Science+Innovation+Education+Girlchild+Women Leaders CSW58 UN Women

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Empowering African girls/women, specifically in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) is crucial to achieving Accelerated African Agriculture Growth and Transformation Goals (3AGTGs) and MDGs. Many women are discouraged from STEM professions from before high school. In most African countries, women make up close to 70% of the labor force in agricultural production – dominated by smallholder farming, which is characterized by a low level of mechanization, household risk management + entrepreneur spirit. Closing the gender gap in African Academies of Science, African Agricultural Economics Association, African Accounting profession, African Societies of Engineering and in African universities and technical colleges – where women are noticeably underrepresented -- is essential to Africa maximizing its natural endowments of agricultural production assets to feed itself and many others in the world. Beyond eradicating hunger, empowered women with STEM education can unleash a level of creativity in joint-product innovation for 3BL sustainable development (social, economic, environmental) including adaptation processes/tools to dampen the impact of Climate Change (CC) in Africa, and in other emerging market/developing/developed market economies.

Increased access to formal education at every life stage – especially of girl children – is the factor to best equip Africans with tools and understanding of the integrated economic/business/social/peace/security links between nutrition-education performance-community resilience-household income-increasing urban consumer demand for food and energy-the business of innovation and CC adaption processes/products-increasing national/regional/continental GDP in a manner that can withstand shocks (resilience). Diverse industries - early childhood education, integrating ICT/ smart phone technology for ag extension service and improved access to credit, education – depend on empowering African women and girls; and, is at the heart of opening opportunities for girls/boys/women/men members of the community to prosper. Wages, agricultural income and productivity – critical for reducing poverty and eradicating hunger – are higher when women involved in agriculture value-chain, receive a better education.

Almost half of the worlds’ out-of-schools girls, are in sub-Saharan Africa - the large gap between girls and boys persists, especially in rural STEM education. The AWARD Program forms the foundation of AWARD Fellows and Mentors in Nigeria creating NiWARD program. With Federal/State government partners, NiWARD is deploying its interventions portfolio to build capacity of local/rural/peri-urban/grass roots women, to increase their income + farm productivity via improved access to technology and finance. NiWARD, as a country-level program, will ensure that the “change value” of empowered Nigerian women scientists is embedded in Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA).

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Science+Innovation+Education+Girlchild+Women Leaders CSW58 UN Women

  1. 1. 1   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:     WOMEN,  GIRL  CHILD     AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   Stella  Williams,  Joyce  Cacho,  Mojisola  Olayinka   Edema,  Viola  Williams  and  Olabukunola  Williams     Authors*:   P  A  R  A  L  L  E  L          S  E  S  S  I  O  N   Sponsored  by   In  partnership  with   African  women  tackle  the   urgency  for  access  and   participation  of  women  and  girls   to  education  in  the  broad  areas   of  science,  technology,   engineering  and  mathematics   (STEM)   10:30  am   Saturday,  15  March  2013   777  United  NaMons  Plaza   New  York  City,  NY   *For  follow-­‐up:  aquabolaster@googlemail.com   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     2  
  2. 2. 2   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     3   I.  IntroducMon   •  Innova)on  is  a  basic  dimension  to  African   countries  rising.   •  Agriculture  con)nues  to  dominate  the  economies   of  the  majority  of  con)nent.     •  Achieving  economic  growth  targets  through   integra)ve  development  policies  and  investment   with  agriculture  at  the  center,  is  unavoidable   – pressing  focus  of  poli)cal,  social,  and  industry   discussions   – domes)cally  and  interna)onally.     4  
