Dr. B. Victor
St. Xavier’s College
Teacher centered Philosophy
Learner centered Philosophy
ICT centered Philosophy
ICT Skills and competencies
ICT Tools and Digital
Computers in Education
Web based teaching/ learning
“The quality of education is
not to be measured by its
length and breadth but only
by its depth”
many years, teachers taught and
students were responsible for
learning the material.
It was the student’s responsibility to
acquire the knowledge for success.
The primary concern of the teacher
was to impart the knowledge.
learning is the primary
goal of the teacher as opposed to
The teacher must motivate the
students to learn, participate,
critically think and successfully
perform in tests.
Learning by Objectives
Learning by Example
Learning by Discovery
Learning to learn
ICT in education is a much needed
vehicle of achieving the modern
philosophy of education whereby a
student can decide on:
WHAT he learns
WHEN he learns
WHERE he learns, and
HOW he learns
“Technology will not have a
significant impact on student
learning until teachers change
the way they teach.”
Larry Cuban, 1986
Technology is continuously changing. It is
an ongoing process. It demands continual
Change is not always easy.
The initial human reaction to change is
resistance. Resistance makes for slow
Change is inevitable.
Change led to progress.
The acceptance of change is a major
requirement for technology integration.
Technology is revolutionizing the way we
think, work, and play.
Technology enables teachers to provide
multiple representations of content (images,
graphs, diagrams, tables) and multiple options
for expression ( multimedia, power point).
Computer technology changes traditional
classroom instructional techniques.
Computers enable students to process the
information via multiple intelligences.
Technology integration helps to achieve
21st Century Skills in students . They
Personal and social responsibility.
Planning, critical thinking, reasoning,
Strong communication skills, both for
interpersonal and presentation needs.
Visualizing and decision-making.
Knowing how and when to use technology
and choosing the most appropriate tool
for the task.
Technology helps change the
student/teacher roles and
Technology cannot teach; only
teachers can teach.
Technology can enhance the
teaching- learning process.
What is Technology integration?
integration is the
use of technology resources -computers, Internet, e-mail,
digital cameras, CD-ROMs,
electronic publications, etc. -in daily classroom practices,
and in the management of a
How to use Information
technologies effectively ?
Using computer-based services to search
for and find relevant information in a
range of contexts.
using a variety of media to retrieve
Decoding information in variety of formswritten, statistical and graphic.
Using computer based services to
write, analyze, present and
Using information technologies to
create, to share and to store
The literature generally describes 3
major instructional use of
computer based technologies:
Learning from the
Learning about the
Learning with the
to Mr. Kofi Annan,
Secretary-General of the United
Nations, Information and
Communication Technology has
provide an array of
powerful tools that may help in
transforming the present
isolated teacher-centered and
text - bound classrooms into
rich, student – focused,
Food for thought
“ Any technology which
increase the rate of
learning would enable the
teacher to teach less and
the learner to learn more”
Information technology (IT) is
defined as the study or use of
electronic equipments, especially
computers for storing, analysing and
sending out information.
Communication technology is the
process of sending, receiving and
ICT is a generic term referring to
technologies, which are being
used for collecting, storing,
editing and passing on
information in various forms
ICT literacy basically involves using
digital technology, communication
tools and/or access, manage,
integrate, evaluate and create
information in order to function in a
Teachers use traditional print-based
Learning activities center around
Teachers are most concerned about
the basic operation of computers.
“I just don’t have time!”
Classroom instruction still depends
heavily upon chalkboards, textbooks,
Teachers use word processors for
Teachers use educational software,
including rudimentary drill-andpractice software to develop low-level
Students use word processors, databases,
some graphics applications, and many
computer-assisted instruction packages.
With the support of technology, student
Students’ basic computer skills improve.
Students are allowed to progress at their
Teachers and students demonstrate
highly developed skills with technology.
Teachers are comfortable with technology
Teachers develop new instructional
Emphasis shifts to collaborative learning.
