Sewing threads1


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Sewing threads1

  1. 1. Sewing ThreadsSewing Thread:Sewing threads form efficient stitches without breaking or becoming distorted during theuseful life of the product. The basic function of a thread is to deliver aesthetics andperformance in stitches and seams.According to the definition given by ASTM, sewing thread is a flexible, small diameter yarnor strand usually treated with a surface coating, lubricant or both, intended to be used tostitch one or more pieces of material or an object to a material. It may be defined assmooth, evenly spun, hard-twisted ply yarn, treated by a special finishing process to make itresistant to stresses in its passage through the eye of a needle and through materialinvolved in seaming and stitching operations1.Sewing threads are used in garments, upholstery, air-supported fabric structures andgeotextiles to join different components by forming a seam. The primary function of a seamis to provide uniform stress transfer from one piece of fabric to another, thus preserving theoverall integrity of the fabric assembly.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 1
  2. 2. Costing of Sewing ThreadsIt would depend upon the following factors 1. Fibre Composition i.e. polyester, spun polyester, cotton, nylon, etc 2. Number of filaments i.e. mono, multiple,etc 3. count of the threadi.e. higher the more it is finer and therefore more the cost. 4. processing i.e. whether it is singeid or how it has been winded or some special lubrication is done, etc 5. finishing i.e. how it has been finished depending upon the fibre composition and end use 6. packaging size i.e. in which thing it has been rolled depending upon the end use, i.e. cop, or spool or cone, etc. and what is the diameter of the material, as diameter increase, cost also increases as longer length of thread is required. Cost Breakup Fibers – It cost around 50% of the total cost Processing - It cost around 18% - 20% of the total cost Finishing - It cost around 20 – 25% of the total cost Package Size - It cost around 10% – 12% of the total cost[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 2
  3. 3. Different Types of fibresRayonProduced by pressing cellulose acetate through small holes and solidifying it in the form offilaments.The rayon thread size can be expressed as Tex 25.Characteristics of rayon: high sheen soft, and works well in detail relatively heat resistant not colorfast not as strong as polyester less durable than polyesterPolyesterSynthetically produced by pressing polymer resins through small holes and solidifying in theform of filaments. Thepolyster thread size can be expressed as Tex 25 Characteristics of polyester: durable. designed for heavy duty use stronger, more tensile strength than rayon colorfast retains shape recovers stretch spun poly is strong, with a matte appearance trilobal poly has a sheen equal to rayon but is not as strong as spun poly.Nylon A synthetic thread most commonly in the form as a monofilament clear thread or as a texturized fuzzy thread.The Nylon thread size can be expressed as Tex 70 Characteristics of nylon: strong low melting temperature. not heat resistant. notcolorfast. will yellow over time. becomes brittle through laundering[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 3
  4. 4. Cotton The only 100% natural fiber thread made for high speed machines. Cotton has various finishes, each providing specific results. Mercerized The thread is treated is a solution, causing the fibers to swell. This allows the dye to better penetrate the fibers and increases the luster of the thread. It also increases the strength of the thread. Gassed The thread is passed through a flame at high speed to reduce the fuzz. Glazed The thread is treated with wax or other chemicals, them polished to create a higher luster. Although the result is a glossy, hard finish which protects the thread, the glaze does rub off and can gum up the needle and machine. The cotton thread size can be expressed as Tex 40 or T-40. Characteristics of cotton thread: soft strong and durable easily adjusts to changes in the fabric (such as shrinkage) since it is a natural fiber available in various thread weights easy careMetallicsThe quality of metallic thread ranges from very high to very low. A good metallic threaddoes not require a lubricant. Quality metallic thread has the following components: Nylon core. A nylon core offers the most strength. Polyester and rayon cores are inferior. Rice paper construction. This adds strength and cohesiveness and makes the thread more soft and supple, reducing the wiry feel. It also reduces tangling. Outer coating. Lower end metallics have no outer coating. This means the metal foil rubs against the needle, creating friction, resulting in discoloring and shredding. A good metallic has an outer coating which reduces friction and acts as a protective layer. Laminate or Flat thread. Produced by bonding layers of polyester together and slicing to a desired width. Usually available in either 2 ply or 5 ply. colorfast brilliant, reflective, colors heat resistant. can be ironed 5 ply does not require special handling for good results. 2 ply usually requires special handling for good results. able to produce in a hologram effect Smaller Tex numbers indicate fine thread, and a larger number signifies a thicker thread. Metallic threads usually falling in the range of Tex 12 to Tex 50.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 4
