scheme : The contract must clearly statewhether part shipment / transshipment are agreed upon by the parties. In the absence of suchstipulations, disputes generally arise when the exporter is enable to ship the goods in one lot or directlyto the port of delivery. Also indicate the port of transshipment and the number, if any part shipmentagreed upon. In case the goods are likely to be dispatched under the Consolidation of Export – Cargoscheme, do make a reference to the same in the export contract.9. Packing, Labeling and Marketing : The exporter contract must be explicit as possible about the type ofpackage and particulars labels and marking requirements. These requirements are normally quitedifferent in case of export consignments and as such involve additional cost necessitating and upwardrevision in export prices. The language, color of labels and even marking have to be taken care as ofrequired by the buyer.10. Terms of Payment – Amount , Mode and Currency : The mode and manner of payment for the goodsto be exported vary from contract to contract depending upon the terms settled between the parties.While quoting different payment terms, the exporter should specify as to whether the prices are basedon current rate of exchange of the Indian rupee on the basis of another currency say US Dollar or anyother currency.11. Discounts and Commissions : Depending upon the source of export enquiry and the intermediaryinvolved, if any in the execution of an order the contract should specify the amount of discount /
  8. 8. commission to be paid and by whom i.e. by exporter or importer. The basis of calculation of commissionand rate of the same may also be clearly stipulated. The commission / discount may or may not beincluded in the export price to be quoted / agreed by the exporter / importer.12. Licenses and Permits : Normally all exporter/importer transaction involve obtaining the licenses andpermits/quotas to the export/import in the country of exportation/importation. The problem withregard to import licenses in the buyer’s country is sometime more prominent and acute in differentdeveloping countries. The parties should therefore clearly state as to whether the export transactionwould involve any export (import) licenses and whose responsibility and expense it would be to obtainthe same.13. Insurance : The terms of delivery normally take care of the aspects of insurances to be obtained bythe buyer/seller. In any case, it is important in international trade contracts to provide for insurance ofthe goods against loss, damage or destructions during the voyage as it takes a long time before they arereceived by the buyer. The extent of insurance risk and its incidence needs to be clearly described andproper insurance policies should be obtained.14. Documentary Requirements : International Trade transactions usually involve certain specialdocuments which can be broadly divided in to four categories :1. Documents required for exportation/importation of goods2. Documents needed by the buyer for taking delivery of the goods3. Documents relation to the payments.4. Special documents depending upon the nature of goods and the conditions of the sale
  9. 9. Unit-2METHOD OF PAYMENT IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE1. Popular methods of payment used in international trade include:2. cash with order(CWO)-the buyers pay cash when he places an order.3. cash on delivery(COD)-the buyer pays cash when the goods are delivered.4. documentary credit-a Letter of credit (L/C) is used; gives the seller two guarantees that thepayment will be made by the buyer:one guarantee from the buyers bank and another from thesellers bank.5. bills for collection -here a Bill of Exchange (B/E)is used6. open account-this method can be used by business partners who trust each other;the twopartners need to have their accounts with the banks that are correspondent banks.7. Methods of payment: Cash in Advance (Prepayment) Documentary Collections Letters of CreditOpen Account Combining Methods of Payment Summary Resources Activities AssessmentDOCUMENTARY CREDIT & COLLECTIONSThink of a documentary collection as an international COD (cash on delivery): the buyer pays for goodsat delivery. A documentary collection, however, is distinguished from a typical COD transaction in twoways: (1) instead of an individual, shipping company, or postal service collecting the payment, a bankhandles the transaction, and (2) instead of cash on delivery for goods it is cash on delivery for a titledocument (bill of lading) that is then used to claim the goods from the shipping company.Banks, therefore, act as intermediaries to collect payment from the buyer in exchange for the transfer ofdocuments that enable the holder to take possession of the goods. The procedure is easier than adocumentary credit, and the bank charges are lower. The bank, however, does not act as surety ofpayment but rather only as collector of funds for documents.For the seller and buyer, a documentary collection falls between a documentary credit and openaccount in its desirability. Advantages, disadvantages, and issues for both buyer and seller will bediscussed in the following pages.Documentary Collections vs. Documentary CreditsIn a documentary collection, the seller prepares and presents documents to the bank in much the sameway as for a documentary letter of credit. However, there are two major differences between adocumentary collection and a documentary credit: (1) the draft involved is not drawn by the seller (the"drawer") upon a bank for payment, but rather on the buyer itself (the "drawee"), and (2) the sellersbank has no obligation to pay upon presentation but, more simply, acts as a collecting or remitting bankon behalf of the seller, thus earning a commission for its services.The Uniform Rules for Collections (URC)
  10. 10. Although documentary collections, in one form or another, have been in use for a long time, questionsarose about how to effect transactions in a practical, fair, and uniform manner.The Uniform Rules for Collections (URC) is the internationally recognized codification of rules unifyingbanking practice regarding collection operations for drafts and for documentary collections. The URCwas developed by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Paris. It is revised and updated fromtime-to-time; the current valid version is ICC publication No. 322.Introducing the Parties to a Documentary CollectionThere are four main parties to a documentary collection transaction. Note below that each party hasseveral names. This is because businesspeople and banks each have their own way of thinking about andnaming each party to the transaction. For example, as far as businesspeople are concerned there arejust buyers and sellers and the buyers bank and the sellers bank. Banks, however, are not concernedwith buying and selling. They are concerned with remitting (sending) documents from the principal(seller) and presenting drafts (orders to pay) to the drawee (buyer) for payment. The four main partiesareTHE PRINCIPAL (SELLER/EXPORTER/DRAWER)The principal is generally the seller/exporter as well as the party that prepares documentation(collection documents) and submits (remits) them to his bank (remitting bank) with a collection orderfor payment from the buyer (drawee). The principal is also sometimes called the remitter.THE REMITTING (PRINCIPALS/SELLERS/EXPORTERS) BANKThe remitting bank receives documentation (collection documents) from the seller (principal) forforwarding (remitting) to the buyers bank (collecting/presenting bank) along with instructions forpayment.THE COLLECTING OR PRESENTING (BUYERS) BANKThis is the bank that presents the documents to the buyer and collects cash payment (payment of abank draft) or a promise to pay in the future (a bill of exchange) from the buyer (drawee of the draft) inexchange for the documents.THE DRAWEE (BUYER/IMPORTER)The drawee (buyer/importer) is the party that makes cash payment or signs a draft according to theterms of the collection order in exchange for the documents from the presenting/collecting bank andtakes possession of the goods. The drawee is the one on whom a draft is drawn and who owes theindicated amount.Basic Documentary Collection Procedure
  11. 11. The documentary collection procedure involves the step-by-step exchange of documents giving title togoods for either cash or a contracted promise to pay at a later time. Refer to the diagram on theopposite page for each numbered step.BUYER AND SELLERThe buyer and seller agree on the terms of sale of goods: (a) specifying a documentary collection as themeans of payment, (b) naming a collecting/presenting bank (usually the buyers bank), and (c) listingrequired documents.PRINCIPAL (SELLER)1. The seller (principal) ships the goods to the buyer (drawee) and obtains a negotiable transportdocument (bill of lading) from the shipping firm/agent.2. The seller (principal) prepares and presents (remits) a document package to his bank (the remittingbank) consisting of (a) a collection order specifying the terms and conditions under which the bank is tohand over documents to the buyer and receive payment, (b) the negotiable transport document (bill oflading), and (c) other documents (e.g., insurance document, certificate of origin, inspection certificate,etc.) as required by the buyer.REMITTING BANK3. The remitting bank sends the documentation package by mail or by courier to the designatedcollecting/presenting bank in the buyers country with instructions to present them to the drawee(buyer) and collect payment.COLLECTING BANK4. The presenting (collecting) bank (a) reviews the documents making certain they are in conformitywith the collection order, (b) notifies the buyer (drawee) about the terms and conditions of thecollection order, and (c) releases the documents once the payment conditions have been met.BUYER/DRAWEE5. The buyer (drawee) (a) makes a cash payment (signing the draft), or if the collection order allows,signs an acceptance (promise to pay at a future date) and (b) receives the documents and takespossession of the shipment.COLLECTING BANK6. The collecting bank pays the remitting bank either with an immediate payment or, at the maturitydate of the accepted bill of exchange.REMITTING BANK7. The remitting bank then pays the seller (principal).
