Types of governments   Unitary constitution   Dual constitution
Unitary Constitution Central government is supreme There may exist local governments with  certain assigned functions to...
Federal/dual constitution   Units in the federation act under    constitution   Their jurisdiction and duties are define...
federalism Federalism constitutes a complex  governmental mechanism for governance  of a country It has been evolved to ...
 Unity with multiplicity Centralization with decentralization Nationalism with localism A federal constitution establi...
 Regional governments called as state  governments in USA, Australia, India Provincial Government in Canada   Distribut...
   A federal constitution envisages a    demarcation or division of government    functions and powers between the    cen...
   That means     Any invasion by one level of government on      the area assigned to the other level of      governmen...
Constitution of India Dual polity Union government and state  government States are the regional administrative  units...
Three pillars of Indian federalsystem Strong central government Flexible federal system Co-operative federalism
 Strength of the centre lies in its large  legislative and financial powers and in  its emergency powers The flexibility...
   Co-operative federalism has been    worked out in a number of constitutional    provisions and also through legislativ...
Central & State GovernmentArt.52 to 367   It may be resolved into three institutional    components     Legislative as r...
Central & state executive Common pattern for both Most cases mutatis mutandis the same  for both Subject is divided int...
Central Executive 52 to 78 Art.52 – There shall be a President of  India Art.53 – Executive power of the Union (1) the ...
 The central executive consists of the  President and the Council of Ministers  headed by the Prime minister Council of ...
   53(2) without prejudice to the generality    of the foregoing provision, the supreme    command of the Defence Forces ...
 53(3):Nothing in this article shall- (a) be deemed to transfer to the  President any functions conferred by  any existi...
Election of president Art.54 : The president shall be elected  by the Members of an electoral college  consisting of – (...
Manner of election Art.55 (1): As far as practicable, there shall  be uniformity in the scale of representation  of the d...
   55(2)(a) : every elected member of the    Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as    many votes as there are mul...
   55 (2)(b) : if, after taking the said    multiples of one thousand, the    remainder is not less than five    hundred,...
   55(2)(C): each elected member of either    House of Parliament shall have such    number of votes as may be obtained b...
Total number of votes assigned to the      members of the State Legislative     Assemblies in the Electoral College ------...
 55(3) : the election of the President shall  be held in accordance with the system  of proportional representation by me...
   Provided that the reference in this explanation to the    last preceding census of which the relevant figures    have ...
Term of office of President   Art.56 :   (1) five years from the date of his entering into office   Provided that –   ...
Eligibility for re-election   Art.57 : A person who holds, or who has    held, office as President shall, subject to    o...
Qualifications for election aspresident   58(1) : No person shall be eligible for election    as president unless he –  ...
   Explanation: for the purposes of this    article, a person shall not be deemed to    hold any office of profit by reas...
 This restriction is broader than that  under Art.102 Under Art.102, disqualification extends  only to the holding of an...
Conditions of President‟s office   Art.59(1) : The President shall not be a    member of either house of parliament or   ...
 59(2) : The president shall not hold any  other office of profit 59(3) : The president shall be entitled  without payme...
2nd schedule Salary : 10,000/- Same allowances and privileges as  were payable to the governor-general of  India In cas...
Oath or affirmation by thePresident   60 : Every president and every person    acting as president or discharging the    ...
   “ I, so and so, do swear in the name of    god/solemnly affirm that I will faithfully    execute the office of preside...
Impeachment The president may be removed from his  office, before the expiry of his term, for  „violation of the constitu...
Procedure for impeachment ofthe President   61 (1) : When a President is to be    impeached for violation of the    Const...
 61(2) : No such charge shall be  preferred unless – (a) the proposal to prefer such charge is  contained in a resolutio...
 (b) such resolution has been passed by  a majority of not less than two- thirds of  the total membership of the house (...
   (4) if as a result of the investigation a    resolution is passed by a majority of not    less than two- thirds of the...
England   Two distinct classes of public servants    can be impeached     Those who hold political office     Those who...
 Before the development of ministerial  responsibility, impeachment was a  weapon enabling the Commons to call  to accoun...
   Political offenders has to face     Impeachment     Deprivation of office     Other penalties    Royal prerogative ...
U.S.Scenario Impeachment is the ideology borrowed from  U.S. Constitution Art.II, section 4 of the U.S. Constitution, th...
Indian scenario The president in India can be impeached  only for violation of the constitution and not  for any criminal...
   Impeachment process was invoked    twice in USA     Andrew Jhonson -1867 – high crimes and        misdemeanors – Just...
   President‟s power to pardon offences    does not extend to cases of    impeachment : Art.II, S.2, Cl.1
 Remote possibility of impeachment  because always president acts on the  advice of the council of ministers Even though...
Interpretation of the word„violation of constitution‟ It is a matter to be decided by the house  which tries the charge ...
Time of holding election to fill vacancy in theoffice of president and the term of office ofperson elected to fill casual ...
   (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office    of president occurring by reason of his    death, resignation or re...
Part XIX – MiscellaneousArt.361 : Presidential privileges   361 (1) : the president, or the Governor    or Rajpramukh of ...
 No court can compel the president to  exercise or not to exercise any power, or to  perform or not to perform any duty, ...
 The immunity extends to acts or  omissions which may be incidental  to, as well as to any act purporting to be  done by ...
   Provided further that nothing in this    clause shall be construed as restricting    the right of any person to bring ...
Madhav Rao Scinida vs. UOIAIR 1971 SC 530   After independence Rulers of various States    were integrated with guarantee...
   respondents contended petition on ground that    power of derecognising the Rulers is sovereign    power and can be ex...
 According to Art. 77(1), all executive  actions of the CG to be expressed in the  name of the President Such orders can...
Common cause, A registered society vs. UOIAIR 1999 SC 2979   The case is related to ministry of oil & Gas   Relating to ...
 SC observed that As it is the order of the GOI, it is  subjected to judicial scrutiny Judicial review can be invoked ...
 If the president appoints a disqualified  person to a constitutional office, the  discretion of the president to do so c...
Kumar Padma Prasad vs. UOIAIR 1992 SC 1213 The appointment of Shri K.N.Srivastava  as a high court judge was challenged  ...
 Srivastava moved the SC against the  HC order and moved a transfer petition  of the writ petition from the HC to SC Iss...
   For the purpose of    Art.217(2)(a), according to court, holder    of judicial office means     A person who exercise...
 In view of the court, the expression  „judicial office‟ means an office which is  a part of judicial service as defined ...
   SC held that srivastava was not qualified    to be appointed as a high court judge as    he had held no judicial offic...
Proviso to art.361 (1)   Provided that the conduct of the    president may be brought under review    by any court, tribu...
 361(2) No criminal proceedings  whatsoever shall be instituted or  continued against the president in any  court during ...
   361(4) : No civil proceedings in which relief is    claimed against the president, shall be    instituted during his t...
 In civil cases, in respect of his official  acts, an absolute bar has been created  against court action (Art.361(1) In...
Vice-President   Art.63 : there shall be a VP   64 : The VP to be ex-officio Chairman of    the Council of states (Rajya...
 U.S. – ex-officio Chairman of the  Second Chamber Is precluded from being a member of  either house of parliament (Art....
 65: the VP to act as president or to  discharge his functions during casual  vacancies in the office, or during the  abs...
   65(2) : when the president is unable to    discharge his functions owing to    absence, illness or any other cause, th...
Election of VP   66 (1) : the VP shall be elected by the    members of an electoral college    consisting of the members ...
   66(2) : the VP shall not be a member of    either house of parliament or of a house    of the legislature of any state...
Eligibility for election as VP   66(3) : no person shall be eligible for    election of VP unless he     (a) is a citize...
 66(4) : a person shall not be eligible for  election as VP if he holds any office of  profit under the GOI or the Govt o...
Term of office of VP   67 : the VP shall hold office for a term of 5 yrs    from the date on which he enters upon his    ...
 In rajya sabha, there should be an  absolute majority of the total  membership (excluding those seats  which are vacant)...
Time of holding election to fill vacancy in theoffice of VP and the term of office of personelected to fill casual vacancy...
   (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office    of VP occurring by reason of his    death, resignation or removal, ...
Oath or affirmation by theVP   60 : Every VP and every person acting    as president shall, before entering upon    his o...
   “ I, so and so, do swear in the name of    god/solemnly affirm that I will bear true    faith, and allegiance to the c...
 97 : As chairman of Rajya Sabha, the  VP is entitled to get such salary and  allowances as may be fixed by  Parliament b...
Discharge of president‟sfunctions in other contingencies 70 : parliament may make such  provision as it thinks fit for th...
President (Discharge ofFunctions) Act, 1969   It provides that when vacancies occur in    the offices of both president a...
Matters relating to or connected withthe election of President or VP   71 (1) : all doubts and disputes arising out of   ...
N.B.Khare vs. ElectionCommission AIR 1957 SC 694 The SC held that it would not entertain  any petition challenging the pr...
 (3) subject to the provisions of this  constitution, parliament may by law  regulate any matter relating to or  connecte...
The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952 The Act lays down that a candidate can  be nominated when at l...
