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  1. 1. (Rethinking Connectivity In Developing Nations) Submitted By:- Aditya CSE-B 1661332708 HMRITM
  2. 2. <ul><li>Daknet,whose name derives from the Hindi word for “post”,combines a physical means of transportation with wireless data transfer to extend internet connectivity to rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by MIT Media Lab Researchers, it Connects villages lacking a digital communication infrastructure through existing communication and transport infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>So, basically DAKNET is an ad hoc network which uses wireless technology to provide asynchronous digital connectivity. </li></ul>What Is DAKNET?
  3. 3. Can they afford internet expenses..??
  4. 4. NO!! <ul><li>Real time communications need large capital investment and hence high level of user adoption to receiver costs. The average villager cannot even afford a personal communications device such as a telephone or computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Telecommunication Companies are usually reluctant to extend their network to rural areas due to high infrastructure costs, low population density, and limited ability to pay for the services. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>FMS counters this problem by providing telecommunications equipment that can cheaply connect rural and remote populations to the internet through an innovative technology: ” DAKNET ” </li></ul><ul><li>Now reaches 40,000 villagers through various projects. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The main parts of a daknet </li></ul><ul><li>architecture are:- </li></ul><ul><li>M obile A ccess P oint (MAP) </li></ul><ul><li>H ub </li></ul><ul><li>K iosk </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1) Mobile Access Point :- <ul><li>Daknet offers data to be transmitted over short point-to-point links. It combines physical and wireless data transport to enable high-bandwidth intranet and internet connectivity among kiosks (public computers) and between kiosks and hubs. </li></ul><ul><li>So, a MAP equipment is installed on a vehicle which moves in a village from kiosk to kiosk or from </li></ul><ul><li>a hub to kiosk. </li></ul>
  8. 8. DAKNET enabled Bus, installed with a MAP equipment
  9. 9. 2) Hub:- A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN or WLAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet Arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN/WLAN can see all packets.
  10. 10. 3) Kiosk <ul><li>Kiosks are electronic devices installed at public places for example ATM, Schedule displaying Screen on airport, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In Daknet, Kiosk refers to computer centers where systems are installed for the villagers which are used under the guidance of a computer literate person. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Daknet Works? Basic Daknet Architecture
  12. 12. Daknet operation thus has two steps:- <ul><li>As the MAP equipped vehicle comes within range of a village WiFi enabled kiosk,it automatically senses the wireless connection and then uploads and downloads tens of megabytes of data. </li></ul><ul><li>When a MAP equipped vehicle comes within range of an internet access point(hub), it automatically synchronizes the data from all the rural kiosks, using the internet. The steps repeat for every vehicle carrying a MAP unit, thereby creating a low cost wireless network. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Session: <ul><li>A “session” occurs each time the Bus comes within range of a kiosk and the MAP transfers data. </li></ul><ul><li>The average length of a session is 2 minutes and 34 seconds,during which the MAP transfers an average of 20.9 Mbytes unidirectionally and twice of the same amount bidirectionally. </li></ul><ul><li>The average “goodput”(actual data throughput) for a session, during which the MAP and kiosk go in and out of connection because of mobility and obstructions is 2.47 Mbps. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Features And Advantages: <ul><li>Store And Forward Network </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective </li></ul>Lets take a look on all these effective features of the very effective network..
  15. 15. Seamless Scalability <ul><li>Daknet provides a seamless method of upgrading to always-on broadband connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>As the village increases its economic means,Daknet enables its inhabitants to use the same hardware,software, and user interface to enjoy realtime information access. </li></ul><ul><li>With low cost terminals and local user interface design,Daknet makes it practical for individual users to get connected. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Store And Forward Networking Villagers are able to send message and record videos through the kiosks The data is stored in the outbox of the kiosk, when the mobile vehicle Comes around, it exchanges the data in the outbox and inbox.