  12. 12. A NOTE CONCERNING CORRESPONDENT BANKSThe remitting bank may find it necessary or desirable to use an intermediary bank (called acorrespondent bank) rather than sending the collection order and documents directly to the collectingbank. For example, the collecting bank may be very small or may not have an established relationshipwith the remitting bank.Three Types of CollectionsThere are three types of documentary collections and each relates to a buyer option for payment for thedocuments at presentation. The second and third, however, are dependent upon the sellers willingnessto accept the option and his specific instructions in the collection order. The three types are1. DOCUMENTS AGAINST PAYMENT (D/P)In D/P terms, the collecting bank releases the documents to the buyer only upon full and immediatecash payment. D/P terms most closely resemble a traditional cash-on-delivery transaction.Note: The buyer must pay the presenting/collecting bank the full payment in freely available funds inorder to take possession of the documents.This type of collection offers the greatest security to the seller.2. DOCUMENTS AGAINST ACCEPTANCE (D/A)In D/A terms the collecting bank is permitted to release the documents to the buyer against acceptance(signing) of a bill of exchange or signing of a time draft at the bank promising to pay at a later date(usually 30, 60 or 90 days).The completed draft is held by the collecting bank and presented to the buyer for payment at maturity,after which the collecting bank sends the funds to the remitting bank, which in turn sends them to theprincipal/seller.Note: The seller should be aware that he gives up title to the shipment in exchange for the signed bill ofexchange that now represents his only security in the transaction.3. ACCEPTANCE DOCUMENTS AGAINST PAYMENTAn acceptance documents against payment has features from both D/P and D/P types. It works like this:a. the collecting bank presents a bill of exchange to the buyer for acceptance,b. the accepted bill of exchange remains at the collecting bank together with thedocuments up to maturity,c. the buyer pays the bill of exchange at maturity,d. the collecting bank releases the documents to the buyer who takes possession of theshipment, and (e) the collecting bank sends the funds to the remitting bank, which thenin turn sends them to the seller.
  13. 13. This gives the buyer time to pay for the shipment but gives the seller security that title to the shipmentwill not be handed over until payment has been made. If the buyer refuses acceptance of the bill ofexchange or does not honor payment at maturity, the seller makes other arrangements to sell his goods.This type of collection is seldom used in actual practice.PAYMENT NOTESIf the buyer draws (takes possession of) the documents against acceptance of a bill of exchange, thecollecting bank sends the acceptance back to the remitting bank or retains it on a fiduciary basis up tomaturity. On maturity, the collecting bank collects the bill and transfers the proceeds to the remittingbank for crediting to the seller.UCP 500The Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP) is a set of rules on the issuance anduse of letters of credit. The UCP is utilized by bankers and commercial parties in more than 175countries in trade finance. Some 11-15% of international trade utilizes letters of credit, totaling over atrillion dollars (US) each year.Historically, the commercial parties, particularly banks, have developed the techniques and methods forhandling letters of credit in international trade finance. This practice has been standardized by the ICC(International Chamber of Commerce) by publishing the UCP in 1933 and subsequently updating itthroughout the years. The ICC has developed and moulded the UCP by regular revisions, the currentversion being the UCP600. The result is the most successful international attempt at unifying rules ever,as the UCP has substantially universal effect. The latest revision was approved by the BankingCommission of the ICC at its meeting in Paris on 25 October 2006. This latest version, called the UCP600,formally commenced on 1 July 2007.Contents [hide]1. ICC and the UCP2. UCP6003. eUCP4. CDCS5. External linksICC and the UCPA significant function of the ICC is the preparation and promotion of its uniform rules of practice. TheICC’s aim is to provide a codification of international practice occasionally selecting the best practiceafter ample debate and consideration. The ICC rules of practice are designed by bankers and merchantsand not by legislatures with political and local considerations. The rules accordingly demonstrate theneeds, customs and practices of business. Because the rules are incorporated voluntarily into contracts,the rules are flexible while providing a stable base for international review, including judicial scrutiny.International revision is thus facilitated permitting the incorporation of the changing practices of thecommercial parties. ICC, which was established in 1919, had as its primary objective facilitating the flow
  14. 14. of international trade at a time when nationalism and protectionism threatened the easing of worldtrade. It was in that spirit that the UCP were first introduced – to alleviate the confusion caused byindividual countries’ promoting their own national rules on letter of credit practice. The aim was tocreate a set of contractual rules that would establish uniformity in practice, so that there would be lessneed to cope with often conflicting national regulations. The universal acceptance of the UCP bypractitioners in countries with widely divergent economic and judicial systems is a testament to therules’ success.UCP600The latest{July 2007} revision of UCP is the sixth revision of the rules since they were first promulgatedin 1933. It is the fruit of more than three years of work by the ICCs Commission on Banking Techniqueand Practice.The UCP remain the most successful set of private rules for trade ever developed. A range of individualsand groups contributed to the current revision including: the UCP Drafting Group, which waded throughmore than 5000 individual comments before arriving at this final text; the UCP Consulting Group,consisting of members from more than 25 countries, which served as the advisory body; the more than400 members of the ICC Commission on Banking Technique and Practice who made pertinentsuggestions for changes in the text; and 130 ICC National Committees worldwide which took an activerole in consolidating comments from their members.During the revision process, notice was taken of the considerable work that had been completed increating the International Standard Banking Practice for the Examination of Documents underDocumentary Credits (ISBP), ICC Publication 645. This publication has evolved into a necessarycompanion to the UCP for determining compliance of documents with the terms of letters of credit. It isthe expectation of the Drafting Group and the Banking Commission that the application of the principlescontained in the ISBP, including subsequent revisions thereof, will continue during the time UCP 600 is inforce. At the time UCP 600 is implemented, there will be an updated version of the ISBP to bring itscontents in line with the substance and style of the new rules.Note that UCP600 does not automatically apply to a credit if the credit is silent as to which set of rules itis subject to. A credit issued by SWIFT MT700 is no longer subject by default to the current UCP – it hasto be indicated in field 40E, which is designated for specifying the "applicable rules".Where a credit is issued subject to UCP600, the credit will be interpreted in accordance with the entireset of 39 articles contained in UCP600. However, exceptions to the rules can be made by expressmodification or exclusion. For example, the parties to a credit may agree that the rest of the credit shallremain valid despite the beneficiarys failure to deliver an instalment. In such case, the credit has tonullify the effect of article 32 of UCP600, such as by wording the credit as: "The credit will continue to beavailable for the remaining installments notwithstanding the beneficiarys failure to present complieddocuments of an installment in accordance with the installment schedule."eUCP
  15. 15. The eUCP was developed as a supplement to UCP due to the sense at the time that banks andcorporates together with the transport and insurance industries were ready to utilise electroniccommerce. The hope and expectation that surrounded the development of eUCP has failed the UCP600and it will remain as a supplement albeit slightly amended to identify its relationship with UCP600.An updated version of the eUCP came into effect on 1 July 2007 to coincide the commencement of theUCP600. There are no substantive changes to the eUCP, merely references to the UCP600.CDCSThe Certified Documentary Credit Specialist is a qualification awarded by IFSA US and IFS UK andendorsed by ICC Paris as the only International qualification for Trade Finance Professionals, recognisingthe competence, and ensuring best practice. It requires Re-Certification every Three years. UCP 600rules will be included from April 2008 examinations only. CDCS requires some 4–6 months ofindependent study and a pass in 3 hour examination of 120 multiple choice questions as well as 3 inbasket exercises with questions which demonstrate skill in real-world applications of UCP.PRE-PST SHIPMENT EXPORT CREDITRUPEE EXPORT CREDIT (PRE-SHIPMENT AND POST-SHIPMENT) :United Bank of India offers both pre and post shipment credit to the Indian exporters through Rupeedenominated loans as well as foreign currency loans in India.Exporters having firm export orders or L/C from a recognized Bank can avail the export credit facilitiesfrom United Bank of India provided they satisfy the required credit norms. The details of the creditnorms can be obtained from the nearest authorized branch of the Bank.Post shipment rupee export credit is available for a maximum period of -180- days /360daysfrom thedate of first disbursement . The corporate, if required can book forward contracts in respect of futureexport credit drawals.EXPORT BILL REDISCOUNTING :United Bank of India offers financing of export by way of bill discounting of export bills to provide postshipment finance to the exporters at competitive international rate of interest.The export bills (both Sight and Usance) can be purchased/ discounted provided they comply with thenorms of the Bank/ RBI.All exporters are eligible to cover the bills drawn under L/C, non-credit bills under sanctioned limitsunder the Bill discounting Scheme.BANK GUARANTEEIt helps to have a third party’s vetting for your business.
