The eighteenth century


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The eighteenth century

  1. 1. India in the Era of Transition
  2. 2.       Mughal Empire (1526-1707) Early thesis of the 18th century as an era of Darkness Increasing Tax burden Hindu Resistance / Wars of Peasant Resistance/ Regional Elites rising their heads Complex struggle for supremacy for empire Changes in the pattern of class formation
  3. 3.      Independent Provinces Warrior States of Sikhs, Jats and Marathas Local Kingdoms and Warrior Adventurers Mughal Legitimacy Conquests, Intrigues and Fractional Squabbles
  4. 4.        Increased Agricultural Productivity Favorable Land Labor Ratio Peasant and Artisan Mobility Rise of Hereditary Land Holders Thriving Internal Trade in Grain, Textiles and Cattle Rise of New Urban Centers Decline of Ancient Indian Port Cities and Indian Maritime Traders
  5. 5.         Popular Devotional Cults Darga of Muinuddin Chisti and complex religious rituals Vaishnava Cult of Nadia Varanasi as the center of Hindu learning in South Asia Idea of Hindu Padpadsahi in Maharashtra Sikh Muslim clashes Emergence of the notion of Islamic Revival (Shah Waliullah, 17031762 and Shah Abdul Aziz17461824) Complex interaction between religious heterodoxy and orthodoxy