We are very thankful to everyone who all supported us, for we have
completed our project effectively and moreover, on time.
we are equally grateful to our teacher,Mrs. Neha botra and Dr. Poonam
She gave us moral support and guided us in different matters regarding
the topic. She has been very kind and patient, whilst suggesting to us
the outlines of this project, and correcting my doubts. we thank her for
her overall support.
Last but not the least, we would like to thank our parents who helped
us a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding
us from time to time in completing this project. Despite their busy
schedules, they gave us different ideas to help make this project
I n t r o d u c t i o n
Wh a t
i s E l e c t r o n i c Wa s t e ?
Wh y s o m u c h a d o a b o u t
So u r c e s o f
E -Wa s t e ?
E -Wa s t e
H o w t h e s e b e c o m e E -Wa s t e ?
Co n s t i t u e n t s o f
E -Wa s t e
E -Wa s t e D i s p o s a l
E n v i r o n me n t a l
Co n c l u s i o n
Re f e r e n c e s
P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y (E P A )
India generates close to
500,000 tons e-waste p.a.
Expected to touch a million ton by 2011
Total No. of MOBILE users in India
India has 554.8 million mobile users.
These users actively use 643.4 million SIMs actively.
WASTE PILING UP
Broad break up appears as under:
What is Electronic Waste?
It may be defined as,
computers, office electronic
devices & many other
electronic or electrical
devices which are unwanted,
broken & discarded by their
are known as ‘E-Waste’ or
Electronic waste, "e-waste" or "Waste
Electrical and Electronic Equipment"
("WEEE") is a waste consisting of any
broken or unwanted electrical or
It is a point of concern considering that
many components of such equipment
are considered toxic and are not
Why so much ado about E-Waste?
• An estimated 50 million tons of
E-waste are produced each year.
• The USA discards 30 million
computers each year & 100
million phones are disposed of in
Europe each year.
• The Environmental Protection
Agency estimates that only 1520% of E-Waste is recycled,
the rest of these electronics go
directly into landfills and
Why so much ado about E-Waste?
• E-Waste contains several different
substances and chemicals, many of
which are toxic and are likely to create
adverse impact on environment and
health, if not handled properly.
• However, classification of E-Waste as
hazardous or otherwise shall depend
upon the extent of presence of
hazardous constituents in it.
Effects on surrounding environment
• Large amounts of imported e-waste material and process
residues never get recycled and are simply dumped in
open fields; along riverbanks, ponds, and wetlands; in
rivers; and in irrigation ditches (Puckett et al. 2002: 23-24).
This indiscriminate dumping has exacerbated
contamination of drinking water sources and sediments.
Water samples from the Liangjiang River outside of Guiyu,
China show cadmium and lead levels to be well above
Major toxic elements in e-waste
Due to the pervading reach of information technology in trade and commerce, computer waste is the most
significant of all e-waste, along with televisions and cellular phones
E-waste contains both valuable as well as harmful components
Valuable components include precious metals such as gold, silver, copper, palladium, etc.
Harmful substances include lead, mercury, cadmium, etc.
Some of the key toxic elements contained within components of a computer include:
Toxic Elements Inside a Computer
Components of a computer
Printed Circuit Boards
Cathode ray Tubes(CRTs)
Switches and Flat-screen Monitors
Capacitors and Transformers
Printed Circuit Boards, Plastic Casing Cable
Key Toxic Constituents
Lead and cadmium
Lead oxide and cadmium
Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs)
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
Sources of E-Waste:
(Restaurants , Industries):
Categories of E-Waste
Large household appliances
Small household appliances
IT & Telecommunication equipment
Electrical and electronic tools
Toys and sport equipment
Monitoring and control instruments
How these become E-Waste?
Advancement in technology
Changes in Style, Fashion & Status
Nearing the end of their useful life
Not taking precautions while handling them
Constituents of E-Waste:
Effects on Human
CRTs (used in TVs, Monitors,
ATM, Video Camera, etc),
Batteries, PVC cables, Paints
Lead, barium & other
These metals leaching into the
ground water and release of toxic
Anemia, Renal Toxicity,
Batteries, Housing & Medical
Air emissions as well as discharge
into rivers of glass dust
Renal Toxicity, Muscle tumors,
Mental retardation, Cerebral
Plastics from printers,
keyboards, monitors, etc
plasticizer bisephenolA(or BPA), as well
DEHP and DBP, plastic
compounds known as
Chlorinated plastics release harmful
chemicals into the surrounding soil,
which seep into ground water or
other surrounding water sources
which cause serious harm to the
species that drink this water.