  16. 16. When running a business, you might come across a situation that your client may ask you to provide afinancial guarantee from a third party.In such circumstances, approach your bank and ask it to stand as a guarantor on your behalf. Thisconcept is known as bank guarantee (BG).This is usually seen when a small company is dealing with much larger entity or even a governmentacross border.Let us take an example of a company XYZ bags a project from, say, the Government ofEthiopia to build 200 power transmission towers.In this case, companies all over the world would have applied. The selection would be made on the basisof lowest cost and track record as submitted in the proposal form.However, the government has limited ability to assess all companies for financial stability and creditworthiness.To ensure the project is done satisfactorily and on time, the government puts a condition that companyXYZ will have to furnish a guarantee given by one or more banks.In banking nomenclature, company XYZ is an applicant, its bank is the issuing bank and the Governmentof Ethiopia is the beneficiary.Usually, the BG is for a specified amount, which is a percentage of the total money required for thecontract.Obviously, the bank will not just issue such guarantee with its own due diligence. The bank does its ownthorough analysis of the financial well being of company XYZ to assess the amount of guarantee it canissue. After all, the bank is at a risk too, in case the client defaults. This amount is called a limit.Here too there is a catch. The bank will issue guarantee provided the company has not exceeded itsoverall limit for BGs. And if the Government of Ethiopia is not satisfied with the performance of thecontract at a later date, it can invoke the BG.In this situation, the bank will have to immediately release the amount of the BG to the government.BGs can be broadly classified into Performance and Financial BGs. As the name suggests, PerformanceBGs are the ones by which the issuing bank, also known as the Guarantor, guarantees the ability of theapplicant to perform a contract, to the satisfaction of the beneficiary.VARIATIONSLet us continue with our earlier example, to understand the different types of performance BGs. XYZmight need to give a BG that guarantees it has the capability to do the project, on winning the bid. Thisensures only serious bidders are in the fray for the project. This is called a bid-bond guarantee. XYZ alsomight be getting an advance payment for buying materials, etc. Again, it will have to furnish a BG to theextent of the advance, called an advance payment BG. To secure the project even further, the
  17. 17. Government of Ethiopia might insist on stage payment guarantees. This would have milestones like 20per cent, 40 per cent, etc and a period in which these have to be done. As and when XYZ does that partof the work, the BG would expire, thus freeing its limits with the bank (banks also charge for theseservices, typically as a small percentage of the BG amount, even as little as 0.05 per cent).Another interesting use of the performance BG is in importing materials into the country. In this case, animporter might want to contest the amount of duty levied by the customs and until the duties are paid,the goods are not released. The importer can, in this case, present a BG for the amount of the duty (alsoknown as customs guarantee) and get his goods released. Once the final decision is taken, the importduty is paid and the BG released.The other broader types of BGs are financial guarantees. These are used to secure a financialcommitment such as a loan, a security deposit, etc. For example, guarantees of margin money for stockexchanges. These are issued on behalf of brokers, in lieu of the security deposit that needs to be paid atthe time of becoming a member of the exchange.The applicant, XYZ, has to prove credit worthiness only to one party, his bank, and can bid for projectsacross the world. The beneficiary, Government of Ethiopia, does not have to analyse how financiallysound the companies are and knows that in case something goes wrong, the bank will pay him.FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATIONSome of the foreign exchange markets are regulated by governmental and independent supervisorybodies, such as the National Futures Association, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and theFinancial Services Authority.ObjectiveThe objective of regulation is to ensure fair and ethical business behaviour. In their turn all foreignexchange brokers, IBs and signal sellers have to operate in strict compliance with the rules andstandards laid down by the Forex regulators, otherwise their activity is regarded as unlawful. First of all,they must be registered and licensed in the country where their operations are based, which ensuresquality control standards are met. In accord with this regulation licensed brokers are subject torecurrent audits, reviews and evaluations which force them to maintain the industry standards. Foreignexchange brokers must keep a sufficient amount of funds to be able to execute and complete foreignexchange contracts concluded by their clients and also to return clients’ funds intact in case ofbankruptcy.Not all foreign exchange brokers are regulated.
  18. 18. Unit-3MARINE INSURANCEMarine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo bywhich property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final destination.Cargo insurance — discussed here — is a sub-branch of marine insurance, though Marine also includesOnshore and Offshore exposed property (container terminals, ports, oil platforms, pipelines); Hull;Marine Casualty; and Marine Liability.A contract of marine insurance is an agreement whereby the insurer undertakes to indemnify theassured, in the manner and to the extent agreed, against losses incidental to marine adventure. There isa marine adventure when any insurable property is exposed to maritime perils i.e. perils consequent tonavigation of the sea. The term perils of the sea refers only to accidents or causalities of the sea, anddoes not include the ordinary action of the winds and waves. Besides, maritime perils include, fire, warperils, pirates, seizures and jettison, etc.There are four types of marine insurance:-Hull Insurance:- covers the insurance of the vessel and its equipment i.e. furniture and fittings,machinery, tools, fuel, etc. It is effected generally by the owner of the ship.Cargo Insurance:- includes the cargo or goods contained in the ship and the personal belongings of thecrew and passengers.Freight Insurance:- provides protection against the loss of freight. In many cases, the owner of goods isbound to pay freight, under the terms of the contract, only when the goods are safely delivered at theport of destination. If the ship is lost on the way or the cargo is damaged or stolen, the shippingcompany loses the freight. Freight insurance is taken to guard against such risk.Liability Insurance:- is one in which the insurer undertakes to indemnify against the loss which theinsured may suffer on account of liability to a third party caused by collision of the ship and other similarhazards.In a contract of marine insurance,the insured must have insurable interest in the subject matter insuredat the time of the loss. Insurable interest is not required to be present at the time of taking the policy.Under marine insurance, the following persons are deemed to have insurable interest:-The owner of the ship has an insurable interest in the ship.The owner of the cargo has insurable interest in the cargo.A creditor who has advanced money on the security of the ship or cargo has insurable interest to theextent of his loan.