 A petitioner must come within the four  corners of the Act to have locus standi to  challenge the presidential election ...
Charan Lal Sahu vs. N.Sanjeeva Reddy Air 1978 SC499
N.B.Khare vs. Electioncommission AIR 1958 SC 139   Supreme court held that a person who is    neither a candidate nor an ...
   71(4) : the election of a person as president or    VP shall not be called in question on the    ground of the existen...
   Art.71 has been substituted by the 39th    amendment Act, 1975 and the forty    fourth amendment Act, 1978
Council of ministers Art.74-75 74 & 75 deals with the composition and  status of the Council of Ministers in  general wor...
 SC held that art.75(3) must be  interpreted to its own terms regardless  of conventions that prevail in UK If the words...
Council of ministers to aid andadvise president   74(1) : there shall be a council of    ministers with the prime ministe...
U.N.R. Rao vs. Indira GandhiAIR 1971 SC 1002 the appellant contended that under the  Constitution as soon as the House of...
 How can the Council of Ministers be  responsible to the House of the People  when it has been dissolved under Article  8...
 Supreme Court has refused to accept the  contention of U.N.R.Rao that during the  dissolution of the Lok Sabha, there ne...
 The SC rejected the argument that, in  the context, the word “shall‟ in Art.74(1)  should be read as „may‟ It is part o...
 No legal action for non-compliance of  the provisions as he is immune from  judicial scrutiny Proviso Art.74(1) : Provi...
 74(2) : the question whether any, and if  so what, advice was tendered by  ministers to the president shall not be  inqu...
Non-justiciability of cabinetadvice What is the scope of the provision in  Art.74(2) which bars the courts from  embarkin...
   Courts can compel production of the    materials on which the decision of the    council of ministers is based as such...
S.P.Gupta vs. UOI AIR 1982 SC149 controversy in case revolves round  letter written by Law Minister of India to  Chief Ju...
 writ petition of advocates also  challenged some of transfers of  Judges and Chief Justices along with  letter all writ...
issues whether advocates can maintain  petition as having valid grievance  where letter neither written to them  nor cont...
   any member of public having sufficient    interest can maintain action for judicial    redress for public arising from...
 Court will not insist on regular writ  petition to be filed by public spirited  individual espousing their cause and  se...
   person approaching Court for public cause    must act bonafide and not otherwise   transfer of Judges is question of ...
 SC held that no court is concerned with  what advice was tendered by the  minister to the president The court is only c...
 When the question relating to order is in  the court, the council of ministers has to  defend the order by disclosing th...
 The court has to look into the material  on the basis of which the requisite  satisfaction is formed and whether it is  ...
   Section 123 : Evidence as to affairs of State :    No one shall be permitted to give any    evidence derived from unpu...
Doypack systems vs. UOI AIR1988 SC 782 SC held that it is duty of this court to  prevent disclosure where art.74(2) is  i...
   The courts are also barred from    compelling president to act according to    the cabinet advice
Appointment of PM   75(1) : the PM shall be appointed by the    President and the other ministers shall    be appointed b...
 President has to perform his discretion in  appointment of PM without the advice of  the council of ministers But he ha...
 Britain system is followed There is no restriction that the PM  should be the member of Lok Sabha In 1966 Indira Gandh...
Appointment of ministers A minister should always be a member  of house of parliament Even a non-member may be elected b...
 Art.88 : rights of ministers and attorney  general as respects houses Every minister and the attorney general  of india...
 Even for the appointment of PM, a non-  member may be appointed and even a  member SLA can be appointed 75(5) : a minis...
Harsharan Verma vs. UOI AIR1987 SC 1969 The term minister in 75(5) includes PM Appointment of Shri Sitaram Kesari was  c...
S.P.Anand vs. H.D.DeveGowda AIR 1997 SC 272 Appointment of H.D.Deve Gowda as PM  was challenged becausee he was not a  me...
S.R.Chaudhari vs. state ofpunjab AIR 2001 SC 2707 The case arose in state of punjab under  art. 164(4) similar to 75(5) ...
 SC held that the practice would be  clearly derogatory to the constitutional  scheme, improper, undemocratic and  invali...
 This exception is essentially required to  be used to meet very extraordinary  situation and must be strictly construed ...
B.R.Kapur vs. state of TN(2001) 7 SCC 231   In this case SC ruled that under    Art.75(5) & 164(4), a person who is not  ...
Ministerial tenure 75(4) : before a minister enters upon his  office, the president shall administer to  him the oaths of...
   75(6) : the salaries and allowances of    ministers shall be such as parliament    may from time to time by law determ...
Working of the executive President – a titular head PM Cabinet Collective responsibility Minister‟s individual respon...
President – a titular head   77: conduct of business of the GOI   (1) : all executive action of the GOI shall be    expr...
 (3) : the president shall make rules for  the more convenient transaction of the  business of the GOI, and for the  allo...
Major E.G.Barsay vs. State ofBombay AIR 1961 SC 1762 An order issued by the Deputy secretary  to the government on behalf...
 In the instant case, the sanction was given  in the name of the central government by  its deputy secretary It was not ...
 The order was made by the Deputy  secretary on behalf of the central  government in exercise of the power  conferred on ...
 Art.77(2) covers both executive orders  and legislative orders President‟s satisfaction in executive  orders doesn‟t me...
K.Anand Nambiar vs. Govt ofMadras AIR 1966 SC 657 The supreme court ruled that in view of  Art.77, president‟s personal s...
   SC held that a properly authenticated    order signed by the Additional secretary    to the GOI issued under Art.359(1...
 President rajendra prasad Controversy in 1960 – ili foundation  stone 1967 – congress failed in certain states  – elec...
Reconsideration clause 74(1)proviso October 1997 IK gujral president –  president rule in up 1998 BJP govt recommendatio...
Duties of the PM as respects thefurnishing of information to the presidentetc.,  78 : It shall be the duty of PM-  (a) t...
 Prime Minister – Key stone of the  Constitution – Jennings All roads in the constitution lead to the  PM John Morley –...
   He can compel the resignation of a minister    and invoke the presidential power to    dismiss an unwanted Minister  ...
   (b) to furnish such information relating to    the administration of the affairs of the    Union and proposals for leg...
K.M.Sharma vs. Devi Lal AIR1990 SC 528 Deputy Prime Minister – no post as such 1990 VP singh government appointed  Devi ...
 Court rejected the writ petition saying  that an oath has two parts – (i)  descriptive; (ii) substantial So long as the...
Cabinet   Council of ministers consists of     Cabinet minister     Ministers of states (independent)     Deputy minis...
Collective responsibility 75(3) and 78(c) 78(c) if the president so requires, to  submit for the consideration of the  C...
 Principle of collective responsibility may be  regarded as fundamental to the working of  the parliamentary government ...
   Decisions of cabinet is binding on    council of ministers
Common cause, A registered society vs. UOIAIR 1999 SC 2979 The case is related to ministry of oil &  Gas Relating to per...
Relief sought   (i) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders    directing the Respondents to specifically    declare as ...
   whether in the enactment of such    legislation they will take in to    consideration the suggestions that have    ema...
   (ii) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders    directing that the institutions and organisations    of the Comptrol...
   (iii) Pass an appropriate writ, order or    orders appointing a Commission or    Commissioner to urgently undertake   ...
  (iv) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders   directing the State Governments Respondents to   indicate to the Honbl...
   According to Articles 77 and 361 of Constitution    of India Order issued in name of President does    not become Orde...
 immunity available to President  under Article 361 cannot be extended  to Orders passed in name of  President under Arti...
   According to SC, collective responsibility    means     „all members of a government are     unanimous in support of ...
Attorney General vs. JonathanCape Ltd., [1976] QB 752 Crossman was a Cabinet Minister for  nearly six years (1964-70) He...
 After his death, his dairies were due for  publication The Attorney General brought an action  for injunction against C...
   The confidentiality of cabinet papers and    proceedings emanate from „the    convention of joint cabinet responsibili...
 In India also, the principle of collective  responsibility lays down that the  deliberations of the Cabinet are kept  se...
 A cabinet minister may lose his office if  he reveals the details of a cabinet  discussion to the press The secrecy may...
   In Jonathan Cape case, the court ruled    that since the requirement of secrecy is    must in the matters of cabinet  ...
Minister‟s IndividualResponsibility 77(3) : envisages distribution of  business among several ministers Most of the deci...
A.Sanjeevi vs. state of madrasAIR 1970 SC 1102   Appellants are private stage carriage operators in the    state of TN  ...
   A division bench of the Madras High    Court consisting of Anantanarayanan    C.J. and Natesan J. have dismissed    th...
   The ground on which it is challenged is that the    opinion requisite under Section 68(C) of the Act was    not formed...
   3. Section 68(C) prescribes :     Where any State transport undertaking is of opinion      that for the purpose of pr...
   This section requires that the State transport undertaking    must form the opinion contemplated therein.    In the S...
   The contentions advanced on behalf of the    appellants proceed thus : The executive power of the    State vests in th...
   A Minister can only deal with the business that has    been allocated to him by the Governor under the    Rules.   He...
