Composting with OS1 probiotics


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Composting with OS1 probiotics

  1. 1. FIN AL OS Composting Composting has been at the forefront of the diversion and processing of organic wastes. This is because it is a relatively simple and robust process. It can be implemented as a small open windrow type facility through to a large centralized facility. It can be used for a diverse array of organic wastes including food wastes, leaf and yard wastes, bio-solids and industrial sludges. Most simply composting is a managed aerobic (i.e. in the presence of oxygen) microbial process that breaks down organic wastes into compost. The process is focused on breaking down or Table 1: Key Processing Parameters. decomposing those parts of the waste stream Key parameters What is it? What is the that are most easy to decompose. This includes optimum? sugars, starches, fats and proteins. At the 10-15%Oxygen Composting microorganisms end of the process all that is left are the parts are aerobic and require oxygen of the waste stream that are more resistant to to survive. This is supplied by composting. Composting is said to stabilize introducing air into the composting mass. waste. This means that the resultant compost will continue to break down but at a very Moisture Microorganisms require moisture to 50-60% slow rate. survive. Moisture is present in wastes. A key advantage of the composting process Supplemental moisture can also be added to a composting mass. is that its high temperature essentially kills all pathogens and weed seeds that might be Carbon to The mass of carbon and nitrogen 25:1 found in wastes. Nitrogen Ratio in wastes. Carbon rich wastes (C:N) include leaves and woody materials. Bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes are the Nitrogen rich materials include food wastes, grass and biosolids. microorganisms responsible for the composting Insufficient nitrogen limits the process. While they all play different roles composting process. they have essentially the same requirements. The optimal level is 25parts carbon Composting is about creating a suitable to 1 part nitrogen. It is balanced by blending togetherenvironment for the microorganisms. a number of feedstocks (i.e. waste The key process parameters are described in types). Table 1. pH A measure of acidity and alkalinity. 6-9 A schematic and simple mass balance of the The composting process can tolerate a wide range. composting process is shown in Figure 1. The composting process results in the generation of Porosity This is related to void space in 1-5 cm heat, carbon dioxide and water. It results in the the composting mass and is production of a stable compost that contains manipulated by adding bulking agents such as wood chips. no pathogens or weed seeds. © Organic Solutions 1 TheCompostingProcess Copyright - ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
  2. 2. FIN AL TheCompostingProcess Figure 1: Schematic and Mass Balance of Composting Produced The composting process is started Heat by blending together different types of wastes. The focus of compost C02 H20 recipe development is to find a blend of wastes with sufficient nutrients and moisture as well Water as enough porosity so that the composting mass can become and remain aerobic. Nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich wastes are Oxygen H20 blended together to optimize nutrient levels for the composting microorganisms The carbon-rich wastes also serve to help absorb Wastes Composting Mass Finished Compost moisture and provide porosity in the composting mass. Mass Start 100% Finish 50% The naturally occurring Volume Start 100% Finish 20% microorganisms present in OS1dmsTM -sw will start to decompose the wastes. This microbial activity is manifest by the release of energy in the form of heat. The process goes through a number of characteristic temperature phases. It starts off at ambient temperature but then increases rapidly as microbial activity increases. During high rate composting, when microorganisms are decomposing the most easy to break down parts of the waste stream, process temperatures increase. Temperatures up to 70º C are not uncommon. These high temperatures kill human and plant pathogens in the wastes. After high rate composting, the microorganisms are left with less easy to break down parts of the waste stream to decompose. This results in a reduction of microbial populations and a reduction, over time, of process temperatures. This is referred to as the curing process. This is an essential part of the composting process and important in terms of compost stability and maturity. The entire composting process with OS1 can take anywhere from 30 to 45 days to complete. Compost is a soil conditioner and can be used to improve soil quality and health. Its benefits include increase in organic matter, soil porosity, and water holding capacity. 2 Organic Solutions Inc. ++ Reduces Mass of Waste ++Suppression of foul odor ++Stabilizes Waste ++Reduces Pathogens ++ Produces a valuable Product ++Effective treatment of leachate ++Control of Vectors ++ Cost Effective OS COMPOSTING Copyright - ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