Students move toward collaborative work
Teachers facilitate the construction of
Classrooms promote social
interaction, encouraging students to
share their own knowledge and
Teachers implement a curriculum
integrated with technology.
Teachers employ a variety of student
the educators should acquire:
1.ICT Operations and Concepts – teachers
demonstrate a sound understanding of
ICT operations and concepts.
2.Planning and Designing Learning
Environments and Experiences – teachers
plan and design effective learning
environments supported by ICT.
3. Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum
– teachers implement curriculum plans
that include methods and strategies for
The skills and competencies
4.Assessment and Evaluation – teachers
apply ICT to facilitate a variety of effective
5.Productivity and Professional Practice –
teachers use ICT to enhance their
productivity and professional practices
6.Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues
– teachers understand the social, ethical,
legal, and human issues surrounding the
use of ICT in College.
Initial: This level indicates that the educator
has a level of awareness of the potential uses of
This is the stage when the educator first begins
to experiment ICT in the classroom at a basic
level for discrete lessons.
Developing: This level indicates that the
educator is increasingly aware of using
ICT to enhance student learning.
The educator now incorporates ICT into
the classroom on a daily basis.
This level indicates
that the educator is a leader in
the use of ICT.
Instructional computing consists of
IT tools, methods and services.
It allows faculty to improve their
It provide an enhancing learning
environment for students.
1.Improved /expanded facultystudent communications-e.g e-mail,
on-line chatrooms, virtual class
2.Improved instructional logistics and
communications-e.g. e-syllbus, online submission of assignment, online testing
3.Expanded and improved classrooms
and laboratory instructional
methods- e.g. simulations
4.Use of alternate learning delivery
mechanisms- e.g. satellite, video,
5.Faculty IT access to electronic
material-e.g. digital library, multimedia
6.The IT infrastructure needed to
support the above uses-e.g. www, file
servers, news servers, courseware
acquisition and distribution.
Wired classrooms with audio/visual
equipment and computer projection and
Attributes of Computer based
Multi-sensory delivery: Text, graphics,
animation, sound and video.
Active learning: enhanced learner interest.
Co-operative learning: positive group/social
Communication Skills: one-to-one, one-tomany, many-to-many.
Multicultural education: link students from
across the country/around the world.
Motivation: greater learner engagement
Prior to working with computers, students
can discuss concepts in the lesson and plan - what
they are going to do.
While using computers, students can discuss either orally or via computer - what they are working
During a pause in computer use, students
can analyze - what they have learned and done, share
information with others, and plan their next steps.
After using computers, students can again
analyze and share - what they have learned and done,
as well as what they need to do next.
ICT poses new challenges to
The teachers have to learn how to use the
variety of ICT applications;
The teachers have to use, adapt and design
They have to expand the content area of
They have to take new roles; and
They have to respond to individual students
ICT does not automatically add quality to
teaching and learning.
ICT application in education can accelerate and
improve learning on a number of fronts from
basic skills, problem solving, information
management, establishing life-long learning
habits and concepts development.
It can also provide the means of gathering,
connecting and analysing data about teaching
Multimedia PC, Laptop, Notebook.
CDs& DVDs. digital video, still camera.
Internet and its tools- e-mail ,browsers,
website, search engines, chat etc.
Computer aided instruction& computer
mediated conferencing, video/audio
Digital libraries , e-books& electronic
Microsoft publishing -news letter, poster,
Advantages of ICT
wide variety of services;
Word processing -documents, notes,
Spread sheet programming -records,
Data bases -information storage
Graphing software -to prepare
Developing Multimedia kits -to make
Using internet and e-mail facilities
-to gain knowledge
Games and simulations -to improve
quality of learning
Helps to provide interactive learning
Students are stimulated and motivated
by the technology
Students have comfortable learning .
Visualization aids in the understanding
of difficult concepts and processes
Caters to different learning styles
Helps students to gain valuable computer
Aids in collaboration and group work.