   The SC held in the present appeal where    challenging scheme of nationalisation of    various routes of State has bee...
   In every well planned administration, most of the    decisions are taken by the civil servants who are likely    to be...
 Each minister is personally liable and  collectively responsible for his actions A vote of no-confidence against one  m...
 Krishna menon‟s resignation from the  ministry of defence because of the debacle  of the Indian arms in the face of the ...
Misfeasance in office A tort of misfeasance in public office Malicious abuse of power, deliberate  maladministration and...
Minister‟s responsibility for hissubordinates Principle of vicarious liability Chagla report in Madhura affair The prin...
   Accordin to chagla     Minister is responsible for the acts of his      servants     Servants has to work according ...
Interaction between executiveand parliament Minister must be a member of house of  parliament Ministers stay in office u...
   Many executive matters are having    involvement of parliament     Fixation of emoluments, allowances and      privil...
Art.77(1) and (2) Provides that all executive action of the  Govt of India shall be expressed to be  taken in the name of...
 No defintion in Indian Constitution for –  President‟s executive power Ram Jawaya Kapur vs. Punjab (1955) 2  SCR 225 N...
   Judgment:     Mukherjee CJ., -      ○ “it may not be possible to frame an exhaustive        definition of what execut...
 Indian constitution is modelled on the  British Parliamentary system Executive is deemed to have the  primary responsib...
 If in pursuance of a policy, the Ministry  decided to undertake a trade, then, the  estimated expenditure required for s...
   Further adding, Justice Mukherjee urged     Especially when encroaching upon the     private rights, specific legisla...
Functions and powers ofexecutive Judicial functions Legislative functions Executive functions
Judicial functions Appointment of judges of SC and HCs Disqualification of a member of house of  parliament Power of pa...
 72 (1) : president shall have the power to  grant pardons, reprieves, respites or  remissions of punishment or to  suspe...
 (c) in all cases where the sentence is a  sentence of death (2) Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause (1)  shall affect t...
criticisms Does the president exercise any  personal discretion in the matter or does  he act merely as a constitutional ...
Maru ram vs. UOI AIR 1980SC 2147   Advice of council of ministers
Kuljeet Singh vs. Lt., GovernorAIR 1981 SC 2239   Questioned regarding to norms and    standards for granting pardon
Kehar Singh vs. UOI AIR 1989SC 653 Right to hearing is subject to president‟s  discretion No need of specific guidelines...
   President can examine the evidences
G.Krishna Goud vs. state of AP(1976) 1 SCC 157   No judicial review
Legislative functions Participation of the executive in  legislative process Power of rule-making under the  constitutio...
participation Convene and prorogue parliament Dissolve loksabha Presentation of bills to parliament President‟s assent...
Rule making 77(2) : authentication or orders and  instruments made and executed in the  name of president 77(3) : rules ...
   98(3) : secretariat and staff of house of    parliament   146(1) : consultation with UPSC regarding    officials of t...
Declaration of emergency
Art.123 Power of president topromulgate ordinances during recess ofparliament   (1) if any time, except when both houses ...
   (2) : an ordinance promulgated under this    article shall have the same force and effect    as an Act of parliament, ...
 Explanation : where the Houses of  parliament are summoned to reassemble  on different dates, the period of six weeks  s...
Ordinance making power In extraordinary circumstances, where  law is needed urgently president has  power to make ordinan...
 123(4) : 38th amendment : making  satisfaction of the President to issue an  ordinance is non-justiciable 44th amendmen...
A.K.Roy vs. UOI AIR 1982 SC710 National Security Ordinance, 1980 ground to challenge is malafide  intention, corruption,...
 T.Venkata Reddy vs. state of AP (part  time village officers) and Nagaraj vs.  state of AP : No judicial review against...
Bommai case   Proclamation under Art.356 for failure of    constitutional machinery in state is    subjected to judicial ...
RC cooper vs. UOI AIR 1970SC564 Banking Companies (Acquisition and  Transfer of Undertaking)  Ordianance, 1969 President...
Venkata reddy vs. state of APAIR 1985 SC 724   Ordinance won‟t become void ab intio    when an Act in support of this was...
Executive actions 76(1) : power to appoint various high  officials like attorney general 148(1) : comptroller and attorn...
 Inter state council: 263 Finance commission : 280 Commission for ST : 339(1) Backward classes : 340(1) Official lang...
Attorney general of india 76(1) : president shall appoint a person  who is qualified to be appointed a SC  Judge to be th...
 (3) : in the performance of his duties the  Attorney-general shall have right to  audience inall courts in the territory...
State Executive
Central executive
Central executive
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Central executive

  1. 1. Types of governments Unitary constitution Dual constitution
  2. 2. Unitary Constitution Central government is supreme There may exist local governments with certain assigned functions to discharge Local governments area of operation is confined Their jurisdiction may be curtailed, restricted and modified by the Centre at its own will They are mere administrative agencies
  3. 3. Federal/dual constitution Units in the federation act under constitution Their jurisdiction and duties are defined in constitution It can be changed only through amendment of the constitution i.e., by constituent process Units in federation have their own identity and personality They have their own separate functions
  4. 4. federalism Federalism constitutes a complex governmental mechanism for governance of a country It has been evolved to bind into one political union several autonomous, distinct, separate and disparate political entities or administrative units It seeks to draw a balance between the concentration of power in the centre and the state units which urge for dispersal of power
  5. 5.  Unity with multiplicity Centralization with decentralization Nationalism with localism A federal constitution establishes a dual polity i.e., two levels of governemnt  Central government  Regional governments Citizen is subject to both governments
  6. 6.  Regional governments called as state governments in USA, Australia, India Provincial Government in Canada Distribution of Centre and the state is the most important characteristic of any federal system
  7. 7.  A federal constitution envisages a demarcation or division of government functions and powers between the centre and the regions by the sanction of the constitution which is written and rigid
  8. 8.  That means  Any invasion by one level of government on the area assigned to the other level of government is a breach of constitution  Breach of constitution is matter to be determined by the courts
  9. 9. Constitution of India Dual polity Union government and state government States are the regional administrative units India is a union of states
  10. 10. Three pillars of Indian federalsystem Strong central government Flexible federal system Co-operative federalism
  11. 11.  Strength of the centre lies in its large legislative and financial powers and in its emergency powers The flexibility of the Indian federalism lies in the expedients adopted in the constitution to mitigate the rigidity of a federal system and to increase temporarily the powers of the central government if the contemporary situation so demands
  12. 12.  Co-operative federalism has been worked out in a number of constitutional provisions and also through legislative and administrative actions
  13. 13. Central & State GovernmentArt.52 to 367 It may be resolved into three institutional components  Legislative as represented by Parliament and Assembly  Executive as represented by the President and Council of Ministers headed by Prime Minister, Governor and Council of Ministers headed by Chief Minister  Judicial as represented by the Supreme Court of India and High court
  14. 14. Central & state executive Common pattern for both Most cases mutatis mutandis the same for both Subject is divided into four heads  Chief executive  Council of Ministers  Law officers  Conduct of business
  15. 15. Central Executive 52 to 78 Art.52 – There shall be a President of India Art.53 – Executive power of the Union (1) the executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this constitution
  16. 16.  The central executive consists of the President and the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime minister Council of ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha The constitution formally vests many functions in the President but he has no function to discharge in his discretion or in his individual judgment He acts on ministerial advice, therefore, council of ministers constitute the real and effective executive
  17. 17.  53(2) without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law
  18. 18.  53(3):Nothing in this article shall- (a) be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or Prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President
  19. 19. Election of president Art.54 : The president shall be elected by the Members of an electoral college consisting of – (1) the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and (2) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States Election is through indirect process
  20. 20. Manner of election Art.55 (1): As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the different states at the election of the president Art.55(2): for the purpose of securing such uniformity among the States interse as well as parity between the States as whole and the Union, the number of votes which each elected member of Parliament and of the Legislative Assembly of each state is entitled to cast at such elected shall be determined in the following manner -
  21. 21.  55(2)(a) : every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of the elected members of the Assembly State Population 1 ---------------------------------- x ------- Total number of elected 1000 Members in the State Legislative Assembly
  22. 22.  55 (2)(b) : if, after taking the said multiples of one thousand, the remainder is not less than five hundred, then the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause (a) shall be further increased by one
  23. 23.  55(2)(C): each elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under Sub clause (a) and (b) by the total number of elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one and half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded
  24. 24. Total number of votes assigned to the members of the State Legislative Assemblies in the Electoral College ---------------------------------------------------Total number of elected members of the two Houses of Parliament
  25. 25.  55(3) : the election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot Explanation : In this article, the expression „population‟ means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published