  19. 19. The master and crew of the ship have insurable interest in respect of their wages.If the subject matter of insurance is mortgaged, the mortgagor has insurable interest in the full valuethereof, and the mortgagee has insurable interest in respect of any sum due to him.A trustee holding any property in trust has insurable interest in such property.In case of advance freight the person advancing the freight has an insurable interest in so far as suchfreight is repayable in case of loss.The insured has an insurable interest in the charges of any insurance policy which he may take.Types of Marine Insurance Policies:-Voyage policy:- is a policy in which the subject matter is insured for a particular voyage irrespective ofthe time involved in it. In this case the risk attaches only when the ship starts on the voyage.Time policy:- is a policy in which the subject matter is insured for a definite period of time. The ship maypursue any course it likes, the policy would cover all the risks from perils of the sea for the stated periodof time. A time policy cannot be for a period exceeding one year, but it may contain a continuationclause. The continuation clause means that if the voyage is not completed within the specified period,the risk shall be covered until the voyage is completed, or till the arrival of the ship at the port of call.Mixed policy:- is a combination of voyage and time policies and covers the risk during particular voyagefor a specified period of time.Valued policy:- is a policy in which the value of the subject matter insured is agreed upon between theinsurer and the insured and it is specified in the policy itself.Open or Un-valued policy:- is the policy in which the value of the subject matter insured is not specified.Subject to the limit of the sum assured, it leaves the value of the loss to be subsequently ascertained.Floating policy:- is a policy which only mentions the amount for which the insurance is taken out andleaves the name of the ship(s) and other particulars to be defined by subsequent declarations. Suchpolicies are very useful to merchants who regularly despatch goods through ships.Wagering or Honour policy:- is a policy in which the assured has no insurable interest and theunderwriter is prepared to dispense with the insurable interest. Such policies are also known as PolicyProof of Interest(P.P.I).ECGCIn order to provide export credit and insurance support to Indian exporters, the GOI set up the ExportRisks Insurance Corporation (ERIC) in July, 1957. It was transformed into export credit guaranteecorporation limited (ECGC) in 1964. Since 1983, it is now know as ECGC of India Ltd.
  20. 20. ECGC is a company wholly owned by the Government of India. It functions under the administrativecontrol of the Ministry of Commerce and is managed by a Board of Directors representing government,Banking, Insurance, Trade and Industry. The ECGC with its headquarters in Bombay and several regionaloffices is the only institution providing insurance cover to Indian exporters against the risk of non-realization of export payments due to occurrence of the commercial and political risks involved inexports on credit terms and by offering guarantees to commercial banks against losses that the bankmay suffer in granting advances to exports, in connection with their export transactions.OBJECTIVES OF ECGC:1. To protect the exporters against credit risks, i.e. non-repayment by buyers2. To protect the banks against losses due to non-repayment of loans by exportersCOVERS ISSUED BY ECGC:The covers issued by ECGC can be divided broadly into four groups:1. STANDARD POLICIES – issued to exporters to protect then against payment risks involved inexports on short-term credit.2. SPECIFIC POLICIES – designed to protect Indian firms against payment risk involved in (i) exportson deferred terms of payment (ii) service rendered to foreign parties, and (iii) constructionworks and turnkey projects undertaken abroad.3. FINANCIAL GUARANTEES – issued to banks in India to protect them from risk of loss involved intheir extending financial support to exporters at pre-shipment and post-shipment stages; and4. SPECIAL SCHEMES – such as Transfer Guarantee meant to protect banks which add confirmationto letters of credit opened by foreign banks, Insurance cover for Buyer’s credit, etc.(A) STANDARD POLICIES:ECGC has designed 4 types of standard policies to provide cover for shipments made on short termcredit:Shipments (comprehensive risks) Policy – to cover both political and commercial risks from the date ofshipmentShipments (political risks) Policy – to cover only political risks from the date of shipmentContracts (comprehensive risks) Policy – to cover both commercial and political risk from the date ofcontractContracts (Political risks) Policy – to cover only political risks from the date of contractRISKS COVERED UNDER THE STANDARD POLICIES:1. Commercial RisksInsolvency of the buyer
  21. 21. Buyer’s protracted default to pay for goods accepted by himBuyer’s failure to accept goods subject to certain conditions2. Political risks1. Imposition of restrictions on remittances by the government in the buyer’s country or anygovernment action which may block or delay payment to exporter.2. War, revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer’s country. Cancellation of a valid import licenseor new import licensing restrictions in the buyer’s country after the date of shipment orcontract, as applicable.3. Cancellation of export license or imposition of new export licensing restrictions in India after thedate of contract (under contract policy).4. Payment of additional handling, transport or insurance charges occasioned by interruption ordiversion of voyage that cannot be recovered from the buyer.5. Any other cause of loss occurring outside India, not normally insured by commercial insurersand beyond the control of the exporter and / or buyer.RISKS NOT COVERED UNDER STANDARD POLICIES:The losses due to the following risks are not covered:1. Commercial disputes including quality disputes raised by the buyer, unless the exporter obtainsa decree from a competent court of law in the buyer’s country in his favour, unless the exporterobtains a decree from a competent court of law in the buyers’ country in his favour2. Causes inherent in the nature of the goods.3. Buyer’s failure to obtain import or exchange authorization from authorities in his county4. Insolvency or default of any agent of the exporter or of the collecting bank.5. loss or damage to goods which can be covered by commerci8al insurers6. Exchange fluctuation7. Discrepancy in documents.(B). SPECIFIC POLICIESThe standard policy is a whole turnover policy designed to provide a continuing insurance for the regularflow of exporter’s shipment of raw materials, consumable durable for which credit period does notnormally exceed 180 days.Contracts for export of capital goods or turnkey projects or construction works or rendering servicesabroad are not of a repetitive nature. Such transactions are, therefore, insured by ECGC on a case-to-case basis under specific policies.Specific policies are issued in respect of Supply Contracts (on deferred payment terms), Services Abroadand Construction Work Abroad.
  22. 22. 1) Specific policy for Supply Contracts:Specific policy for Supply contracts is issued in case of export of Capital goods sold on deferred credit. Itcan be of any of the four forms:1. Specific Shipments (Comprehensive Risks) Policy to cover both commercial and political risks atthe Post-shipment stage.2. Specific Shipments (Political Risks) Policy to cover only political risks after shipment stage.3. Specific Contracts (Comprehensive Risks) Policy to cover political and commercial risks aftercontract date.4. Specific Contracts (Political Risks) Policy to cover only political risks after contract date.2) Service policy:Indian firms provide a wide range of services like technical or professional services, hiring or leasing toforeign parties (private or government). Where Indian firms render such services they would be exposedto payment risks similar to those involved in export of goods. Such risks are covered by ECGC under thispolicy.If the service contract is with overseas government, then Specific Services (political risks) Policy can beobtained and if the services contract is with overseas private parties then specific services(comprehensive risks) policy can be obtained, especially those contracts not supported by bankguarantees.Normally, cover is issued on case-to-case basis. The policy covers 90%of the loss suffered.3) Construction Works Policy:This policy covers civil construction jobs as well as turnkey projects involving supplies and services. Thispolicy covers construction contracts both with private and foreign government.This policy covers 85% of loss suffered on account of contracts with government agencies and 75% ofloss suffered on account of construction contracts with private parties.(C). FINANCIAL GUARANTEESExporters require adequate financial support from banks to carry out their export contracts. ECGC backsthe lending programmes of banks by issuing financial guarantees. The guarantees protect the banksfrom losses on account of their lending to exporters. Six guarantees have been evolved for this purpose:-I. Packing Credit GuaranteeII. Export Production Finance GuaranteeIII. Export Finance GuaranteeIV. Post Shipment Export Credit GuaranteeV. Export Performance GuaranteeVI. Export Finance (Overseas Lending) Guarantee.