  17. 17. Economics: <ul><li>The total cost of the MAP equipment used on the Bus is $580,which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>A custom embedded PC running Linux with 802.11b wireless card and 512 Mbytes of compact flash memory; </li></ul><ul><li>A 100 mW amplifier,cabling,mounting equipment,and an omnidirectional antenna;and </li></ul><ul><li>An uninterruptible power supply powered by the bus battery. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Number Game: <ul><li>Average Cost of establishing a village kiosk is $185 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of embedding a MAP on a vehicle is $580 </li></ul><ul><li>A Map equipped vehicle travels around 10 villages on an average on any given day. </li></ul><ul><li>So, the total cost of enabling a village under Daknet Network is just $243($185 at each village plus $580 MAP cost for 10 villages). </li></ul>
  19. 19. WiFi <ul><li>Wireless Fidelity- generically refers to any type of 802.11 network </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi refers to a set of high frequency wireless local area network (WLAN) technologies more specifically referred to as 802.11a 802.11b and 802.11g. These standards are universally in use around the globe, and allow users that have a Wi- Fi capable device, like a laptop or PDA, to connect anywhere there is a Wi-Fi access point that is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Max Speed : 11 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Max range ‘@ full throughput’ : 30 ft </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advantages of WiFi: <ul><li>Uses an unlicensed part os radio spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Frees network devices from cables,thus enabling a </li></ul><ul><li>convenient and dynamic network to grow. </li></ul>Disadvantages of WiFi: <ul><li>It uses a 2.4 GHz spectrum which is already crowded </li></ul><ul><li>with other devices such as Bluetooth, Microwave ovens. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Consumption is fairly high. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Range of network. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Disadvantages of Daknet Network: <ul><li>Since the nodes (MAP,Hub,Kiosk) communicate over the wireless links, they have to contend with the effect of radio communication such as noise, fading and interference. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides only non real time data transfer functionality. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Applications Of Daknet: <ul><li>Internet/Intranet messaging- </li></ul><ul><li>This can include e-mail, video-audio messaging, mobile e commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Information distribution/broadcasting – </li></ul><ul><li>This can include community bulletin board, transfer of educational material, public health announcements, news, music, and video broadcasts. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Information collection- </li></ul><ul><li>This can include collection of environmental sensor information, voting, census, poling, health records and land records. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Supply Chain Management- </li></ul><ul><li>By incorporating global positioning systems ( GSM ), the Daknet network can also work as a means of tracking the movement of vehicles and shipment of goods in a geographical area. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Daknet In Action (examples) : <ul><li>Villages in Cambodia, Costa Rica, Rwanda, Paraguay and India are getting connected to the global network using Daknet. </li></ul><ul><li>FMS now reaches 40,000 villagers through its Daknet Project. </li></ul><ul><li>Its actively participating in the development of villages in India and Cambodia. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Bhoomi initiative in India: </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Bhoomi, an initiative to computerize land records, is recognized as the first national e-governance initiative in India, pioneered by the state government of Karnataka. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhoomi has been successfully implemented at district headquarters across the state to completely replace the physical land records system. </li></ul><ul><li>DakNet makes Bhoomi’s land records database available to villages up to 40 km away from Bhoomi’s district headquarters, </li></ul><ul><li>in Doddaballapur. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The latest installation to Daknet has been adding the remote region of ‘Ratanakiri,Cambodia’. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a collection of 13 villages that are only accessible by motorcycle and oxcart. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday, five honda motorcycles equipped with a MAP device, leave the Hub (having a sattelite dish) and links the provoncial hospital and a school to the internet for telemedicine and computer training. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Daknet is an electronic postal network, completed with an electronic postman. </li></ul><ul><li>Daknet’s low deployment cost and enthusiastic reception by rural users has motivated dozens of inquiries for further deployments. This provides millions of people their first possibility for digital connectivity. Increasing connectivity is the most reliable way to encourage economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The larger goal is to shift the policy focus of the Government’s universal service obligation funds from wireless village telephones to wireless ad-hoc networking thus ensuring development and betterment of rural people. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Next Step: <ul><li>Daknet is going to be deployed and tested in larger implementations with applications that exploit in broadband capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The current R&D focus is on further lowering the costs of the required hardware and developing a highly interoperable and cross platform software module so that deployment processes can be streamlined. </li></ul>
  30. 33. References: <ul><li>Alexander Hasson, Amir, Dr. Fletcher, Richard and Dr. Pentland, Alex (Sandy). Daknet: A Road to Universal Broadband Connectivity, Wireless Internet UN ICT Conference Case Study. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hasson, Amir, Store and Forward Wireless Networking for Sustainable Access in Rural India, M.Sc. thesis, MIT, June 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Chyau and Jean-FRANÇOIS Raymond. First Mile Solutions’ Daknet takes Rural Communities Online. October 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hasson, Amir. Founder, First Mile Solutions. Stockholm, Sweden, June 5, 2003.PowerPoint Presentation. </li></ul>