  26. 26.  Provided that the reference in this explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census The increase in state population after 1971 is not going to increase its votes at the election of the president S.2 of the constitution (Eighty-Fourth Amendment Act, 2001) Art.81(2)(a) – allocation of seats to the seats in Lok sabha also blocked basing on this same 2026 sensus by 1971
  27. 27. Term of office of President Art.56 : (1) five years from the date of his entering into office Provided that – (a) the President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the VP, resign his office (b) the President may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 61 (c) the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office (2) any resignation addressed to the VP under cl (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People
  28. 28. Eligibility for re-election Art.57 : A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to other provisions of this constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office
  29. 29. Qualifications for election aspresident 58(1) : No person shall be eligible for election as president unless he – (a) is a citizen of India (b) has completed the age of 35 yrs (c) is qualified for election as a member of the House of people (2) A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the GOI or the Govt of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments
  30. 30.  Explanation: for the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President or Vice- president of the Union or the Governor of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State
  31. 31.  This restriction is broader than that under Art.102 Under Art.102, disqualification extends only to the holding of an office of profit under the CG or SG and not to the holding of office of profit under local or other authority
  32. 32. Conditions of President‟s office Art.59(1) : The President shall not be a member of either house of parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any state, and if a member of either house of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that house on the date which he enters upon his office as president
  33. 33.  59(2) : The president shall not hold any other office of profit 59(3) : The president shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the second schedule
  34. 34. 2nd schedule Salary : 10,000/- Same allowances and privileges as were payable to the governor-general of India In case of vice-president acting as president same emoluments and privileges
  35. 35. Oath or affirmation by thePresident 60 : Every president and every person acting as president or discharging the functions of the president shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe in the presence of the CJ of India or in his absence senior most judge of SC available on oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say -
  36. 36.  “ I, so and so, do swear in the name of god/solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the office of president (or discharge the functions of the president) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well- being of the people of India
  37. 37. Impeachment The president may be removed from his office, before the expiry of his term, for „violation of the constitution‟ by the process of impeachment Art.56(1)(b) Procedure for impeachment is mentioned in Art.61
  38. 38. Procedure for impeachment ofthe President 61 (1) : When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either house of parliament
  39. 39.  61(2) : No such charge shall be preferred unless – (a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution and
  40. 40.  (b) such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than two- thirds of the total membership of the house (3) when a charge has been so preferred by either house of parliament, the other house shall investigate the charge or cause of the charge to be investigated and the president shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation
  41. 41.  (4) if as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two- thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the president has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the president from his office as from the date on which the resolution so passed
  42. 42. England Two distinct classes of public servants can be impeached  Those who hold political office  Those who hold public office during good behaviour Considerations governing both classes are distinct and seperate
  43. 43.  Before the development of ministerial responsibility, impeachment was a weapon enabling the Commons to call to account ministers appointed by, and responsible to, the Crown As per English constitutional theory, no impeachment of the sovereign
  44. 44.  Political offenders has to face  Impeachment  Deprivation of office  Other penalties Royal prerogative does not extend to preventing impeachment Address to the Crown must originate is mandatory condition before impeachment/ removal of officer/judge Procedure is judicial and the judge is entitled to be heard
  45. 45. U.S.Scenario Impeachment is the ideology borrowed from U.S. Constitution Art.II, section 4 of the U.S. Constitution, the president can be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanours According to Art.I, section 3, all impeachments are tried solely by the senate and when the president is being impeached, the CJ of SC is to preside. To convict the president, concurrence of two- thirds of the members present is needed
  46. 46. Indian scenario The president in India can be impeached only for violation of the constitution and not for any criminal offence Impeachment can be tried by either of the two houses of parliament, and not necessarily by the Upper house There is no provision for the CJI to preside at such sittings of the house when the charge against the president is being investigated Votes of atleast 2/3 of the total membership of the house is required
  47. 47.  Impeachment process was invoked twice in USA  Andrew Jhonson -1867 – high crimes and misdemeanors – Justice Samuel Chase  No legal definition for high crimes and misdemeanors  Justice Archibald of the Commerce Court, - 1913  Judge Wright of Florida Court- 1936  Bill Clinton
  48. 48.  President‟s power to pardon offences does not extend to cases of impeachment : Art.II, S.2, Cl.1
  49. 49.  Remote possibility of impeachment because always president acts on the advice of the council of ministers Even though president is immune from parliamentary and judicial control – fear of impeachment will always have an impression on his working Acting independently without the advice of council of ministers may drag such situation of impeachment
  50. 50. Interpretation of the word„violation of constitution‟ It is a matter to be decided by the house which tries the charge It can be interpreted in wider sense such as a violation of conventions, usages and spirit of the constitution Impeachment is a political instrument
  51. 51. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in theoffice of president and the term of office ofperson elected to fill casual vacancy 62(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of president shall be completed before the expiration of the term
  52. 52.  (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of president occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in nocase later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy, and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of the article 56, he entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office
  53. 53. Part XIX – MiscellaneousArt.361 : Presidential privileges 361 (1) : the president, or the Governor or Rajpramukh of a state, shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties
  54. 54.  No court can compel the president to exercise or not to exercise any power, or to perform or not to perform any duty, nor can a court issue any writ in respect of the president‟s official acts or omissions He is amenable to any mandate, writ or direction from any court No court can compel him to show cause or defend his action Absolute immunity is given to the President
  55. 55.  The immunity extends to acts or omissions which may be incidental to, as well as to any act purporting to be done by the president Even though the act is outside, or in contravention of, the constitution, the president is protected so long as the act is professed to be done in pursuance of the constitution
  56. 56.  Provided further that nothing in this clause shall be construed as restricting the right of any person to bring appropriate proceedings against the GOI or the Govt of State Immunity is personal to the president Appropriate actions can be brought against GOI He cannot be summoned to the court
  57. 57. Madhav Rao Scinida vs. UOIAIR 1971 SC 530 After independence Rulers of various States were integrated with guarantee of payment of some amount known as privy purse along with gaddi of State After some time Order of derecognising such Rulers passed by President Validity of said Order challenged in Supreme Court Petitioners contended that Order being violative of Articles 291 and 362 unconstitutional and void It also violates Articles 19 (1) (f), 21 and 31 as deprive Rulers from Privy Purse
  58. 58.  respondents contended petition on ground that power of derecognising the Rulers is sovereign power and can be exercised by him when he wants Applicability of doctrine of paramountcy pleaded Supreme Court observed that President had no power to withdraw recognition of persons as Ruler Doctrine of paramountcy empowers President to recognize Ruler but cannot be used to validate illegal act of derecognisation of Rulers which affect rights of citizen Right to receive privy purse is absolute right of Rulers and Rulers cannot be deprived from same In present case right to receive privy purse taken away by Order passed by President it can be said that there is infringement of Articles 19 and 31 – Supreme Court held, Order unconstitutional and void.
  59. 59.  According to Art. 77(1), all executive actions of the CG to be expressed in the name of the President Such orders cannot be interpreted as order of the president personally It is on advise of the council of ministers No immunity to such orders under art.361
  60. 60. Common cause, A registered society vs. UOIAIR 1999 SC 2979 The case is related to ministry of oil & Gas Relating to permission to petrol outlets According to Articles 77 and 361 of Constitution of India Order issued in name of President does not become Order of President passed by him personally but it remains essentially Order of Ministers on whose advice President acts and passed that Order by virtue of Article 77 (1) all executive actions of Government of India have to be expressed in name of President Order passed by Ministers would be amenable to judicial scrutiny authenticity, validity and correctness of such power can be examined by Court inspite of Order having been passed in name of President immunity available to President under Article 361 cannot be extended to Orders passed in name of President under Article 77.