  23. 23. These guarantees give protection to banks against losses due to non-payment by exporters on accountof their insolvency or default. The ECGC charges a premium for its services that may vary from 5 paise to7.5 paise per month for Rs. 100/-. The premium charged depends upon the type of guarantee and it issubject to change, if ECGC so desires.(i) Packing Credit Guarantee: Any loan given to exporter for the manufacture, processing, purchasing orpacking of goods meant for export against a firm order of L/C qualifies for this guarantee.Pre-shipment advances given by banks to firms who enters contracts for export of services or forconstruction works abroad to meet preliminary expenses are also eligible for cover under thisguarantee. ECGC pays two thirds of the loss.(ii) Export Production Finance Guarantee: this is guarantee enables banks to provide finance at pre-shipment stage to the full extent of the of the domestic cost of production and subject to certainguidelines.The guarantee under this scheme covers some specified products such a textiles, woolen carpets, ready-made garments, etc and the loss covered is two third.(iii) Export Finance Guarantee: this guarantee over post-shipment advances granted by banks toexporters against export incentives receivable such as DBK. In case, the exporterDoes not repay the loan, then the banks suffer loss? The loss insured is up to three fourths or 75%.(iv) Post-Shipment Export Credit Guarantee: post shipment finance given to exporters by the bankspurchase or discounting of export bills qualifies for this guarantee. Before extending such guarantee, theECGC makes sure that the exporter has obtained Shipment or Contract Risk Policy. The loss coveredunder this guarantee is 75%.(v) Export Performance Guarantee: exporters are often called upon to execute bid bonds supported by abank guarantee and it the contract is secured by the exporter than he has to furnish a bank guarantee toforeign parties to ensure due performance or against advance payment or in lieu of or retention money.An export proposition may be frustrated if the exporter’s bank is unwilling to issue the guarantee.This guarantee protects the bank against 75% of the losses that it may suffer on account of guaranteegiven by it on behalf of exporters.(vi) Export Finance (Overseas Lending) Guarantee: if a bank financing overseas projects provides aforeign currency loan to the contractor, it can protect itself from risk of non-payment by the con tractorby obtaining this guarantee. The loss covered under this policy is to extent of three fourths (75%).(D) SPECIAL SCHEMESA part from providing policies (Standards and Specific) and guarantees, ECGC provides special schemes.These schemes are provided o the banks and to the exporters. The schemes are:
  24. 24. Transfer Guarantee: the transfer guarantee is provided to safeguard banks in India against losses arisingout of risk of confirmation of L/C. the risks can be either political or commercial or both. Loss due topolitical risks is covered up to 90 % and that due to commercial risks up to 75%.Insurance Cover for Buyer’s Credit and Lines of Credit: Financial Institutions in India have started directlending to buyers or financial institutions in developing countries for importing machinery andequipment from India. This sort of financing facilitates immediate payment to exporters and frees themfrom the problem of credit management. ECGC has evolved this scheme to protect financial institutionsin India which extent export credit to overseas buyers or institutions.Overseas Investment Insurance: with the increasing exports of capital goods and turnkey projects fromIndia, the involvement of exporters in capital anticipation in overseas projects has assumed importance.ECGC has evolved this scheme to provide protection for such investment. Normally the insurance coveris for 15 years.
  25. 25. Unit-4QUALITY CONTROL AND PRE SHIPMENT INSPECTIONThis inspection covers: product appearance (AQL), workmanship quality, size measurements, weightcheck, functionality assortment, accessories, labeling & logos, packaging, packing and other tests andspecial requirements, depending on the product and the export market.Our team of inspectors chooses a specific quantity of completed products - quantity according to - andinspects them according to your specifications, requirements and according to our protocols andexpertise.After completion of the inspection, a fully detailed inspection report with pictures and comments is sentto you. Then you are able to Accept or Reject your shipment online.In case of a failed inspection you should consider using our and ask for a Re-inspection. For some trickyshipments you might also consider a full carton/ products Inspection. We also help you to find solutionswith your supplier.YOUR REQUESTS:1. How to make sure I will get what I paid for ?2. What type of defect is my production suffering from ?3. What is the % of defective products in my shipment ?4. Are my products functionning correctly ?5. Are my shipping marks, packing and labeling correct ?When? The Pre Shipment Inspection (PSI), also called Final Random Inspection (FRI) will take place whenat least 80% of the products are ready and packed into export cartons. You can of course specify whenbooking online that you want 100% of the products to be ready for this inspection.Where? The final random inspection or pre shipment inspection will take place at the factory; anywherein Vietnam & International Local. In some case it could take place at the forwarders premises or at thepier.What? The Pre Shipment Inspection (PSI) covers all possible on site checks of your products:1. Product appearance (AQL) inspection2. Workmanship inspection.3. Safety and function inspection.4. Quantity inspection.5. Assortment inspection.6. Colors inspection.7. Size & measurements inspection.8. Weight inspection.
  26. 26. 9. Functionality inspection.10. Accessories inspection.11. Labeling & logos inspection.12. Packaging & packing (including the shipping marks) inspection.13. Loading & Stuffing, Sealing supervision+ Any other special requirements you may have...Our team of experienced Vietnamese or Western inspectors chooses a specific quantity of completedproducts - quantity according to AQL tables - and inspects them according to your specifications,requirements and according to our protocols and expertise. After completion of the inspection, a fullydetailed inspection report with pictures and comments is sent to you. Then you are able to Accept orReject your shipment online.Why? Because it is simply essential to check your products before the shipment! And this even if youwork with a trading company or with an agent... Your vendor, wether he is a factory, a trading companyor an agent will have no interest to inform you of any potential or real quality issue...Trust is good... But control is much better !Benefit & Advantages of this quality inspection:Performing a Pre Shipment Inspection will allow you to:1. Use our inspection report as a bargaining tool with your vendor!2. Know the percentage of defects affecting your products.3. Know the seriousness of the quality issues.4. Refuse defective shipments.5. Prevent to shortages of quantity & quality goods6. Bargain with your vendor in case of quality issue(s).7. Avoid unexpected costs & delays.8. Keep pressure on your vendor shoulders.9. Show your client(s) you care.10. Save time and secure your business!RATESOptions available for the Pre Shipment Inspection (PSI):Vietnamese & Western Inspector rate: Negotiation, please kindly email to ceo@aimcontrolgroup.comFor Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Noi Capital, Hai Phong City - NO travel expenses will be charged. For otherprovinces, travel expenses might apply. Please kindly contact us in advance to book quality inspectionsand factory audits with this option so we can arrange our inspectors & auditors schedules.Night overtime arte: Negotiation, please kindly email to ceo@aimcontrolgroup.com
  27. 27. The inspector will stay at the factory after 7PM till late in order to supervise a shipment or to implementthe necessary corrective actions.Additional inspection report rate: € 20.You might need different inspection reports to be established within the same man-day, especially ifyour order has multiple references.Collection of samples: Free of charge.Our inspectors can pick up your samples and send it to you. It could be mass production samples,defective samples etc.Defect sorting option: Free of charge.All defective items inspected will be sorted out and we will ask the factory to either rework or replacethese products.PROCESSPre-shipment inspection, also called preshipment inspection or PSI, is a part of supply chainmanagement and an important and reliable quality control method for checking goods quality whileclients buy from the suppliers.After ordering a number of articles, the buyer lets a third party control the ordered goods before theyare dispatched to him. Normally an independent inspection company is assigned with the task of thePSI, as it is in the interest of the buyer that somebody not connected with the deal in any way verifiesthe amount and quality. This way the buyer makes sure, he gets the goods he paid for.Although increasing numbers of clients would like to collect suppliers information from the Internet,this contains high risks because it is not a face-to-face transaction, and Internet phishing and fraud cancorrupt it. Pre-shipment inspection can greatly avoid this risk and ensure clients get quality productsfrom suppliers.ProcessThe pre-shipment inspection is normally agreed between a buyer, a supplier, and a bank, and it can beused to initiate payment for a letter of credit. A PSI can be performed at different stages:1. Checking the total amount of goods and packing2. Controlling the quality and/or consistency of goods3. Checking of all documentation, including test reports and packaging list4. Verifying compliance with the standards of the destination country (e.g. ASME or CE mark)The first stage is often performed by the transport company, but for the latter two stages a properinspection company is needed. Similarly, if between the buyer and seller money transfer via a letter of
  28. 28. credit is agreed upon, it is necessary to assign a reputable inspection company. In case of the letter ofcredit, after inspection of the goods, an inspection certificate is sent to the bank issuing the letter ofcredit and the buyer, initiating the money transfer.46.A is a clause in the LC, that lists the necessary documents that must be submitted to the bank by theseller. It is necessary for any fund transfer. So, one of the items that can be included in 46.A clause is:"The original certificate of inspection must be issued by third party pre-shipment inspection agency notearlier than the bill of lading date. And the inspection must be done by "the name of inspectioncompany" and approving that:"The quality, quantity, and the packing of the commodity dispatched are strongly conforming withprovisions of the commodities stated in the associated proforma invoice, the terms of LC and anyattachments built thereto as submitted to "name of third party pre-shipment inspection company" bythe purchaser"The clause 46.A lists many documents that must be given to the bank to initiate payment. Theinspection certificate is simply one of them. The wording quoted above must be stated exactly like thiswithin the inspection certificate. Even if the original document contains a spelling error, it must bestated in the same form. Any alteration in this wording will be rejected by the bank and the funds willnot be transferred to the beneficiaries.The inspection company will provide an inspection certificate once the manufacturer or seller providesthem with the following documents: Bill of Lading, Certificate of Origin and Packing List. The company incharge of the Pre-Shipment Inspection already has the letter of credit, the purchase order, and theproforma invoice. Based on above listed documents; altogether, they will issue a certificate and give it tothe manufacturer or seller. Finally, the manufacturer or seller will take all of the documents collectedand present them to the bank in order to initiate the payment.[2]Inspection companies are classified in two classes:- Free-market companies: These are privately owned companies, which sell their services to the market.Danger with these might be, especially if it is a smaller company, that they might be paid as well by themanufacturer, thus working in his interest.- State owned inspection companies: Only very few companies operating on the market are state-ownedor partly state-owned. The shareholding of governmental institutions guarantees the independence andobjectivity.A higher form of the PSI is called expediting, in this the dates of delivery and the production arecontrolled as well.Some countries, like Botswana, require PSIs for all goods entering the country in order to fightcorruption. In these cases the PSI must be performed by the company designated by the country.