  5. 5. Different types of filament ThreadsMonofilament Threads:Monofilament is not a conventional thread, as it comprises only a singlefilament, suitably lubricated. Monofilaments are produced by melt spinning (as arecontinuous multifilament yarns), but the spinneret has only one aperture which ismuch larger than for conventional yarns.Multifilament Threads:Plied or corded threads produced from 100% synthetic (polyamide orpolyester) filaments are used as continuous filament threads. Where flexible threadsare required, the filaments are twisted, set, dyed and lubricated only. Where optimumsewing performance and abrasion resistance are required, the plied threads are treatedwith synthetic co-polymer, which bonds the individual filaments together. Pliedcontinuous filament multilobal polyester threads are favored for embroideryapplications on account of its superior lusture.Very fine threads are produced from a single ply of multifilament polyesteryarn, suitably twisted and then treated with a light bonding finish - just sufficient toconsolidate the individual filaments without stiffening the final product.Silk Threads:Although they are not widely used, some sewing threads are made from spunsilk. An important feature of such yarns is the high extent at break of about 20%, alongwith a high breaking load. Some continuous filament silk yarns are used forbuttonholes and decorative stitching because of their attractive appearance andsmoothness.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 5
  6. 6. PlysThe number of component yarns that are twisted together to produce a thread is the ply.Two-plythreads, therefore, are simply two yarns which havebeen twisted together.Thread Size ComparisonHeavy weight threads: Tex 40 - Tex 90Medium weight threads: Tex 27 - Tex 35Light weight threads: Tex 10 - Tex 24Tex - This is the weight in grams of 1,000meters. (1 Tex = 1 gram per 1,000 meters)[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 6
  7. 7. Sewing applications by thread size:Fine tex(18-30) Blouse Dress Lingerie Sleepwear Swimwear Other light articlesMedium Tex (30-60) Aprons Athelatic Wear Caps Coats Draperies Foundation Garments Jeans Rain wear Pants Shorts Wind BreakersHeavy Tex (60-105) Foot Wear Golf Bags Luggafe Over Coats Parkas Protective Clothing Work WearExtra Heavy Tex (105-135) Decorative Stitching Bold Design Looks[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 7
  8. 8. Functions of various machines in sewing threadmanufacturing processYarn singeingSewing thread must be singed to ensure that the projecting fibres do not interfere with downstreamprocessing. Percentage of singeing can be achieved varied by varying the yarn collection speed. Hairremoval efficiency at singeing machine is normally 30 - 50%. Flame temperature is around 800 oC.Singeing is mainly done in Cotton Sewing Threads.Features• The heart of the machine - the burner, serves to singe reliably the projecting fibres of yarn runningthrough at high speed, without inflicting burns on yarn itself. There is a choice between the gasburner and the electric burner. Gas burner are widely used. The gas burner consumes about 55 gmof natural, propane or butane gas an hour, depending on singeing rate and yarn type.• Speed: 300-1200 m/min.Hank to cone winding• Conversion of hank in to cone of suitable weight• Waxing for reducing co-officient of friction in sewing thread .Features of new machines:• Twin Input Rollers: At the front of the head are the twin-input rollers, set to a fixed speedbut proportional to the winding speed. The main functions of this unit are to eliminateunwanted tensions prior to yarn entering waxing unit.• The speed of machine ranging from 400-700 mpm, with possible traverse from150-200mm.PolishingSome threads for special end uses like leather industries, bag stitching, kite flying aretreated with starch, softeners, whitener, etc on this machine. Cooked starch is mixed withother chemicals and different recipes are made for different qualities depending on the enduses.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 8
  9. 9. Main objectives of polishing are:• Extra ordinary smooth surface• Thread becomes round.• Stiffness increases.• Increase in tensile strength (7-10%).Cross winding and lubrication• Winding in various types of sewing thread packages like cone, cop , tube, ball, vicone andspool.• Threads are treated with special waxes for achieving best workability during sewingoperation.• Lick roller lubrication is applied on industrial sewing thread where thread has to run onhigh speed sewing machine; the basic ingredient of the most of the lubricants is parafin wax.Although silicones are also used because of their stability to heat and various additives arealso included to give some special properties.Geometry of packagesThreads are wound in many forms. Small length spools are employed in retail storedistribution, whereas somewhat larger spools are used to a limited extent industrially. Someof the very fine soft threads are wound on cones, very coarse soft threads are in skein form,but the largest proportion by far is wound on the one headed tube with base or straighttubes. These packages in some instances are put on a weight basis; however, the largerpercentage is marked on a length basis. Ready-wound bobbins in a number of styles toaccommodate the various sewing machines employed are also available. Cross windingthreads are generally laid in with traverse ratio 1: 6 (one double traverse = six spindlerevolution) and 1: 4 for coarser counts.The following types of packages are used in sewing threads (with commonly useddimensions).Spool: Spools are small flanged plastic or wooden bobbins, they are both with tapered (so-[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 9