  61. 61.  SC observed that As it is the order of the GOI, it is subjected to judicial scrutiny Judicial review can be invoked Authenticity, validity and correctness of the order can be examined
  62. 62.  If the president appoints a disqualified person to a constitutional office, the discretion of the president to do so cannot be questioned because of Art.361 That would confer no immunity on the appointee His qualification to hold the office can be challenged in writ of quo warranto If the appointment is contrary to the constitutional provisions, it can be quashed
  63. 63. Kumar Padma Prasad vs. UOIAIR 1992 SC 1213 The appointment of Shri K.N.Srivastava as a high court judge was challenged through a writ petition moved in the gauhati high court by a practising advocate Shri K.N.Srivastava was a secretary (Law and Justice), Mizoram government The Gauhati HC granted a stay on the warrant of appointment
  64. 64.  Srivastava moved the SC against the HC order and moved a transfer petition of the writ petition from the HC to SC Issue : whether Srivastava had held a judicial office for 10 years Judicial office has not been defined in the constitution
  65. 65.  For the purpose of Art.217(2)(a), according to court, holder of judicial office means  A person who exercises only judicial functions, determines causes inter partes and renders decisions in a judicial capacity  He must belong to judicial service which as a class free from executive control  And is disciplined to hold the dignity, integrity and independence of judiciary
  66. 66.  In view of the court, the expression „judicial office‟ means an office which is a part of judicial service as defined under art.236(b) Judicial service means a service consisting exclusively of persons intended to fill the post of DJ and other civil judicial posts inferior to the post of district judge
  67. 67.  SC held that srivastava was not qualified to be appointed as a high court judge as he had held no judicial office in a judicial service
  68. 68. Proviso to art.361 (1) Provided that the conduct of the president may be brought under review by any court, tribunal or body appointed or designated by either house of parliament for the investigation of a charge under art.61
  69. 69.  361(2) No criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be instituted or continued against the president in any court during his term of office 361(3) : no process for the arrest or imprisonment of the president shall issue from any court during his term of officeThus, no criminal proceedings for the acts done in his personal capacity
  70. 70.  361(4) : No civil proceedings in which relief is claimed against the president, shall be instituted during his term of office in any court in respect of any act done or purporting to be done by him in his personal capacity, Whether before or after he entered upon his office as president Until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been delivered to the president or left at his office stating the nature of proceedings, the cause of action therefor, the name, description and place of residence of the party by whom such proceedings are to be instituted and relief which he claims
  71. 71.  In civil cases, in respect of his official acts, an absolute bar has been created against court action (Art.361(1) In respect of his personal acts, there is only a partial bar in so far as a two months notice needs to be given to him prior to the institution of civil proceedings
  72. 72. Vice-President Art.63 : there shall be a VP 64 : The VP to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of states (Rajya Sabha)  The VP shall be the ex-officio chairman of the council of states and shall not hold any other office of profit;  Provided that during any period when the VP acts as president or discharges the functions of the president under art.65 he shall not perform the duties of the office of chairman of the council of states and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the chairman of the council of states under art.97
  73. 73.  U.S. – ex-officio Chairman of the Second Chamber Is precluded from being a member of either house of parliament (Art.63, 64 and 66(2)
  74. 74.  65: the VP to act as president or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of president (1) in the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the president by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the vp shall act as president until the date on which a new president elected in accordance with the provisions of this chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office
  75. 75.  65(2) : when the president is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the VP shall discharge his functions until the date on which the president resumes his duties The VP shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, president, have all the powers and immunities of the president and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by the parliament by law and until provisions in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the second schedule
  76. 76. Election of VP 66 (1) : the VP shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both houses of parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot
  77. 77.  66(2) : the VP shall not be a member of either house of parliament or of a house of the legislature of any state, and if a member of either house of parliament or of a house of the legislature of any state be elected VP , he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that house on the date on which he enters upon his office as VP
  78. 78. Eligibility for election as VP 66(3) : no person shall be eligible for election of VP unless he  (a) is a citizen of India  (b) has completed the age of 35 yrs and  (c) is qualified for the election as a member of the council of states
  79. 79.  66(4) : a person shall not be eligible for election as VP if he holds any office of profit under the GOI or the Govt of any state or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments Explanation: for the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the president or VP of the Union or the governor of any state or is a minister either for the union or for any state
  80. 80. Term of office of VP 67 : the VP shall hold office for a term of 5 yrs from the date on which he enters upon his office  (a ) a VP may, by writing under his hand addressed to the president resign his office  (b) a VP may be removed from his office by a resolution of the council of states passed by a majority of all the then members of the council and agreed to by the house of the people; but no resolution for the purposes of this clause shall be moved unless at least 14 days notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution  (c) a VP shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office
  81. 81.  In rajya sabha, there should be an absolute majority of the total membership (excluding those seats which are vacant) of the House supporting the resolution to remove the VP, a simple majority is sufficient in Lok Sabha The VP can be removed on any ground and without enquiry
  82. 82. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in theoffice of VP and the term of office of personelected to fill casual vacancy 62(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of VP shall be completed before the expiration of the term
  83. 83.  (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of VP occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in nocase later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy, and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of the article 67, he entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office
  84. 84. Oath or affirmation by theVP 60 : Every VP and every person acting as president shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President or some other person appointed on behalf of him,an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say -
  85. 85.  “ I, so and so, do swear in the name of god/solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith, and allegiance to the constitution of India as by law established and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter
  86. 86.  97 : As chairman of Rajya Sabha, the VP is entitled to get such salary and allowances as may be fixed by Parliament by law, and until so fixed, as specified in the second schedule to the constitution No salary as vice president
  87. 87. Discharge of president‟sfunctions in other contingencies 70 : parliament may make such provision as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the president in any contingency not provided for in this chapter Parliament enacted President (Discharge of Functions) Act, 1969
  88. 88. President (Discharge ofFunctions) Act, 1969 It provides that when vacancies occur in the offices of both president and the VP, the CJ of India or, in his absence, the senior most judge of the SC available, is to discharge the president‟s functions until a new president or VP enters upon his office
  89. 89. Matters relating to or connected withthe election of President or VP 71 (1) : all doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a president or VP shall be inquired into and decided by the SC whose decision shall be final (2) : if the election of a person as president or VP is declared void by the SC, acts done by him in exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of president or VP, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration
  90. 90. N.B.Khare vs. ElectionCommission AIR 1957 SC 694 The SC held that it would not entertain any petition challenging the presidential election before the completion of the election process and declaration of the result Reason being the entire election may be held up till after the expiry of the five years term which will involve a non- compliance with the mandatory provisions of art.62
  91. 91.  (3) subject to the provisions of this constitution, parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a president or VP The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952
  92. 92. The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952 The Act lays down that a candidate can be nominated when at least 10 voters propose him and ten voters second him and he deposits a sum of Rs.2500 It has nothing to do with the qualifications mentioned in Art.58 & 66
  93. 93.  A petitioner must come within the four corners of the Act to have locus standi to challenge the presidential election and to be able to maintain the petition Under section 14 of the presidential and vice presidential elections Act, an election can be called into question either by a candidate at such election or by 10 or more electors
  94. 94. Charan Lal Sahu vs. N.Sanjeeva Reddy Air 1978 SC499
  95. 95. N.B.Khare vs. Electioncommission AIR 1958 SC 139 Supreme court held that a person who is neither a candidate nor an elector could not file a petition to challenge the presidential election
  96. 96.  71(4) : the election of a person as president or VP shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him In re Presidential Poll AIR 1974 SC 1682, the Supreme Court has ruled that the election of the President can be held when a State Assembly has been dissolved under Art. 356 and its members are unable to participate in the election
  97. 97.  Art.71 has been substituted by the 39th amendment Act, 1975 and the forty fourth amendment Act, 1978
  98. 98. Council of ministers Art.74-75 74 & 75 deals with the composition and status of the Council of Ministers in general words The remaining matters left to the conventions Importance of conventions was discussed in U.N.R.Rao vs. Indira Gandhi AIR 1971 SC 1002
  99. 99.  SC held that art.75(3) must be interpreted to its own terms regardless of conventions that prevail in UK If the words of the article are clear effect should be given to the words As it is constitution not a general law, one has to keep in mind while interpreting the conventions prevalent at the time the constitution was framed
  100. 100. Council of ministers to aid andadvise president 74(1) : there shall be a council of ministers with the prime minister at the head to aid and advise the president who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice
  101. 101. U.N.R. Rao vs. Indira GandhiAIR 1971 SC 1002 the appellant contended that under the Constitution as soon as the House of the People is dissolved under Article 85(2) of the Constitution the Council of Ministers, i.e., the Prime Minister and other Ministers, cease to hold office. According to him this follows plainly from the wording of Article 75(3), which provides that "the Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People".
  102. 102.  How can the Council of Ministers be responsible to the House of the People when it has been dissolved under Article 85(2) ? According to him no void in the carrying out of Government will be created because the President can exercise the Executive Power of the Union either directly or through officers subordinate in accordance with the Constitution as provided in Article 53(1) of the Constitution.