  29. 29. PSI and corruption chargesThe Worldbank recommends pre-shipment inspections (PSI) as a means to fight corruption especially indeveloping countries. As SGS S.A. is one of the worldwide market leaders in PSI, it profits well fromthese means. Recent international charges show the companies involvement furthering corruptioninstead of fighting it due to the payment of millions of dollars to government members and theirfamilies. Most known is the payment to the then husband of Pakistani president Benazir Bhutto, Asif AliZardari.[3][4] Further irregularities were published about the contracts with Paraguay[5] and thePhilippines.EXCISE AND CUSTOM CLEARANCECustoms and Central Excise procedures are perceived by the trade as cumbersome involving timeconsuming documentation, scrutiny and physical examination of goods, divergent practices and a highdegree of individual discretion, resulting in impediments to the smooth movement of trade and actingagainst the interests of genuine importers, exporters and manufacturers. Appreciating this concern weare committed to streamlining and simplifying the procedures and setting a climate for voluntarycompliance. The introduction of electronic processing of documents also entails a change in approachand re-engineering of Customs and Central Excise processes based on selectivity, risk assessment andreduced intervention.We envisage the following measures to achieve this objective:-Customs1. Minimise pre-clearance scrutiny of import/export declarations and examination of goods.2. Introduce systems assessment i.e. without any human intervention for specifiedcommodities/identified importers and exporters.3. Introduce audit-based post-clearance scrutiny for identified importers/exporters, industrygroups. Combine post- clearance audit for Customs and Central Excise in respect ofmanufacturer-importers/exporters wherever possible.4. Accept periodic declarations instead of individual declarations for each consignment foridentified importers/exporters.5. Introduce a system of deferred duty payment for identified assessees subject to revenuesafeguards.6. Minimise physical examination of goods by effectively using risk assessment based targetingtechniques.7. Introduce a system of release of goods even where the documentation is incomplete or therehas been contravention of Customs laws, subject to adequate safeguards.8. Eliminate divergent practices in the application of Customs laws and procedures at differentCustoms stations by effective monitoring and analysis of the computerised database.9. Move towards a single window clearance wherever possible.10. Provide 24 hours or extended time Customs clearance facility, wherever required.
  30. 30. 11. Implement the provisions of International Conventions on Customs techniques (Revised KyotoConvention).12. Examine all extant procedures and eliminate those not compatible with trade facilitation.13. Undertake a continual review of Customs procedures so as to be responsive to changingsituationsCentral Excise1. Study all the existing Central Excise procedures, and streamline and simplify them, so that theassesses are encouraged to comply voluntarily;2. Evolve a new and comprehensive Central Excise law;3. Adopt unified Modvat rules for inputs and capital goods.4. Move towards a system of periodical payment of duties by assessees;5. Replace physical checks with selective audit;6. Accept records maintained under Companies Act for the purpose of administration of CentralExcise laws in lieu of statutory records;7. Evolve simplified schemes for refunds and rebates due to manufacturers and exporters;8. Eliminate divergent practices in the application of Excise laws and procedures at differentformations by effective monitoring and analysis of the computerised database.9. Undertake a continual review of Excise procedures so as to be responsive to the changingsituations.CUSTOM PROCEDURE1. Registration2. Processing of Shipping Bill3. Quota Allocation4. Arrival of Goods at Docks5. System Appraisal of Shipping Bills6. Customs Examination of Export Cargo7. Stuffing / Loading of Goods in Containers8. Drawal of Samples9. Amendments10. Export of Goods under Claim for Drawback11. Generation of Shipping BillsIn India custom clearance is a complex and time taking procedure that every export face in his exportbusiness. Physical control is still the basis of custom clearance in India where each consignment ismanually examined in order to impose various types of export duties. High import tariffs and multiplicityof exemptions and export promotion schemes also contribute in complicating the documentation andprocedures. So, a proper knowledge of the custom rules and regulation becomes important for theexporter. For clearance of export goods, the exporter or export agent has to undertake the followingformalities:
  31. 31. RegistrationAny exporter who wants to export his good need to obtain PAN based Business Identification Number(BIN) from the Directorate General of Foreign Trade prior to filing of shipping bill for clearance of exportgoods. The exporters must also register themselves to the authorised foreign exchange dealer code andopen a current account in the designated bank for credit of any drawback incentive.Registration in the case of export under export promotion schemes:All the exporters intending to export under the export promotion scheme need to get their licences /DEEC book etc.Processing of Shipping Bill - Non-EDI:In case of Non-EDI, the shipping bills or bills of export are required to be filled in the format asprescribed in the Shipping Bill and Bill of Export (Form) regulations, 1991. An exporter need to applydifferent forms of shipping bill/ bill of export for export of duty free goods, export of dutiable goods andexport under drawback etc.Processing of Shipping Bill - EDI:Under EDI System, declarations in prescribed format are to be filed through the Service Centers ofCustoms. A checklist is generated for verification of data by the exporter/CHA. After verification, thedata is submitted to the System by the Service Center operator and the System generates a Shipping BillNumber, which is endorsed on the printed checklist and returned to the exporter/CHA. For export itemswhich are subject to export cess, the TR-6 challans for cess is printed and given by the Service Center tothe exporter/CHA immediately after submission of shipping bill. The cess can be paid on the strength ofthe challan at the designated bank. No copy of shipping bill is made available to exporter/CHA at thisstage.Quota AllocationThe quota allocation label is required to be pasted on the export invoice. The allocation number ofAEPC (Apparel Export Promotion Council) is to be entered in the system at the time of shipping billentry. The quota certification of export invoice needs to be submitted to Customs along-with otheroriginal documents at the time of examination of the export cargo. For determining the validity date ofthe quota, the relevant date needs to be the date on which the full consignment is presented to theCustoms for examination and duly recorded in the Computer System.Arrival of Goods at Docks:On the basis of examination and inspection goods are allowed enter into the Dock. At this stage the portauthorities check the quantity of the goods with the documents.System Appraisal of Shipping Bills:
  32. 32. In most of the cases, a Shipping Bill is processed by the system on the basis of declarations made by theexporters without any human intervention. Sometimes the Shipping Bill is also processed on screen bythe Customs Officer.Customs Examination of Export Cargo:Customs Officer may verify the quantity of the goods actually received and enter into the system andthereafter mark the Electronic Shipping Bill and also hand over all original documents to the DockAppraiser of the Dock who many assign a Customs Officer for the examination and intimate the officers’name and the packages to be examined, if any, on the check list and return it to the exporter or hisagent.The Customs Officer may inspect/examine the shipment along with the Dock Appraiser. The CustomsOfficer enters the examination report in the system. He then marks the Electronic Bill along with alloriginal documents and check list to the Dock Appraiser. If the Dock Appraiser is satisfied that theparticulars entered in the system conform to the description given in the original documents and asseen in the physical examination, he may proceed to allow "let export" for the shipment and inform theexporter or his agent.Stuffing / Loading of Goods in ContainersThe exporter or export agent hand over the exporter’s copy of the shipping bill signed by the Appraiser“Let Export" to the steamer agent. The agent then approaches the proper officer for allowing theshipment. The Customs Preventive Officer supervising the loading of container and general cargo in tothe vessel may give "Shipped on Board" approval on the exporter’s copy of the shipping bill.Drawal of Samples:Where the Appraiser Dock (export) orders for samples to be drawn and tested, the Customs Officer mayproceed to draw two samples from the consignment and enter the particulars thereof along with detailsof the testing agency in the ICES/E system. There is no separate register for recording dates of samplesdrawn. Three copies of the test memo are prepared by the Customs Officer and are signed by theCustoms Officer and Appraising Officer on behalf of Customs and the exporter or his agent. The disposalof the three copies of the test memo is as follows:-1. Original – to be sent along with the sample to the test agency.2. Duplicate – Customs copy to be retained with the 2nd sample.3. Triplicate – Exporter’s copy.The Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner if he considers necessary, may also order for sampleto be drawn for purpose other than testing such as visual inspection and verification of description,market value inquiry, etc.Amendments:
  33. 33. Any correction/amendments in the check list generated after filing of declaration can be made at theservice center, if the documents have not yet been submitted in the system and the shipping billnumber has not been generated. In situations, where corrections are required to be made after thegeneration of the shipping bill number or after the goods have been brought into the Export Dock,amendments is carried out in the following manners.1. The goods have not yet been allowed "let export" amendments may be permitted by theAssistant Commissioner (Exports).2. Where the "Let Export" order has already been given, amendments may be permitted only bythe Additional/Joint Commissioner, Custom House, in charge of export section.In both the cases, after the permission for amendments has been granted, the Assistant Commissioner /Deputy Commissioner (Export) may approve the amendments on the system on behalf of the Additional/Joint Commissioner. Where the print out of the Shipping Bill has already been generated, the exportermay first surrender all copies of the shipping bill to the Dock Appraiser for cancellation beforeamendment is approved on the system.Export of Goods under Claim for Drawback:After actual export of the goods, the Drawback claim is processed through EDI system by the officers ofDrawback Branch on first come first served basis without feeling any separate form.Generation of Shipping Bills:The Shipping Bill is generated by the system in two copies- one as Custom copy and one as exportercopy. Both the copies are then signed by the Custom officer and the Custom House Agent.
  34. 34. Unit-5PROCEDURE FOR PROCUREMENTWho should use this article?This article will help in a range of situations and scenarios:If you are responsible for a procurement project and you have limited access to expert procurementadviceYou procurement project is not within the scope of your organizations core businessYour project is highly specialized where detailed technical knowledge and some procurement expertiseis more desirable than expert procurement skills with limited technical know-how.Why Use a Formal Procurement Process?A formal procurement process is sometime seen as cumbersome or bureaucratic but for anyprocurement exercise it is important to follow a few key steps. If you are not a procurement expert, youwill make mistakes. No doubt you will learn from them but why learn from your mistakes when you canlearn from someone else’s.1. A procurement process template provides a model and a framework to work within to:2. Save you time; ensure that you get the right solution to meet your business needs;3. Ensure you pay the right price (that’s the right price, not necessarily the lowest price!);4. Ensure you avoid overlooking vital steps that may come back to haunt you later.By using a standard procurement process, you will find that suppliers will be familiar with the steps youtake. They will know what to expect and will know that they are dealing with a professionalorganization.A few words of warning.Every project is different. Some procurement projects are small and every step of a formal process maynot be required. Alternatively, some projects are highly complex or regulated and a generic frameworkwill not be appropriate or sufficient. Despite this, every procurement project follows the same broadprocess . The key thing to remember is to adapt the process to fit the project.The Procurement ProcessWhat is procurement?The procurement process can be divided into five steps.Define the business need
  35. 35. You need to understand what the fundamental business requirement is. At this point, it is important tounderstand the difference between a requirement and a solution. For example, the businessrequirement is to source some software to help to get information published on the company intrantet.An item of software to publish information on the company intranet is a solution – not a requirement.The requirement is to be able to publish information on the intranet. It may be that an outsourcedsolution is a better option.Develop the Procurement StrategyDepending on the scale of your project, there could be a very wide range of potential solutions andapproaches to your business need and a number of ways of researching the market and selecting asupplier.Supplier Selection and EvaluationAfter researching the market and establishing your procurement approach, you need to evaluate thesolutions available. This may involve a formal tender process or an on-line auction. You criteria forcomparing different solutions and suppliers are critical. Weight the key criteria heavily and don’t attachtoo much importance to aspects that will have little impact on the solution.Negotiation and award.Even when you have selected a supplier it is important that detailed negotiations are undertaken. This isnot just about price. Think in terms of Total Cost of Ownership. A cheap product is not so cheap if thecarriage costs are huge or if the maintenance contract is onerous.Consider carefully the process by which the goods or services will be ordered and approved; how theywill be delivered and returned if necessary; how the invoice process will work and on what termspayment will be made. Considering the whole Purchase to Pay process (P2P) at the outset can reducecosts and risk significantlyInduction and IntegrationNo goods or services should be ordered of delivered until the contract is signed, but this is not the end.It is vital that the supplier is properly launched integrated. The P2P process needs to be in place andneed to be understood on both the buy-side and the supplier side. Any service levels that have beenagreed need to be measured and KPIs put in place. Regular reviews should be established.IMPORT FINANCINGDefinition:Loan given to the importer to provide liquidity for buying with sight payment to the exporter. Each loanmust be related to one specific import transaction and the term of the financing can vary depending onthe type of products imported and the requirements of the importer.
  36. 36. Advantages:Obtain liquidity to pay for imports.The importer can receive better conditions for the purchase based on sight payment.Citibank® can offer the structure, currency and terms that the business or transaction requires.Depending on the case, it is possible to create a "tailor made" structure.Costs:Is usually expressed as a spread over a base rate (Libor, Prime).Import Financing with Export Credit AgenciesDefinition:Medium or long term import financing for capital goods. The Export Credit Agencies are export-promoting agencies from the exporter’s country (run by the government) that cover political and insome cases, also commercial risk, of the importer, allowing Citibank® to offer financing under betterconditions.Advantages:The importer can get financing terms according to the nature of the goods purchased buying,with adequate costs.Citibank® works with the main Export Credit Agencies around the world.In well-ranked companies, it is also possible to get commercial coverage (comprehensive:political & commercial risk), so the credit line with Citibank® would not be used, except for the minimumpart not covered by the Export Credit Agencies.Costs:Rate: usually based on libor.Structuring fee: based on the deal to be arranged with the Export Credit Agencies.Commitment fee: collected by the Export Credit Agencies on the amounts committed but notalready disbursed.Exposure fee: collected by the Export Credit Agencies based on the sovereign risk they areassuming.