  3. 3. 3   I.  IntroducMon   •  Especially  true  in  assessing  strategies  to  achieve   the  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDGs)  and   Post  2015  Development  goals   –   where  gender  equality,  sustainable  development  and   food  security  are  closely  linked   5   Thus,  the  saying  that  “when  you  educate  a  woman  or  the  girl  child,   you  are  educa6ng  a  na6on”  not  only  holds  true  today,  it  is  at  the   center  of  current  strategy  formula)on  discussions  about  eradica)ng   hunger  and  achieving  economic  growth  rates  for  increasing   popula)ons  worldwide.     EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     6  
  4. 4. 4   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   •  The  agriculture  sector  con)nues  to  be  the  largest   employer  of  labor  in  most  African  countries.   •  Close  to  70%  of  women  in  Africa  are  the  drivers  of   agriculture  produc)on   –  Agriculture  is  at  the  center  of  rural  communiSes.   •  Under-­‐representa)on  of  women  in:   –  African  Academies  of  Science   –  African  Agricultural  Economics  Associa)on   –  African  Accoun)ng  profession   –  African  Socie)es  of  Engineering   –  African  universi)es  and  technical  colleges   7   African  Women   in  Agricultural   Research  and   Development   (AWARD)   Fellowship   Program     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development   •  Career-­‐development  program  to  accelerate   agricultural  gains  by  strengthening  their  research  and   leadership  skills,  through  tailored  fellowships   •  Top  women  agricultural  scien)sts  across  sub-­‐Saharan   Africa   •  Ini)ally  funded  by  the  Bill  and  Melinda  Gates   Founda)on  (BMGF)  and  the  United  States  Agency  for   Interna)onal  Development  (USAID)   –  Focus  on:  Candidates  from  English-­‐speaking  Africa   8   (AWARD)  Fellowship  Program    
  5. 5. 5   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development   •  Expanded  to  5  francophone  African  countries  by   partnering  with  CORAF/WECARD,  Senegal,  and  Agropolis   Fonda)on,  France   •  Private  sector  partners  provide  a  commercial  perspec)ve   on  STEM  careers   •  These  female  scien)sts/  AWARD  Fellows  charged  to:   –  return  to  their  home  countries   –  assist  with  solu)ons  to  the  daily  challenges    of  rural  female  farmers   –  focus  on  crops,  livestock  and  fisheries   9   (AWARD)  Fellowship  Program     BASIS  OF   household   nutriSon  +   community   trade   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development   •  Addi)onally,  AWARD  Fellows  are  to  innovate   processes  to:   –  improve  access  to  markets   –  improve  access  to  agricultural  extension  informa)on   –  reduce  the  drudgery  of  value  addi)on  in  farming   10   (AWARD)  Fellowship  Program     Increasing  the  number  of  African  women  in  Science,  Technology,   Engineering  and  MathemaMcs  (STEM)  is  pivotal   to  Africa  achieving  the  goals  of  hunger  eradicaMon  and  poverty   reducMon.    
  6. 6. 6   •  Historically,  IF  women  were  explicitly  considered  !   only  in  agricultural  produc6on   •  It  is  clear  that  women  are  also  the  force  in  Africa  in   value-­‐chains  beyond  the  farmgate,  such  as  in:   –  primary  processing   –  post  harvest  loss  management,     –  marke)ng  of  agricultural  commodi)es  to  consumer  ready   items   –  for  na)onal,  regional,  con)nental  and  off-­‐con)nent   markets   11   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development   •  In  today’s  consumer  demand  driven  agriculture,   overlooking  these  addi)onal  roles  of  African  women   translates  into  missed  innova)on  opportuni)es   •  Visibility  of  women  in  agriculture  is  increasing  and  the   value  women  add  to  the  sector,  is  being  researched   and  recognized   –  coinciding  with  the  much-­‐needed  push  to  bring  gender   equality  to  STEM  professions  and  Africa’s  talent  pipeline.   12   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development  
  7. 7. 7   13   II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural      Development   Women  in  leadership  and  integraMon  of  women  in  STEM,   are  crucial  to  realizing  the  potenMal  of  the  agricultural   sector     to  increase  economic  welfare,  peace,  prosperity  and   security  in  rural  communiMes  and  naMons.   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     14  