Transforms teaching and helps teachers
to be more efficient and effective.
Aids in the organization and the
structure of the course and the course
Provides innovative ways to help
students learn basic concepts and skills .
Aids in the provision of interesting and
creative presentations of content.
Facilitate collaboration and
Aid in the visualization of difficult
Enable ease in revision and updating of
Provide flexibility and variety in
Provide a multimedia presence in the
Computer is a creativity machine,
Computer is a information processing
Computer is a teaching aid.
1. Computers provide an opportunity to
enhance the way students think about,
manage, process and use information.
2.The use of computers helps us see patterns
and relationships in the data that we
collect and work with.
3.Students can learn the material at their
own time and pace.
4.Computer based learning appeals to a
variety of cognitive strengths and learning
CBI provides consistency of content
CBI provides for diverse learning needs.
CBI offers learner flexibility in
controlling and pacing learning.
CBI provides motivation and promotes
CBI provides greater retention and
reduces the instructional time.
CBI provides means of tracking
CBI allows standardized testing.
CBI provides opportunities for
practice through simulation.
CBI more readily provides training
to remote locations and eliminates
cost associated with travel.
A system that allows access to
information sites all over the world.
Information is presented in text, audio
and video files.
Resources such as lecture notes,
readings, tutorials and assignments can
be delivered to, and received from,
students both on and off campus.
Web assisted classroom instruction -the
teacher teaches the lesson with the help of
The interactions may be in the form of
discussion ,questioning, demonstration
The learner searches website,
collects information and learns the
Web is a viable tool to help students
gain education without being on
It allows greater autonomy of
the Internet consists of a vast collection
of independent computers linked by
national and international telecommunication networks.
Each Internet site contains
information (text, images, audio, video,
links etc.) which are accessible to the
individual working from their home
Internet sites are increasing in number,
sophistication and content.
These changes have arisen due to commercial
adoption of the Internet.
Internet provides information in text,
graphics, audio and video.
New programming allows a greater degree of
interactivity through real time audiovisual
transfers and chat.
Coloured and animated graphics are of much
greater educational value than photocopied
Online learning tasks
One - alone: Online data bases,
e-journals, digital libraries.
One – to - one: Collaborative assignments’
One – to - many: Online lectures,
Many - to - many: Discussion groups,
debates, games, simulations,
case studies, brain
Hypertext consist of a complex webs of
The linking of information together by
highlighted key words that have been
marked up creating paths through
related material from different sources.
An approach to information storage
and retrieval that provides multiple
linkages among elements .
It allows the learner to navigate
easily from one piece of information
It is the storage and retrieval of
text, images audio and video files.
documents in a
hypermedia or hypertext
It provides a platform for
incorporating a variety of
different kinds of multimedia file types: images,
video, audio and
It is neat and clean and it
allows for portability of
It is easy for professors to
update, saving them time
Students who use multimedia tools are
Students reflect these kind of tasks
throughout their life.
Students work collaboratively, not
only with each other, but with
researchers and teachers.
A typical system consists of a
combination of a compact disc,
computer and video technology.
The interactive video refers broadly
to software that responds to certain
choices and commands by the user.
Videodisc systems store video
pictures, still pictures, and sound on
discs that users can control with a
These systems can provide the
interactive capabilities of computers
and the motion-picture capabilities
Video Conferencing is a medium
where individuals or groups can
meet face-to-face in real time to
interact and exchange ideas.
Video conferencing began in the mid
1980's as compressed video.
Since it was introduced,
communication technologies have
A computer simulation attempts to
reproduce real-life situations
Simulations feature a combination of
text and graphics ,using dialogue and
inquiry to guide the student through a
Simulations also can bring about
higher-order synthesis and analysis
Tutorials are one of the most common
types of computer-assisted instruction.
Tutorials are “page-turners” similar to
textbooks, interspersed with
predetermined questions and responses.
The one-to-one tutoring and feedback
provided by a tutorial can make it an
excellent tool for improving student
knowledge (cognitive domain).