  37. 37. CUSTOM CLEARANCE OF IMPORT CARGOWhen any Organization Imports any item into the country, the cargo would need to be Custom Cleared.The consignment transported by Air, Ship or by Trailer on the Road, would have to be deposited at theCustoms Notified and Bonded Area.Customs Clearance or brokering is done by third party service providers who are licensed by Customs forthe said purpose. They represent the Importer and co-ordinate with Customs Department as well asother specific departments to Custom Clear the cargo.There are list of several items that cannot be imported into the countries freely and would requirespecific License. Alcoholic Beverages, Animals and Animal products, Fire Arms and Ammunitions, Meatand Meat products, Milk, Diary and Cheese products, Plants and Plant products, Poultry and PoultryProducts, Petroleum and Petroleum products etc would have to be imported under the License issuedby various agencies and such imports would have to be in compliance with the rules and conditions laiddown by respective agencies.There are several other items such as art materials, artifacts and antiques, cultural property, hazardousand toxic materials, internationally banned products like ivory etc are usually prohibited for imports intothe Country.Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, Animal and Plant Inspection Service, Fish and Wildlife Service,Food and Drug Administration are few of the agencies that exist in most of the countries which regulateand oversee imports of the specific items covered under their schedule.When the Cargo lands at the Customs Bonded W/house, along with Customs Clearance, the licenseditems would need to be inspected and approved for clearance by these specific agencies too. Customsbrokers carry out the necessary process of submitting documentation, facilitate sampling and inspectionand follow up to obtain approvals.All cargo being imported as well as export from a country would have to be deposited at CustomsBonded warehouse to complete export and import formalities and receive Customs approval to handover the cargo to the freight forwarder in case of Export and to the Importer incase of Imports. Thecustoms bonded warehouse is a customs notified area and the cargo while in bonded warehouse isunder the Customs Charge. Normally bonded warehouses are available and operated by CustomsDepartments at the Airports and Seaports. In case of larger airports and Shipping yards, the Governmentset up a separate corporation or agency to setup and operates such bonded warehouse. In many casesGovernments do give licenses to the Customs Clearing Agents to setup bonded warehouses for exportswherein the cargo can be offloaded by the exporter, customs formalities completed and after customsapproval the cargo can be stuffed into the Shipping container. Generally if the export cargo is of smallerlots, the clearing agents move the cargo to these bonded warehouses. If the export is of one fullcontainer volume, then the cargo is stuffed into the container at the exporter’s premise itself and thecontainer is deposited at the shipping yard in the customs bonded warehouse or designated areawaiting for export clearance.
  38. 38. An imported consignment can be imported and warehoused in Customs bonded warehouse for certainperiod of time in bond. This gives the flexibility to the importer to custom clear the consignment in partswhen required for consumption and pay customs duty only for the consignment that is being debonded. They can further sell the materials to third party while in bond and it would be considered ashigh sea sale. Un till the importer files bill of entry for home consumption and pays customs duty to takedelivery of the consignment, the import consignment technically is not considered to be imported andowned by the importer. Customs bonded warehouses charge normal warehousing rental and othertransaction charges for the goods warehoused. Additionally beyond a certain free period ascertained byCustoms in advance, the importer may be charge a certain interest on the customs duty payable on thesaid import, depending upon case to case basis.MANAGING RISK INVOLVED IN IMPORTINGDealing with suppliers in other countries adds a layer of complexity to trading. It’s wise to be aware ofpotential risks and fraud, and to understand strategies that can help protect your importing business.Currency riskWhat is the risk?The local currency amount payable on settlement may be higher than the amount calculated whenentering the contract, due to an adverse movement in the market price of the currency.How does it arise?Exchange rates between most currencies fluctuate regularly, and there is a time lag between enteringinto a contract and making the payment.How can it be mitigated?Importers can identify and manage this risk with a range of currency risk management solutions.Non-delivery or non-performanceWhat is the risk?Your supplier will not perform according to the sales contract, either by delivering the wrong or inferiorgoods or not delivering on time.How does it arise?Your supplier may not be willing or able to perform as contracted.How can it be mitigated?You might request that the goods be inspected prior to shipment by an independent inspection agency.
  39. 39. Credit riskWhat is the risk?Your supplier lacks the financial means to ship your goods after you have made payment.How does it arise?Your supplier, or other parties in the payment chain, may become insolvent.How can it be mitigated?Consider using conditional methods of payment such as documentary credit or documentary collection.Transfer riskWhat is the risk?A change in government regulations prevents or restricts your ability to make payments or exchangeforeign currency.How does it arise?Many countries regulate the transfer of money and conversion of foreign currency receipts. Unexpectedregulatory changes may occur between entering and settling a contract.How can it be mitigated?Consult the Australian Trade Commission – Austrade – for specialist knowledge of the markets withwhich you trade.Country riskWhat is the risk?A change in government regulations prevents or restricts your ability to receive goods.How does it arise?Many countries regulate the import and export of goods. Unexpected regulatory changes, such as thecancellation of permits or licences, may occur between entering and settling a contract.How can it be mitigated?Consult the Australian Trade Commission – Austrade – for specialist knowledge of the markets withwhich you trade. You may also want to consult the Australian Customs Service.Transport risk
  40. 40. What is the risk?Goods are stolen, lost or damaged in transit.How does it arise?Goods may be open to these risks when travelling between the supplier and you.How can it be mitigated?Consult commercial marine insurance agencies if you wish to insure against transport risk.Risk of fraudWhat is the risk?Your trading partner is not bona fide.How does it arise?There is always the possibility that an unscrupulous person will seek to take advantage of you, and thecomplexity of international trade can make it difficult to detect fraud before it occurs.How can it be mitigated?Do business with reputable parties that have a proven record with the goods in question, including thirdparties.Other risksLike an export, import of goods is also associated with various types of risks. Some of these areTransport Risk – This risk is associated with the loss of goods during transportation.Quality Risk – This risk is associated with the final quality of the products.Delivery Risk – This risk arises when the goods are not delivered on time.Exchange Risk – This risk arises due to the change in the value of currency.These risks are explained more fully below.Transport RiskFor a better transport risk management, an importer must ensure that the goods supplied by theexporter is insured. Whether the goods are transported by Sea or by Air, the risk can be covered byInsurance. It is always advisable to set out the agreement between the parties as to the type of cover tobe obtained in the Contract of Sale. Often Importers will wish to obtain Insurance cover from their own
  41. 41. Insurance Company under a blanket cover called an Open Policy thus taking advantage of bulk billingand other relationships.Quality riskThe proper quality risk analysis is important for the importer to ensure that the final products are asgood as the sample. Occasionally, it has been found that the goods are not in accordance with samples,quality is not as specified, or they are otherwise unsatisfactory. To handle such situations in future,importer must take necessary protective measures in advance. One the best method to avoid suchsituation is to investigate the reputation and standing of the supplier. Even before receiving the finalproduct, inspection can be done from the importer side or exporter side or by a third party agency.In case of Bill of Exchange, with documents released against acceptance, the Importer is able to inspectthe goods before payment is made to the Supplier at the maturity date. In this method of payment, ifthe goods are not in accordance with the Contract of Sale the Importer is able to stop payment on theaccepted draft prior to maturity. Importers should consider what measures can be taken to ensure thatthe need for legal action does not arise. If the Importer has an agent in the Suppliers country it may bepossible for closer supervision to be maintained over shipments.Delivery RiskDelivery of goods on time is important factor for the importer to reach the target market. For exampleany product or item which has been ordered for Christmas is of no use if it is received after theChristmas. Importer must make the import contract very specific, so that importer always has an optionof refusing payment if it is apparent that goods have not been shipped by the specific shipment date.Where an Importer is paying for goods by means of a Documentary Credit, the Issuing Bank can beinstructed to include a latest date for shipment in the terms of the Credit.Exchange RiskBefore entering into a commercial contract, it is always advisable for the importer to determine thevalue of the product in domestic currency. As there is always a gap between the time of entering intothe contract and the actual payment for the goods is received, so determining the value of the good indomestic currency will help an exporter to quote the right price for the product.1. Contracting to import in Indian Rupees.2. Entering into a Foreign Exchange Contract through Bank.3. Offsetting Export receivables against Import payables in the same currency by using a ForeignCurrency Account.4. Where Pre / Post-Shipment Finance is provided with a Foreign Currency Loan in the currency ofthe transaction and Export receipts repay the loan.