  103. 103.  Supreme Court has refused to accept the contention of U.N.R.Rao that during the dissolution of the Lok Sabha, there need be no Council of Ministers and that the President can rule with the help of advisers This argument was based on the hypothesis that when there is no Lok Sabha, the responsibility of the council of ministers to this house cannot be enforced and so there need be no Council of Ministers when there is no house
  104. 104.  The SC rejected the argument that, in the context, the word “shall‟ in Art.74(1) should be read as „may‟ It is part of collective responsibility If it is only directory the president would be able to rule with the aid of advisors till he is impeached The moto of parliamentary form of government will die
  105. 105.  No legal action for non-compliance of the provisions as he is immune from judicial scrutiny Proviso Art.74(1) : Provided that the President may require the Council of Ministers to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration
  106. 106.  74(2) : the question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by ministers to the president shall not be inquired into in any court Only sanction available is the political, i.e., impeachment
  107. 107. Non-justiciability of cabinetadvice What is the scope of the provision in Art.74(2) which bars the courts from embarking upon an inquiry as to whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by the council of ministers to the president Notings are also protected
  108. 108.  Courts can compel production of the materials on which the decision of the council of ministers is based as such material does not form part of the advice
  109. 109. S.P.Gupta vs. UOI AIR 1982 SC149 controversy in case revolves round letter written by Law Minister of India to Chief Justices of various High Courts of country letter contained instructions in form of request to convince Judges working in High Courts to be appointed in High Court of another State advocates all around country filed several writ petition against letter
  110. 110.  writ petition of advocates also challenged some of transfers of Judges and Chief Justices along with letter all writ petitions transferred to Supreme Court for collective decision as cause of action in petition was same
  111. 111. issues whether advocates can maintain petition as having valid grievance where letter neither written to them nor contained any matter related to them whether power of president with respect to transfer Judges of High Court under Article 222 absolute or opinion of Chief Justice of India binding on him
  112. 112.  any member of public having sufficient interest can maintain action for judicial redress for public arising from breach of public duty or from violation of provisions of Constitution where legal wrong or legal injury caused to person or to determinate class of persons and if such persons did not challenge such injury any common citizen can approach Court for challenging such legal injury any person has constitutional right to file petition in public interest where injury is to masses
  113. 113.  Court will not insist on regular writ petition to be filed by public spirited individual espousing their cause and seeking relief to them petition in such cases would be treated as public interest litigation under Article 32 and strict rule of procedure will not be allowed to defeat sense of justice even letter written by common citizen will be treated as public interest litigation if desired so and contained valid cause of action
  114. 114.  person approaching Court for public cause must act bonafide and not otherwise transfer of Judges is question of policy question of policy matter entirely for President to decide opinion of Chief Justice not binding on President opinion of Chief Justice under Article 222 not condition precedent for affecting transfer on part of President petitioners could not prove alleged illegality of transfers letter of Law Minister only in form of request and neither violate any constitutional right nor inflict public injury
  115. 115.  SC held that no court is concerned with what advice was tendered by the minister to the president The court is only concerned with the validity of the order and not with what happened in the inner councils An order cannot be challenged on the ground that it is not in accordance with the advice rendered by the minister or that it is based on no advice
  116. 116.  When the question relating to order is in the court, the council of ministers has to defend the order by disclosing the material which formed the basis of the act/order The court will not inquire whether such material formed part of the advice to the president or what advice or what discussion took place
  117. 117.  The court has to look into the material on the basis of which the requisite satisfaction is formed and whether it is relevant to the action taken Material is not advice Privilege in respect of presenting documents is not available under art.74(2) but under Sec.123 of IE Act
  118. 118.  Section 123 : Evidence as to affairs of State : No one shall be permitted to give any evidence derived from unpublished official records relating to any affairs of State, except with the permission of the officer at the head of the department concerned, who shall give or withhold such permission as he thinks fit. It is also necessary for arriving at a proper interpretation of Section 123 to refer to Section 162 which says: Section 162. Production of documents -- A witness summoned to produce a document shall, if it is in his possession or power, bring it to court, notwithstanding any objection which there may be to its production or to its admissibility. The validity of any such objection shall be decided on by the court.
  119. 119. Doypack systems vs. UOI AIR1988 SC 782 SC held that it is duty of this court to prevent disclosure where art.74(2) is involved The court has also ruled that „the notings of the official which lead to the cabinet note leading to the cabinet decision formed part of the advice tendered to the president Cabinet papers also include papers brought into existence for the purpose of preparing submission to the cabinet
  120. 120.  The courts are also barred from compelling president to act according to the cabinet advice
  121. 121. Appointment of PM 75(1) : the PM shall be appointed by the President and the other ministers shall be appointed by the president on the advice of the PM
  122. 122.  President has to perform his discretion in appointment of PM without the advice of the council of ministers But he has to follow conventions and few constitutional provisions It is required that the appointee as PM should enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha The council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha Art.75(3(
  123. 123.  Britain system is followed There is no restriction that the PM should be the member of Lok Sabha In 1966 Indira Gandhi, a member of Rajya Sabha has been elected as PM but soon after that she became the member of Lok Sabha It is inevitable to run stable to strong government the PM should be the member of Lok Sabha
  124. 124. Appointment of ministers A minister should always be a member of house of parliament Even a non-member may be elected but sooner than later he should be come member of house A non-member cannot hold office for longer than six months without becoming member of either house
  125. 125.  Art.88 : rights of ministers and attorney general as respects houses Every minister and the attorney general of india shall have the right to speak in, and other wise to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named as a member, but shall not by virtue of this article be entitled to vote
  126. 126.  Even for the appointment of PM, a non- member may be appointed and even a member SLA can be appointed 75(5) : a minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of either house of parliament shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a minister
  127. 127. Harsharan Verma vs. UOI AIR1987 SC 1969 The term minister in 75(5) includes PM Appointment of Shri Sitaram Kesari was challenged through writ on the ground that he was not a member of either house of parliament The petition was dismissed by reading art.75(5) and 88 together
  128. 128. S.P.Anand vs. H.D.DeveGowda AIR 1997 SC 272 Appointment of H.D.Deve Gowda as PM was challenged becausee he was not a member of either house of parliament Sc held that „even if a person is not a member of the house, if he has support and confidence of the house, he can be chosen to head the council of ministers without violating the norms of democracy and the requirement of being accountable to the house would ensure the smooth functioning of the democratic process‟
  129. 129. S.R.Chaudhari vs. state ofpunjab AIR 2001 SC 2707 The case arose in state of punjab under art. 164(4) similar to 75(5) Issue was „a person who is not a member of the house of parliament is appointed as a minister. He resigns after six months, as required by Art. 75(5), as he fails to become a member of the house of parliament within six months Can he be re-appointed as a member for another term of six months Can a person be appointed repeatedly as a minister
  130. 130.  SC held that the practice would be clearly derogatory to the constitutional scheme, improper, undemocratic and invalid even though it is not barred through any provision Art.75(5) is an exception to the general rule that only members of parliament can be appointed as ministers
  131. 131.  This exception is essentially required to be used to meet very extraordinary situation and must be strictly construed and sparingly used So a non-member can be appointed as minister only once
  132. 132. B.R.Kapur vs. state of TN(2001) 7 SCC 231 In this case SC ruled that under Art.75(5) & 164(4), a person who is not a member of the parliament/assembly can be appointed as a the PM or a minister only if he has the qualification for membership of parliament as prescribed in art.84 and 102
  133. 133. Ministerial tenure 75(4) : before a minister enters upon his office, the president shall administer to him the oaths of office and of secrecy according to the forms set out for the purpose in the third schedule 75(2) : the ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the president 75 (3): The council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha
  134. 134.  75(6) : the salaries and allowances of ministers shall be such as parliament may from time to time by law determine and until parliament so determines shall be specified in second schedule
  135. 135. Working of the executive President – a titular head PM Cabinet Collective responsibility Minister‟s individual responsibility Minister‟s responsibility for his subordinates
  136. 136. President – a titular head 77: conduct of business of the GOI (1) : all executive action of the GOI shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the president (2) : orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the president shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the president, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the president
  137. 137.  (3) : the president shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the GOI, and for the allocation among ministers of the said business Even though 77(1) & (2) are not complied the order still can be interpreted as the authenticated order if it is made by the appropriate authority
  138. 138. Major E.G.Barsay vs. State ofBombay AIR 1961 SC 1762 An order issued by the Deputy secretary to the government on behalf of the central government was held valid Under the prevention of corruption Act, a public servant can be prosecuted for certain criminal offences only after the central government gives its sanction for the purpose
  139. 139.  In the instant case, the sanction was given in the name of the central government by its deputy secretary It was not an authenticated order but one issued by the Deputy secretary in his own right Although the order did not comply with Arts.77(1) and 77(2), nevertheless, it was held valid because the Deputy Secretary was competent to accord sanction in his own right
  140. 140.  The order was made by the Deputy secretary on behalf of the central government in exercise of the power conferred on him under the rules of business Executive power and executive action in the context mean the power and action of the executive All orders made by the executive, whether administrative or legislative in nature, can be authenticated under Art.77(2)
  141. 141.  Art.77(2) covers both executive orders and legislative orders President‟s satisfaction in executive orders doesn‟t mean personal satisfaction In the sense of constitution, it is satisfaction of the council of ministers
  142. 142. K.Anand Nambiar vs. Govt ofMadras AIR 1966 SC 657 The supreme court ruled that in view of Art.77, president‟s personal satisfaction is not essential for issuing orders for proclamation of emergency under Art.359(1) and suspend the fundamental rights In the instant case, though the orders were issued in the name of president but were signed by an additional secretary of GOI
  143. 143.  SC held that a properly authenticated order signed by the Additional secretary to the GOI issued under Art.359(1) could not be questioned on the ground that it was not an order made and executed by the president