  8. 8. 8   III.  Challenges     " Absence  or  complicated  land  rights   " Low  access  to  market  informa)on     " Low  access  to  extension  services     " Low  access  to  credit,     " Low  focus  on  mechanized  tools  and  equipment     " Absence  of  robust  intellectual  property  rights   …Combine  to  form  a  formidable  wall  for  women   from  diverse  cultures     of  the  African  conSnent     15   III.  Challenges     Focus  on  increased  access  to  formal  educa)on  in  every   dimension,  and  at  every  life  stage  –  especially  of  girl   children  –  is  the  factor  that  will  best  equip  Africans  with   the  tools  and  understanding  of  the  integrated  links   between:   " nutri)on   " educa)on  performance   " community  resilience   " household  income   " Increasing  demand  for    food  and  energy   16   "  innova)on  of  adap)on   processes  and  products   related  to  climate  change  
  9. 9. 9   III.  Challenges     17   •  Educa)on  is  at  the  heart  of  empowering  and   transforming  the  lives  of  African  women  and  girls*,   opening  the  aperture  for  each  member  of  the   community  –  including  men  and  boys  –  to  contribute   to  increasing  the  prosperity  of  the  community   •  Closing  the  gender  gap  in  agriculture  through  educa)on   will  catalyze  countries  to  achieve  the  MDGs  goals,   especially  in  addressing  hunger  and  sustainability     *  References  in  paper:  Strong  correlaMon  between  countries  with  a  high  gender  gap  and  countries  struggling  with  high   levels  of  hunger.    AddiMonally,  wages,  agricultural  income  and  producMvity  –  all  criMcal  for  reducing  poverty  –  are  higher   where  women  involved  in  agriculture  receive  a  beer  educaMon.   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     18  
  10. 10. 10   IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     •  Half  of  the  world’s  popula)on  is  women  and  girls   •  Data  shows  that  almost  half  of  the  worlds’  out-­‐of-­‐ school  girls  are  in  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa   – Therefore,  even  in  terms  of  basic  literacy,  the   no6ceably  large  gap  between  girls  and  boys   persists       •  The  MDGs  forced  many  African  na)ons  to  increase   educa)on  funding,  which  is  linked  to  a  subtle   narrowing  of  the  literacy  gap  between  African  girls   and  boys   19   IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     •  However,  the  challenges  are  not  going  away  at  a  rate   to  make  the  much  needed,  drama6c  difference  in   eradica)ng  hunger  and  reducing  poverty,  not  even  in   the  next  15-­‐20  years   •  The  gaps  are  most  stark  and  prominent  in  STEM   educa)on,  especially  in  rural  areas   •  These  areas  require  our  focus  and  commitment  to   turn  the  )de   20  
  11. 11. 11   IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     •  Interven)ons  to  promote  educa)on,  gender  equality   and  food  security  must  include  rural  women  and  rural   communi)es     •  It  has  been  shown  that  “empowering  rural  women   increases  agricultural  produc)on  and  food  security.”   •  To  build  on  interna)onal  grant  programs,  such  as  the   AWARD  Fellowship  Program,  AWARD  Fellows  and   Mentors  in  Nigeria  came  together  to  create…   21   22   Nigerian  Women  in  Agricultural   Research  for  Development  (NiWARD)   Program     niward.org   IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon    
  12. 12. 12   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     23   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   •  The  NiWARD  concept  exists  because  of  the  more  than   6  years  of  history  that  the  AWARD  Program  created   •  Given  the  size  of  the  gender  equality  challenge  in   STEM  in  Africa  and  the  strong  appe)te  for  Africa’s   markets  that  grew  at  an  average  annual  rate  of  more   than  8  percent*,  the  AWARD  program  was  a  strategic   outgrowth  of  a  pilot  project  by  the  Gender  and   Development  Program,  (CGIAR)     24   ,    *  At  the  same  Mme  that  the  global  economy  experienced  a  precipitous  drop  in  performance.  
