E- waste by Aditi rajput


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Today’s Electronic
Tomorrow’s Electronic
Waste !!!

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E- waste by Aditi rajput

  1. 1. E-WASTE
  2. 2. • • • • • • • PUNJABI HONS. Aditi singh 53 Amrita kaur - 41 Ilma akhtar - 56 Jasleen kaur - 50 Prabhleen kaur - 55 Anmol 57 Aandeep kaur- 46 10/29/2013
  3. 3. Acknowledgement We are very thankful to everyone who all supported us, for we have completed our project effectively and moreover, on time. we are equally grateful to our teacher,Mrs. Neha botra and Dr. Poonam She gave us moral support and guided us in different matters regarding the topic. She has been very kind and patient, whilst suggesting to us the outlines of this project, and correcting my doubts. we thank her for her overall support. Last but not the least, we would like to thank our parents who helped us a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding us from time to time in completing this project. Despite their busy schedules, they gave us different ideas to help make this project unique. Thanking you. 10/29/2013
  4. 4. Did You Know?
  5. 5. Today’s Electronic Gadgets, Tomorrow’s Electronic Waste !!!
  6. 6. CONTENT I n t r o d u c t i o n  Wh a t i s E l e c t r o n i c Wa s t e ?  Wh y s o m u c h a d o a b o u t So u r c e s o f E -Wa s t e ? E -Wa s t e  H o w t h e s e b e c o m e E -Wa s t e ? Co n s t i t u e n t s o f E -Wa s t e  E -Wa s t e D i s p o s a l  E n v i r o n me n t a l Co n c l u s i o n Re f e r e n c e s P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y (E P A )
  7. 7. India generates close to 500,000 tons e-waste p.a. Expected to touch a million ton by 2011 10/29/2013
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Total No. of MOBILE users in India  India has 554.8 million mobile users.  These users actively use 643.4 million SIMs actively.
  9. 9. WASTE PILING UP Broad break up appears as under: Mumbai : 50,000 tons Delhi : 35,000 Bangalore : 30,000 Chennai : 25,000 Kolkata : 19,000 Ahmedabad : 14,000 Hyderabad : 13,000 Pune : 10,000 Indore : 8,000 10/29/2013
  10. 10. What is Electronic Waste? It may be defined as, computers, office electronic equipment, entertainment devices & many other electronic or electrical devices which are unwanted, broken & discarded by their original users are known as ‘E-Waste’ or ‘Electronic Waste’
  11. 11. ELECTRONIC WASTE Electronic waste, "e-waste" or "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" ("WEEE") is a waste consisting of any broken or unwanted electrical or electronic appliance. It is a point of concern considering that many components of such equipment are considered toxic and are not biodegradable. 10/29/2013
  12. 12. Why so much ado about E-Waste? • An estimated 50 million tons of E-waste are produced each year. • The USA discards 30 million computers each year & 100 million phones are disposed of in Europe each year. • The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that only 1520% of E-Waste is recycled, the rest of these electronics go directly into landfills and
  13. 13. Why so much ado about E-Waste? • E-Waste contains several different substances and chemicals, many of which are toxic and are likely to create adverse impact on environment and health, if not handled properly. • However, classification of E-Waste as hazardous or otherwise shall depend upon the extent of presence of hazardous constituents in it.
  14. 14. Effects on surrounding environment • Large amounts of imported e-waste material and process residues never get recycled and are simply dumped in open fields; along riverbanks, ponds, and wetlands; in rivers; and in irrigation ditches (Puckett et al. 2002: 23-24). This indiscriminate dumping has exacerbated contamination of drinking water sources and sediments. Water samples from the Liangjiang River outside of Guiyu, China show cadmium and lead levels to be well above 10/29/2013
  15. 15. Major toxic elements in e-waste • • Due to the pervading reach of information technology in trade and commerce, computer waste is the most significant of all e-waste, along with televisions and cellular phones E-waste contains both valuable as well as harmful components – – • Valuable components include precious metals such as gold, silver, copper, palladium, etc. Harmful substances include lead, mercury, cadmium, etc. Some of the key toxic elements contained within components of a computer include: Toxic Elements Inside a Computer Components of a computer Printed Circuit Boards Cathode ray Tubes(CRTs) Switches and Flat-screen Monitors Computer Batteries Capacitors and Transformers Printed Circuit Boards, Plastic Casing Cable Computer Batteries Key Toxic Constituents Lead and cadmium Lead oxide and cadmium Mercury Cadmium Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
  16. 16. Map of e-waste recycling countries 10/29/2013
  17. 17. Sources of E-Waste: Home: • • • • • • • • • • PC Television Radio Cell phones Washing machine Microwave oven CD player Fan Electric Iron etc Hospitals: • • • • • • PC Monitors ECG device Microscope Incubator etc Government: • • • • • • • • • PC CPU FAX machine Xerox machine Scanner Fan Tube lights Air conditions etc Private Sectors (Restaurants , Industries): • • • • • • PC Boilers Mixer Signal Generators Incubator etc
  18. 18. Categories of E-Waste • • • • • • • • • • Large household appliances Small household appliances IT & Telecommunication equipment Consumer equipment Lighting equipment Electrical and electronic tools Toys and sport equipment Medical devices Monitoring and control instruments automatic dispensers
  19. 19. How these become E-Waste? Reasons: Advancement in technology Changes in Style, Fashion & Status Nearing the end of their useful life Not taking precautions while handling them