  144. 144.  President rajendra prasad Controversy in 1960 – ili foundation stone 1967 – congress failed in certain states – election of prime minister 1976 – president has no active role 42nd amendment 74(1) – shall 44th amendment proviso to 74 (1)
  145. 145. Reconsideration clause 74(1)proviso October 1997 IK gujral president – president rule in up 1998 BJP govt recommendation – president rule in Bihar
  146. 146. Duties of the PM as respects thefurnishing of information to the presidentetc.,  78 : It shall be the duty of PM-  (a) to communicate to the president all decisions of the Council of ministers relating to the administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation
  147. 147.  Prime Minister – Key stone of the Constitution – Jennings All roads in the constitution lead to the PM John Morley – Keystone of the cabinet arch
  148. 148.  He can compel the resignation of a minister and invoke the presidential power to dismiss an unwanted Minister All ministers hold office at his discretion Principal spokesman of the cabinet He can obtain dissolution of the Lok Sabha Chairman of the cabinet and his resignation amounts to resignation of all council of ministers
  149. 149.  (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the president may call for; and
  150. 150. K.M.Sharma vs. Devi Lal AIR1990 SC 528 Deputy Prime Minister – no post as such 1990 VP singh government appointed Devi lal as Deputy Prime Minister Devi lal took oath mentioning himself as the Deputy PM Question was raised through a writ petition before the Supreme Court whether the oath taken by Devi Lal was valid
  151. 151.  Court rejected the writ petition saying that an oath has two parts – (i) descriptive; (ii) substantial So long as the substantial part of the oath is properly followed, a mere mistake or error in the descriptive part would not vitiate the oath SC held that even though Devi lal described himself as a Deputy PM he is also just like other council of minsiters
  152. 152. Cabinet Council of ministers consists of  Cabinet minister  Ministers of states (independent)  Deputy ministers (ministers of states) PM will determine the composition of the cabinet In the meetings of the cabinet, the deputy ministers and ministers of state will come and participate whenever the discussion is relating to their ministry only
  153. 153. Collective responsibility 75(3) and 78(c) 78(c) if the president so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the council
  154. 154.  Principle of collective responsibility may be regarded as fundamental to the working of the parliamentary government It means that the council of ministers is responsible as a body for the general conduct of the affairs of the government Rule ensures that the council of ministers would work as a team, as a unit, and as a body commands the confidence of the House, and that Cabinet‟s decision are the joint decisions of all ministers
  155. 155.  Decisions of cabinet is binding on council of ministers
  156. 156. Common cause, A registered society vs. UOIAIR 1999 SC 2979 The case is related to ministry of oil & Gas Relating to permission to petrol outlets
  157. 157. Relief sought (i) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders directing the Respondents to specifically declare as to when the Union of India will now bring before the Parliament an appropriately drafted Bill for enactment of legislation for the establishment of the institution of Lokpal, or a suitable alternative system of the nature of Ombudsman which is operating in a number of other countries, for checking and controlling corruption in public offices, inter alia, at the political and bureaucratic levels,
  158. 158.  whether in the enactment of such legislation they will take in to consideration the suggestions that have emanated from the Colloquium recently organised under the auspices of Indian Institute of Public Administration with the participation of foreign and Indian experts for examining various aspects of the matter relating to establishment of Ombudsman institution in this country;
  159. 159.  (ii) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders directing that the institutions and organisations of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, Chief Vigilance Commissioner, and the Central Bureau of Investigation should indicate to the Honble Court the specific steps which they will take for effectively overcoming any inadequacies and weaknesses in the operations of these important institutions which presently hamper effective and efficacious check on prevalence of corrupt practices in the country and to curb corruption at all political and bureaucratic levels;
  160. 160.  (iii) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders appointing a Commission or Commissioner to urgently undertake comprehensive study of the present inadequacies in the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1947 for making specific recommendations to strengthen this enactment for achieving the objective of curbing and checking corruption at the political and bureaucratic levels in the country.
  161. 161.  (iv) Pass an appropriate writ, order or orders directing the State Governments Respondents to indicate to the Honble Court as to when they propose implementing the specific suggestions which have been made for strengthening and improvement of the functioning of the system of Lokayukta, including inter alia, the following:a) To ensure expeditious establishment of the " institution of Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayukta in every State;b) To achieve uniformity in the provisions of various Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayukta Acts; andc) To confer constitutional status on the institution of Lokayukta.
  162. 162.  According to Articles 77 and 361 of Constitution of India Order issued in name of President does not become Order of President passed by him personally but it remains essentially Order of Ministers on whose advice President acts and passed that Order by virtue of Article 77 (1) all executive actions of Government of India have to be expressed in name of President Order passed by Ministers would be amenable to judicial scrutiny authenticity, validity and correctness of such power can be examined by Court inspite of Order having been passed in name of President
  163. 163.  immunity available to President under Article 361 cannot be extended to Orders passed in name of President under Article 77. SC observed that as it is the order of the GOI, it is subjected to judicial scrutiny Judicial review can be invoked Authenticity, validity and correctness of the order can be examined
  164. 164.  According to SC, collective responsibility means  „all members of a government are unanimous in support of its policies and would exhibit that unanimity on public occasions although while formulating the policies, they might have expressed a different view in the meeting of the Cabinet”
  165. 165. Attorney General vs. JonathanCape Ltd., [1976] QB 752 Crossman was a Cabinet Minister for nearly six years (1964-70) He maintained a detailed dairy about the cabinet proceedings After he ceased to be a minister, he began to collate his diaries with a view to their eventual publication Crossman died in 1974
  166. 166.  After his death, his dairies were due for publication The Attorney General brought an action for injunction against Crossman‟s executors for restraining them to publish the diaries His contention was that the cabinet proceedings and cabinet papers being secret, these could not be publicly disclosed
  167. 167.  The confidentiality of cabinet papers and proceedings emanate from „the convention of joint cabinet responsibility‟ „whereby any policy decision reached by the cabinet has to be supported thereafter by all members of the cabinet whether they approve of it or not , unless they feel obliged to resign‟
  168. 168.  In India also, the principle of collective responsibility lays down that the deliberations of the Cabinet are kept secret and confidential because preservation of a united front will be difficult if disclosure is allowed The cabinet ministers are free to raise their voice in in-house discussion
  169. 169.  A cabinet minister may lose his office if he reveals the details of a cabinet discussion to the press The secrecy may at times be released partially when a minister resigns his office He is entitled to make a statement in parliament so that he may reveal the reason for his resignation
  170. 170.  In Jonathan Cape case, the court ruled that since the requirement of secrecy is must in the matters of cabinet affairs, the publication of which can be restrained by the court when this is clearly necessary in the public interest
  171. 171. Minister‟s IndividualResponsibility 77(3) : envisages distribution of business among several ministers Most of the decisions are taken by officials in the department under the minister according to the Rules of Business Each minister is personally accountable for his actions – individual responsibility
  172. 172. A.Sanjeevi vs. state of madrasAIR 1970 SC 1102 Appellants are private stage carriage operators in the state of TN They have been operating in various routes in that State. Some of those routes are proposed to be nationalised. A draft scheme of nationalisation has-been prepared and published under Section 68 (C) of the Motor Vehicles Act (Central Act IV of 1939) The validity of the draft scheme was challenged by the appellants before the High Court of Madras under Article 226 of the Constitution. Incidentally the validity of some of the provisions of the amending Act XVIII of 1968 (Madras Act) also came to be challenged in those petitions.
  173. 173.  A division bench of the Madras High Court consisting of Anantanarayanan C.J. and Natesan J. have dismissed those petitions. As against the decision of the High Court these appeals have been brought on the strength of the certificates issued by the High Court.
  174. 174.  The ground on which it is challenged is that the opinion requisite under Section 68(C) of the Act was not formed by the State Government but by the Secretary to the government in the Industries, Labour and Housing Department, acting in pursuance of the powers conferred on him under Rule 23(A) of the Madras Government Business Rules The contention of the appellants is that the said rule is ultra vires the provisions of the Constitution. There is no dispute that if the rule in question is valid, the challenge directed against the draft scheme must fail. The High Court has opined that that rule is, a valid rule. It is the correctness of that conclusion that is primarily in issue in these appeals.
  175. 175.  3. Section 68(C) prescribes :  Where any State transport undertaking is of opinion that for the purpose of providing an efficient, adequate, economical and properly co- ordinate road transport service, it is necessary in the public interest that road transport services in general or any particular class of such service in relation to any area or route or portion thereof should be run and operated by the State transport undertaking, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial of other persons or otherwise, the State transport undertaking may prepare a scheme giving particulars of the nature of the services proposed to be rendered, the area Or route proposed to be covered and such other particulars respecting thereto as may be prescribed, and shall cause every such scheme to be published in the Official Gazette and also in such other manner as the State Government may direct.
  176. 176.  This section requires that the State transport undertaking must form the opinion contemplated therein. In the State of Tamil Nadu, the State transport undertaking is a department of the State government. Therefore the necessary opinion should have been formed by the State government. It was urged on behalf of the appellants that under our Constitutional set up, the requisite opinion could have been formed either by the Council of Ministers or the Minister to whom the business in question had been allocated under the Rules. The same could not have been formed by the Secretary who is merely an official and that too by the Secretary who is not the head of the department to which the functions under the Act had been assigned.
  177. 177.  The contentions advanced on behalf of the appellants proceed thus : The executive power of the State vests in the Governor (Article 154). In the exercise of that power he has to be aided and advised by the Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head (Article 163(1)) but the Governor can make rules for more convenient transaction of the business of the government of the State arid for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under the Constitution required to act in his discretion, (Article 166(3)).
  178. 178.  A Minister can only deal with the business that has been allocated to him by the Governor under the Rules. He is not competent to deal with any other business. Motor Vehicles Act has been allocated to the Home Department. Mr. Karunanidhi, the Transport Minister was not in- charge of the Home Department. Therefore his department could not have dealt with functions arising under the Act. Further the Governor could into have allocated any business to a Secretary. Hence in making Rule 23(A), the Governor exceeded the powers conferred on him under Article 166(3).