Drill-and-practice programs work
well in increasing student knowledge
through repetition, usually through
Students can take as much time as
they need or repeat sections, helping
to individualize instruction
Drill-and-practice programs provide
automatic feedback to learners.
ICT allow students to direct
their own learning.
the student learns facts,
concepts, and procedures
through the process of
discovery, or guided discovery.
ICT in Discovery Learning
1.Computer-based information retrieval
systems (e.g., electronic databases),
2.Micro-worlds (microcomputer-based labs
and simulations. Simulations are available
for biology, genetics, geology, chemistry,
physics, environment, social studies,
economics, and mathematics-), and
It allows control of sound, animation, text,
graphics, and full-motion video .
A digital library is a collection of
textual, numeric, graphic, audio
and video data stored in digital
form, indexed and logically linked
for ease of retrieval.
Unique features of digital
Safe storage and multiple access of
Ability to process numerical data
published in the literature
Ability to store variety of data
Access information from anywhere
in the world
Ease of search and retrieval
E-learning allows for different learning
On - line students group: allowing
students to interact with each other
On - line lecturing: allowing faculty to
interact with students
On - line counseling: helps students in
On - line libraries and resource center :
providing text, documents, articles for
E-mail enables students and faculty to
communicate with each other and with
people all over the world.
Students send questions to the instructor
and instructor can transmit the answer
instantaneously to all students.
Faculty can hold “ electronic office hours”
so that students can ask questions and
receive answers almost immediately.
Faculty can create “electronic suggestion
foxes” where students can post their
comments about the course.
Structured face-to-face telephone
interviewing where computer is used to
prompt the interviewee and record the
answer in a format convenient for further
It saves time and the need to travel.
It opens up possibilities for interviewing
research subjects from different parts of
It provides a limited register for
romote active and autonomous learning in students;
rovide students with competencies and technological
skills that allow them to search for, organize, and
analyze information, and communicate their ideas in a
variety of media forms;
nable teachers, students, and their parents to
communicate and share information on-line;
ngage students in collaborative, project-based learning
in which students work with classmates on complex,
real-world-like problems or projects;
rovide students with individualized or differentiated
instruction, to meet the needs of students with different
achievement levels, interests, or learning styles;
Applications of graphics
Rieber (1994) proposed five applications of
graphics that relate to learning outcomes and
events of instruction; these include:
cosmetic – graphics serve only as decoration
motivation – graphics serve to arouse curiosity
attention-gaining – graphics serve to focus the
learner’s attention on the instruction
presentation – graphics serve to "demonstrate
or elaborate a lesson concept" (p.50)
practice – graphics serve to provide visual
A dual coding theory of learning from
visual and verbal materials.
Framework of Mayer (1993)
This framework postulates the formation of
three types of mental "connections":
1) visual material is used to mentally form
a internal visual representation;
2) verbal material is used to form a verbal
representation, thus forming a verbal
3) the learner builds referential
connections between the visual
representation and verbal
To clarify your point
To emphasize your
To simplify your point
To unify your point
To impress your
Dart, B & Boulton-Lewis, G (eds) (1998) Teaching
and Learning in Higher Education. Melbourne,
Australian Council for Educational Research.
Gibbs G & Habeshaw T (1995) 253 Ideas for your
Teaching. Bristol, Technical and Education Services.
Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University
Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use
of Educational Technology. London, Routledge.
Weimer, M. (1990). Improving college teaching:
Strategies for developing instructional effectiveness.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sandholtz, J. H., C. Ringstaff, and D.W. Dwyer (1997).
Teaching with Technology: Creating Studentcentered Classrooms. New York, Teachers College
“If we understand the human
mind, we begin to understand
what we can do with
-Herbert A. Simon.
About the presenter
Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology
teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational
institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India627001.
He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of
He has more than 32 years of teaching and research
He has taught a diversity of courses ranging from Send
your comments to : pre- university to post graduate