  3. 3. FIN AL Overview of OS Composting Technology Compost Basics 1. Food Mix (Raw Materials) For Fast Composting, it is very important to have the right kind of mix of wastes. The initial mix must have the proper moisture and air content, and organic matter that provide a rich food (energy) source for the microorganisms to grow and in turn decompose the organic matter. A list of food materials is given below. They are separated into “Energy Materials”, “Bulking Agents” and “Balanced Materials” Bulking Agents Energy Materials Balanced Materials Low Moisture High Porosity Low Nitrogen High Moisture Low Porosity High Nitrogen Low to medium moisture Medium Porosity Medium Nitrogen Wood chips Sawdust Grass Hay Wheat or Paddy straw Corn Stalks Sugarcane leaves Kitchen Waste Animal dung Tree trimmings Dry Leaves Shrubs Horticulture Waste Mixing the energy materials with balanced materials and bulking agents provides the right kind of air, moisture and nutrients required for rapid composting MSW collected at the city level (centralized) has the right blend of wastes. 2. Pile Dynamics Pile Size – The pile must be big enough to hold heat. A hot pile decays much faster than a cold pile. We usually make piles as high as 2-2.5 mtrs. Moisture – All materials in the pile must be moist but not soaking wet. This is a very important factor to be kept in mind when spraying OS1dmsTM -sw. The moisture to be maintained is 55-60%, the material should feel moist, but one should not be able to squeeze water out. Aeration – There are many ways of allowing enough air into the pile. One is to use enough bulking agents to make the pile porous. The other way is to make a honey combed brick structure for layer method. It is also important to turn the pile to facilitate aeration. Copyright - ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
  4. 4. FIN AL 3. OS1dmsTM -sw OS1 acts like a catalyst to rapidly decompose the organic matter into compost. OS1 consists of a symbiotic mixture of various naturally occurring microbes which repopulates the local environment with healthy and beneficial microbes. OS probiotic technology works in the manner opposite to anti-bacterial products in that it introduces beneficial microbes in a living system rather than killing the bad bacteria. The repetitive introduction of Probiotics ensures that healthy microbes dominate the disease causing populations. Consequently, OS Probiotics technology provides sustainable solutions to the system without causing any downstream problems. Benefits of OS1 Composting 1. Faster Composting Compost can be made within 30-40 days from any type of organic waste like garbage, kitchen waste, garden waste and press mud, etc. Faster decomposition leads to saving in space and faster turnaround time and reduced costs. 2. Foul Odor Suppression The volume of harmful green house gases like CH, H2S, NH4, CO etc is reduced with the application of OS1, which also leads to suppression of foul odor in a matter of few hours. The mechanism behind foul odor suppression is as follows- a. Odor Substances are weak alkaline in nature and are primarily represented by ammonia. It is neutralized with the organic acids present in OS1dms®. b. The enzyme and antioxidants reduce odor in a synergetic way, a sort of a buffer effect c. Foul odor is emitted by putrefactive type of microbes. When OS1 is applied to a system, the process moves towards fermentation instead of rotting and the beneficial microbes dominate over the putrefactive microbes 3. Control of Vectors Population of vectors like mosquitoes and flies that spread various diseases is suppressed. OS1 essentially helps to control the growth of larvae population, thus inhibiting their growth. 4. Usage at any scale of operations The technology can be scaled to any size of operation – from centralized large scale composting plants to decentralized household level. 5. Efficient Treatment of Leachate It treats the leachate emanating from solid waste, which can otherwise pollute the environment. 6. Easier Segregation of Waste Segregation is easier due to reduced quantity and suppression of foul odor. 4 Organic Solutions Inc. Copyright - ORGANIC SOLUTIONS