  20. 20. Constituents of E-Waste: E-Waste Source E-Waste Component Environmental Hazard Effects on Human CRTs (used in TVs, Monitors, ATM, Video Camera, etc), Batteries, PVC cables, Paints Lead, barium & other heavy metals These metals leaching into the ground water and release of toxic phosphor Anemia, Renal Toxicity, Insomnia Batteries, Housing & Medical Equipment Mercury Air emissions as well as discharge into rivers of glass dust Renal Toxicity, Muscle tumors, Mental retardation, Cerebral palsy Plastics from printers, keyboards, monitors, etc plasticizer bisephenolA(or BPA), as well DEHP and DBP, plastic compounds known as phthalates Chlorinated plastics release harmful chemicals into the surrounding soil, which seep into ground water or other surrounding water sources which cause serious harm to the species that drink this water. Risk in developing heart problems, obesity, reproductive disease PVC & polymer, Paints, Printing inks, Electrical transformers & capacitors Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) include extreme pollution from production, toxic chemical exposure during use, hazards from fires Suppression of immune system; Damage to the liver, nervous and reproductive systems
  21. 21. E-Waste Disposal A Problem & Challenge !!! • Landfill disposal allows heavy metals to leach into ground water • Incineration makes hazardous material airborne • Acid baths are dangerous and cause water and soil contamination • Exported materials are handled improperly • Most E-Waste goes to China, India & Africa • Workers are untrained and uneducated in safe handling of electronic waste • No environmental protection laws 21
  22. 22. E-Waste Disposal Methods of treatment & disposal: • • • • Landfill Incineration Pyrolysis Recycle & Reuse Existing E-Waste Management Practices in India :•Plastic Waste : Products made from plastics such as keyboards, casing, front or real panel. Miscellaneous parts encased in plastics Management Practice - The shredding & melting •Printed Circuit Board Waste: Used in electronic parts such as motherboard, TV internal circuits, etc Management Practice – De soldering & open burning to remove metals.
  23. 23. Continue… •Miscellaneous Waste: Chips, electronic wires, broken glass waste, copper containing waste. Management Practice- Chemical stripping & open burning & some of the waste is mixed with the municipal solid waste Liquid Waste: It contains internal chemicals, general waste, acid stripping waste. Management Practice – Sewerage system
  24. 24. How informal sector deals with? • A relatively new industry in India, traditionally dominated by the unorganized segment • Scrap dealers and rag-pickers gather e-waste from households in their area of operation and employ crude and highly unsafe processes for recycling the same, causing significant environmental damage – open burning of wires to extract resalable copper, soaking of circuit boards in acid baths to extract precious metal, disposing the residue into open drains or land, etc. • The formal e-waste recycling segment consists of a few large players which have the proper infrastructure to handle WEEE equipment 10/29/2013
  25. 25. Unsafe methods for e-waste recycling • The unorganised segment often employs crude and highly unsafe processes for while recycling e-waste, and extracting precious materials therefrom 10/29/2013
  26. 26. Wanna be a Wi SuperHero ???
  27. 27. What can WE do? • In order to lessen the amount of e-waste being produced, individuals can do many things: 1.Keep your old electronics longer instead of replacing them. 2.If discarding old electronics, be sure to recycle them at a trusted recycling center. 3.Purchase efficient electronics that do not contain hazardous materials such as mercury and lead. 10/29/2013
  28. 28. Recycling of E-Waste •Disassembly/dismantling : Disassembly is the systematic removal of components, parts, a group of parts or a subassembly from a product which is in E-Waste •Upgrading : It includes comminuting and separation of materials using mechanical / physical and/or metallurgical processing. Methods to recover materials include incineration and refining. •Materials Recovery : The material are recovered by recycling facilities. The plastic, glass, metals can be recovered by sorting them before mixing with other waste.
  29. 29. Ref:http://piranhatt.com/plastics-about.html
  30. 30. Advantages of Recycling E-Waste : •Asset recovery •Reduction of need for landfills •Reduction of junks and clutters •Resale and Reuse •Creation of jobs 30
  31. 31. Reuse of E-Waste •Reuse is the environmentally preferable option for managing older electronics equipment •By extending the useful life of old products, reuse conserves the energy and raw materials needed to manufacture new products and doing so reduces the pollution •Reuse also gives people who cannot afford new products access to electronic equipment at reduced or at low cost •Almost all domestic and part of imported E-Waste are reused in following ways: •Direct second-hand use •Use after repair or slight modification •Use of some parts like monitor cabinet, main board for making new appliances 31
  32. 32. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) • List of EPA - Worldwide: i.Earth System Governance Project ii.Global Environment Facility(GEF) iii.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) iv.United Nations Environment Program me(UNEP) v.World Nature Organization(WNO) vi.World Wide Fund For Nature(WWF)
  33. 33. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) •List of EPA - INDIA: i. Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) ii. Gujarat Pollution Control Board iii.Ministry of Environment and Forests iv.Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board(APPCB)
  34. 34. Implement Proper E-Waste Disposal One man’s ‘junk’ is other man’s ‘Treasure’ !
  35. 35. CONCLUSION As far as e-waste is concerned, it has emerged as one of the fastest growing waste streams world wide today. 1. Electronic equipment is one of the largest know sources of heavy metals without effective collection, reuse, and recycling systems, they will be dangerous to environment 2. Reuse and recycling of electronic equipment is a beneficial alternative than disposal 3. Product design by using safe and environment friendly raw materials and most emerging technologies
  36. 36. Thank You !!!