  10. 10. called Diabolo spools) and straight flanges. Mainly parallel winding (because side unwindingis easy) is done. Cross-windings are also possible on the spools. They contain relatively shortlength of 100-500 meter thread. The length of traverse on spool is 2.9-3.8 cm.End uses: Upholstery, footwear, leather goods manufacturing, and in hand sewingoperations.CopCops are small cylindrical flangeless spools, with precision cross winding. They are mostlymade of paper and plastic. They are of two types, small Cop (Tube) and medium Cop (Cop).The lack of flanges facilitates regular off winding on industrial sewing machines althoughtheir small diameter makes them less well suited to the faster thread take off machines.Smaller Cops are popular make-up in fashion trades, where a variety of shades are used andproduction runs for any one colour or style of garments. The length of thread wound rangesfrom 100-2000 m on small cop and 400-4000 m on cop. The length of traverse on small copis 5 - 6.3 cm and on cop is10 cm.End uses: Kite flying, Upholstery, ready-made garment, tailoring, hosiery, umbrella, andshoe stitchingCone: This is self-supporting, cross wound conical package. It is easier to withdraw yarn overend from a cone than from a cheese and because of this, cone is more widely used. Theycontain relatively long lengths 1000-25000 m with length of traverse ranging from 10-15 cm.They give trouble free thread unwinding at intermittent or continuous high speeds. Conesare the most economical packages for conventional sewing threads in situations wherethread consumption is high and production runs are long.End uses: ready made garment, tailoring, hosiery, leather stitching, Upholstery, shoestitching, denim, embroidery, and kite flying.Vicone or King Spool: Vicones are parallel tubes or low angled cones with an additional basein the form of a raised flange, which may incorporate a small tip. The build of viconedepends on the exact conformity of the taper with the angle of vicone’s base. Coarse yarnsrequire a large traverse for the taper -- fine yarn a small one. They contain lengths of 1000-5000 m with length of traverse 6.5-9 cm.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 10
  11. 11. End uses: embroidery, core-spun, and filament threads .PrewoundBobbin:Prewound bobbins are precision parallel wound thread package designedto replace metal bobbins on a variety of lock stitch machines.Skein: A very small hank of soft twisted plied thread (around 8 m) of coarse count, is parallelwound with the help rotating flyer, which withdraws the thread from the supply packagecone.End uses: embroidery.Ball: A typical ball like structure, wound with the help of four types of different winding.They are: Rough base winding, form winding, surface layer winding, and circumferencewinding. The initial winding provides firmness at the base. Next winding process makesspace for placing the identification ticket. The third stage of winding provides firm grippingof the ticket. The last stage of winding makes a band over the ball, which retains its shape.An easy unwinding of thread is possible.End uses: embroidery, fishing net and bag closing.Cocoon: Cocoons are self-supporting i.e. center-less thread package specially designed forthe insertion in the shuttle of multi needle quilting and some types of embroidery. Cocoonsare used in the shuttle of multi needle quilting and some types of embroidery machines.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 11
  12. 12. Different types of winding systemPrecision winding:• Constant winding ratio• Winding angle reduces with increasing diameter• No pattern areas• Good off-winding characteristics• High package densityStep precision or digicone winding:• Almost constant winding angle• The wind ratio is reduced in steps• Combines the advantage of random and precision winding• No pattern areas• Higher consistent package density• Perfect unwinding characteristics• Straight sided packagesRandom winding:• Winding angle is kept constant since the winding ratio reduces with increasing diameter• Stable packages• Even densityPineapple winding:• Winding traverse reduces to produce packages with tapered edges• Required for filament winding operations• All three types of winding applicableParallel winding:• Very high package density• Thread vertical to package axis• Relatively short lengths of thread[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 12
  13. 13. • Suitable for side unwinding• No pattern areas 5,6Ball winding:• Very easy unwinding• Winding takes place in 4 stages:1. Rough base winding2. Form winding3. Surface layer winding4.Circumferencial windingSkein winding:• Easy unwinding• Very small parallel strand of soft twisted thread.[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 13
  14. 14. Different types of coatingBonded:Polyester or nylon thread coated to keep it from shredding and to reduce abrasion.Gassed:Cotton thread quickly passed through a flame to reduce fuzz.Glazed (glacé):Cotton thread for hand-sewing, treated with starches, waxes, or chemicals, and polished toa luster for a smooth, glossy surface to reduce knots and tangling. This finish can gum-up asewing machine.Mercerized:Cotton or cotton-covered polyester thread given a caustic soda bath that’s neutralized withan acid bath. Mercerizing adds strength,luster, and dye affinity, and reduces lint.Soft:Usually refers to a cotton thread to which no finishing processes have been appliedSilicone/Hot WaxDone to spun polyester[COSTING OF APPAREL PRODUCTS] [NIFT] Page 14