  179. 179.  The SC held in the present appeal where challenging scheme of nationalisation of various routes of State has been filed that where functions entrusted to Minister are performed by official employed in Ministers department there is in law no delegation because Constitutionally act or decision of official is that of Minister SC also held that ecretary validly authorised under Rule 23-A to take decision under Section 68 C for nationalisation scheme.
  180. 180.  In every well planned administration, most of the decisions are taken by the civil servants who are likely to be experts and not subject to political pressure. The Minister is not expected to burden himself with the day to day administration. His primary function is to lay down the policies and programmes of his ministry while the Council of Ministers settle the major policies and programmes of the government. When a civil servant takes a decision, he does not do it as a delegate of his Minister. He does it on behalf of the government. It is always open to a Minister to call for any file in his ministry and pass ordeRs. He may also issue directions to the officers in his ministry regarding the disposal of government business generally or as regards any specific case. Subject to that over all power, the officers designated by the Rules or the standing orders, can take decisions on behalf of the government. These officers are the limbs of the government and not its delegates.
  181. 181.  Each minister is personally liable and collectively responsible for his actions A vote of no-confidence against one minister may be treated as a vote of non-confidence against the entire council of ministers
  182. 182.  Krishna menon‟s resignation from the ministry of defence because of the debacle of the Indian arms in the face of the Chinese aggression in 1962 Though it was due to the late decision making of the government, menon was held responsible President venkataraman paid tribute to the great personality by mentioning that his efforts resulted in the success of war in 1965 and 71 Krishna menon died in 1974
  183. 183. Misfeasance in office A tort of misfeasance in public office Malicious abuse of power, deliberate maladministration and unlawful acts causing injury to a person Common clause (I), the court held that minister is responsible for misfeasance in office Common cause (II), the court held that minister is not responsible as malicious intention is not there so the order was only quashed by mentioning that it leads to unlawfulness
  184. 184. Minister‟s responsibility for hissubordinates Principle of vicarious liability Chagla report in Madhura affair The principal finance secretary negotiated the purchase of a large number of shares from an individual industrialist for the LIC Transaction was held against to rules of business
  185. 185.  Accordin to chagla  Minister is responsible for the acts of his servants  Servants has to work according to the guidelines and the rules set for them
  186. 186. Interaction between executiveand parliament Minister must be a member of house of parliament Ministers stay in office until they enjoy support from Lok sabha Both houses of parliament discuss and criticize in all opportunities the govt policy Executive cannot ignore and by-pass parliament becausee the constitution enjoins that not more than six months should pass between the end of one session and the beginning of another session of parliament
  187. 187.  Many executive matters are having involvement of parliament  Fixation of emoluments, allowances and privileges  Impeachment  Electoral college
  188. 188. Art.77(1) and (2) Provides that all executive action of the Govt of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the president, and orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the president shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in the rules to be made by the President Validity of an order or instrument authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground of President‟s executive power
  189. 189.  No defintion in Indian Constitution for – President‟s executive power Ram Jawaya Kapur vs. Punjab (1955) 2 SCR 225 Nature of executive power :Contention : the executive power of the state did not extend to carrying on the trade of printing, publishing and selling text-books for schools, unless such trade was authorized by law
  190. 190.  Judgment:  Mukherjee CJ., - ○ “it may not be possible to frame an exhaustive definition of what executive function means and implies. Ordinarily, the executive power connotes the residue of governmental functions that remain after legislative and judicial functions are taken away
  191. 191.  Indian constitution is modelled on the British Parliamentary system Executive is deemed to have the primary responsibility for the formulation of governmental policy and its transmission into law through the condition precedent to the exercise of this responsibility is its retaining the confidence of the legislative branch of the state
  192. 192.  If in pursuance of a policy, the Ministry decided to undertake a trade, then, the estimated expenditure required for such trade, would be shown in the Annual Financial statement, followed by an Appropriation Act So long as the trade was carried on in pursuance of the Ministry‟s policy, with the tacit support of the majority in the legislature, no objection that it was not sanctioned by a law, could possibly be raised
  193. 193.  Further adding, Justice Mukherjee urged  Especially when encroaching upon the private rights, specific legislation may indeed be necessary if the Govt. require certain powers in addition to what they undertake otherthan ordinary course of trade
  194. 194. Functions and powers ofexecutive Judicial functions Legislative functions Executive functions
  195. 195. Judicial functions Appointment of judges of SC and HCs Disqualification of a member of house of parliament Power of pardon
  196. 196.  72 (1) : president shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence – (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by court martial (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends
  197. 197.  (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death (2) Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a court martial (3) Nothing in sub-clause (C) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a state under any law for the time being in force
  198. 198. criticisms Does the president exercise any personal discretion in the matter or does he act merely as a constitutional head Should he give a personal hearing to the convicted or his lawyer before disposing of the matter Is the power to pardon subject to any norms eg., art.14 Is the exercise of this power subject to judicial review
  199. 199. Maru ram vs. UOI AIR 1980SC 2147 Advice of council of ministers
  200. 200. Kuljeet Singh vs. Lt., GovernorAIR 1981 SC 2239 Questioned regarding to norms and standards for granting pardon
  201. 201. Kehar Singh vs. UOI AIR 1989SC 653 Right to hearing is subject to president‟s discretion No need of specific guidelines Indira Gandhi assasination To what areas does the president‟s power to scrutinize evidence extend in exercising his power to pardon?
  202. 202.  President can examine the evidences
  203. 203. G.Krishna Goud vs. state of AP(1976) 1 SCC 157 No judicial review
  204. 204. Legislative functions Participation of the executive in legislative process Power of rule-making under the constitution Power to proclaim an emergency Power to make ordinances
  205. 205. participation Convene and prorogue parliament Dissolve loksabha Presentation of bills to parliament President‟s assent for conversion of bill into act Art.3 Art.117(1) : Money bill Art.117(3) : Consolidated fund of india Art.274 : tax affecting state interest
  206. 206. Rule making 77(2) : authentication or orders and instruments made and executed in the name of president 77(3) : rules for convenient transaction of the govt‟s business and allocation of jobs to the ministers 148(5) : conditions of services etc., of Audit and accounts department 318 : Chairman and members of the union and joint Public service commission
  207. 207.  98(3) : secretariat and staff of house of parliament 146(1) : consultation with UPSC regarding officials of the SC 101(2) : dual membership of parliament and state legislature 118(3) : procedure to be followed at the joint sittings of the two houses of parliament 309 : regulating the requirements and conditions of service of persons appointed to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union
  208. 208. Declaration of emergency
  209. 209. Art.123 Power of president topromulgate ordinances during recess ofparliament (1) if any time, except when both houses of parliament are in session, the president is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require
  210. 210.  (2) : an ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of parliament, but every such ordinance-  (a) shall be laid before both houses of parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of parliament, or, if before the expiration of that period resolution disapproving it are passed by both houses of parliament, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions and  (b) : may be withdrawn at any time by the President
  211. 211.  Explanation : where the Houses of parliament are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those date for the purposes of this clause (3) if and so far as an ordinance under this article makes any provision which parliament would not under this constitution be competent to enact, it shall be void
  212. 212. Ordinance making power In extraordinary circumstances, where law is needed urgently president has power to make ordinances Art.123 – (1) both houses of parliament are not in session (2) he is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action
  213. 213.  123(4) : 38th amendment : making satisfaction of the President to issue an ordinance is non-justiciable 44th amendment : it was removed
  214. 214. A.K.Roy vs. UOI AIR 1982 SC710 National Security Ordinance, 1980 ground to challenge is malafide intention, corruption, bribery
  215. 215.  T.Venkata Reddy vs. state of AP (part time village officers) and Nagaraj vs. state of AP : No judicial review against executive‟s action
  216. 216. Bommai case Proclamation under Art.356 for failure of constitutional machinery in state is subjected to judicial review only under malafides or extraneous and irrelevant grounds
  217. 217. RC cooper vs. UOI AIR 1970SC564 Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Ordianance, 1969 President‟s satisfaction is subjective
  218. 218. Venkata reddy vs. state of APAIR 1985 SC 724 Ordinance won‟t become void ab intio when an Act in support of this was not passed
  219. 219. Executive actions 76(1) : power to appoint various high officials like attorney general 148(1) : comptroller and attorney general 155 : state governor 315-323 : member of UPSC 324(2) : election commissioners
  220. 220.  Inter state council: 263 Finance commission : 280 Commission for ST : 339(1) Backward classes : 340(1) Official language commission : 344(1) Power to enter into contracts 299 Issue directions to states in certain circumstances 256, 257, 339(2)
  221. 221. Attorney general of india 76(1) : president shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a SC Judge to be the Attorney-General for India (2) : it shall be the duty of the Attorney- general to give advice to the GOI upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the president, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this constitution or any other law for the time being inforce
  222. 222.  (3) : in the performance of his duties the Attorney-general shall have right to audience inall courts in the territory of india (4) : the attorney-general shall hold office during the pleasure of the president, and shall receive such remuneration as the president may determine
  223. 223. State Executive

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