Risk in developing heart
PVC & polymer, Paints,
Printing inks, Electrical
transformers & capacitors
include extreme pollution from
production, toxic chemical exposure
during use, hazards from fires
Suppression of immune
system; Damage to the liver,
nervous and reproductive
A Problem & Challenge !!!
• Landfill disposal allows heavy metals to leach into ground water
• Incineration makes hazardous material airborne
• Acid baths are dangerous and cause water and soil contamination
• Exported materials are handled improperly
• Most E-Waste goes to China, India & Africa
Workers are untrained and uneducated in safe handling of electronic waste
No environmental protection laws
Methods of treatment & disposal:
Recycle & Reuse
Existing E-Waste Management Practices in India :•Plastic Waste :
Products made from plastics such as keyboards, casing, front or real panel.
Miscellaneous parts encased in plastics
Management Practice - The shredding & melting
•Printed Circuit Board Waste:
Used in electronic parts such as motherboard, TV internal
Management Practice – De soldering & open burning to remove metals.
Chips, electronic wires, broken glass
waste, copper containing waste.
Management Practice- Chemical stripping &
open burning & some of the waste is mixed
with the municipal solid waste
It contains internal chemicals, general
waste, acid stripping waste.
Management Practice – Sewerage system
How informal sector deals with?
• A relatively new industry in India, traditionally dominated by the
• Scrap dealers and rag-pickers gather e-waste from households in their area
of operation and employ crude and highly unsafe processes for recycling
the same, causing significant environmental damage
– open burning of wires to extract resalable copper, soaking of circuit
boards in acid baths to extract precious metal, disposing the residue into
open drains or land, etc.
• The formal e-waste recycling segment consists of a few large players which
have the proper infrastructure to handle WEEE equipment
Unsafe methods for e-waste recycling
• The unorganised segment often employs crude and highly unsafe
processes for while recycling e-waste, and extracting precious
What can WE do?
• In order to lessen the amount of e-waste being produced, individuals
can do many things:
1.Keep your old electronics longer instead of replacing them.
2.If discarding old electronics, be sure to recycle them at a
trusted recycling center.
3.Purchase efficient electronics that do not contain hazardous
materials such as mercury and lead.
Recycling of E-Waste
Disassembly is the systematic removal of components, parts, a group of parts or a subassembly from a
product which is in E-Waste
It includes comminuting and separation of materials using mechanical / physical and/or metallurgical
processing. Methods to recover materials include incineration and refining.
•Materials Recovery :
The material are recovered by recycling facilities. The plastic, glass, metals can be recovered by
sorting them before mixing with other waste.
Advantages of Recycling E-Waste :
•Reduction of need for landfills
•Reduction of junks and clutters
•Resale and Reuse
•Creation of jobs
Reuse of E-Waste
•Reuse is the environmentally preferable option for managing older electronics equipment
•By extending the useful life of old products, reuse conserves the energy and raw materials
needed to manufacture new products and doing so reduces the pollution
•Reuse also gives people who cannot afford new products access to electronic equipment at
reduced or at low cost
•Almost all domestic and part of imported E-Waste are reused in following ways:
•Direct second-hand use
•Use after repair or slight modification
•Use of some parts like monitor cabinet, main board for making new appliances
Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
List of EPA - Worldwide:
i.Earth System Governance Project
ii.Global Environment Facility(GEF)
iii.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC)
iv.United Nations Environment Program me(UNEP)
v.World Nature Organization(WNO)
vi.World Wide Fund For Nature(WWF)
Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
•List of EPA - INDIA:
i. Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB)
ii. Gujarat Pollution Control Board
iii.Ministry of Environment and Forests
iv.Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control
Implement Proper E-Waste Disposal
One man’s ‘junk’ is other man’s ‘Treasure’ !
As far as e-waste is concerned, it has emerged as one of the
fastest growing waste streams world wide today.
1. Electronic equipment is one of the largest know sources of
heavy metals without effective collection, reuse, and recycling
systems, they will be dangerous to environment
2. Reuse and recycling of electronic equipment is a beneficial
alternative than disposal
3. Product design by using safe and environment friendly raw
materials and most emerging technologies