  13. 13. 13   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   •  NiWARD  takes  the  AWARD  Program  goals  of  building   connec)ons  and  networks  to  con)nue  to  focus  on   achieving  food  secure  countries  through  empowering   women  and  mainstreaming  gender       •  Study*  showed  that:     –  only  1  in  4  researchers  were  women  and  at  the  leadership   level,  only  1  in  7  women  held  management  posi)ons   –  programs  like  AWARD  are  necessary  to  reduce  the  gender   gap  in  agriculture.       25   *  Study  undertaken  by  AWARD  and  Agricultural  Science  and  Technology  Indicators  (ASTI)  on  “Female  ParMcipaMon  in   African  Agricultural  Research  and  Higher  EducaMon:  New  Insights”.   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   •  Of  the  countries  with  available  compara)ve  data,  the   percentage  of  women  working  in  agricultural  research   and  ins)tu)ons  of  higher  learning  range  from  as  low   as  6%  in  Ethiopia  to  41%  in  Botswana,  which  ranked   highest  in  the  survey.   •  Survey*  results  indicated  that  in  the  most  cri)cal   science  -­‐-­‐  the  basic  sciences  -­‐-­‐  the  par)cipa)on  rate  of   women  is  flat  or  declining   26   *  Study  undertaken  by  AWARD  and  Agricultural  Science  and  Technology  Indicators  (ASTI)  on  “Female  ParMcipaMon  in   African  Agricultural  Research  and  Higher  EducaMon:  New  Insights”.  
  14. 14. 14   •  Basic  sciences  are:   -  historically  overwhelmingly  dominated  by  men   -  have  huge  implica)ons  for  transforma)onal  innova)on  in   agriculture  and  the  related  fields   -  water  management,  soil  quality  management,  nutri)on   •  Women  graduates  in  agriculture  show  a  low   preference  for  pursuing  agricultural  research  as  a   profession   •  Is  the  research  work  environment  supporSve  of   career  advancement  of  women?   27   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   •  NiWARD  will  address  this  challenge  directly  by:   -  drawing  on  the  network  strength  of  AWARD  fellow  and   mentor  alumni  of  women  and  men  to  promote  capacity   building  through  training  in  scien)fic  research  and  outreach   to  rural  communi)es  na)onally   -  Partnering  with  the  Federal  and  State  government  to  help   local  women  -­‐-­‐  at  the  grass  roots  level  -­‐-­‐  to  increase  their   income  and  farm  produc)vity  through  improved  access  to   technology  and  finance.   •  NiWARD  is  building  a  porkolio  of  impackul   interven)ons   28   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   "If  you  want  to  go  quickly,  go  alone.  If  you  want  to  go  far,  go  together.”      -­‐  Old  African  proverb.  
  15. 15. 15   •  NiWARD,  as  a  Na)onal  program,  will  ensure  the   visibility  of  empowered  Nigerian  women  scien)sts   through  their  involvement  in  the  na)on’s  Agricultural   Transforma)on  Agenda  (ATA),  a  program  that  is   directed  by  the  President  of  Nigeria,  Dr.  Goodluck   Jonathan     29   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   "If  you  want  to  go  quickly,  go  alone.  If  you  want  to  go  far,  go  together.”      -­‐  Old  African  proverb.   •  Demonstra)ng  leadership  and  ownership  by  Nigerian   women  scien)sts,  builds  on  skills  honed  as  AWARD   Program  Fellows…raises  the  profile  of  agricultural   research  careers  to  women  and  girls  in  rural   communi)es,  academic  ins)tu)ons,  government   administra)on,  and  more  broadly  State  and  Federal   legisla)ve  bodies,  and  the  private  sector   30   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   "If  you  want  to  go  quickly,  go  alone.  If  you  want  to  go  far,  go  together.”      -­‐  Old  African  proverb.  
  16. 16. 16   •  The  incep)on  of  NiWARD  was  supported  by:   –  Dr.  Akin  Adesina,  Minister  of  Agriculture,  Nigeria   –  Professor  Adebiyi  Daramola,    Vice  Chancellor  of  the  Federal   University  of  Technology,  Akure  (FUTA),  Ondo  State,  Nigeria   –  Professor  Baba  Yusuf  Abubakar   •  The  collec)ve  efforts  of  Federal  and  State  level   support  led  to  NiWARD  establishing  a  base  at  the   Centre  for  Gender  in  Science  and  Technology     (CEGIST)  at  FUTA     31   V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   "If  you  want  to  go  quickly,  go  alone.  If  you  want  to  go  far,  go  together.”      -­‐  Old  African  proverb.   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:  WOMEN,   GIRL  CHILD  AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   I.  IntroducMon     II.  Science,  InnovaMon  and  Agricultural   Development   III.  Challenges     IV.  Women,  Girl  Child  and  Science  EducaMon     V.  Case  Study  on  Ownership  and  Leadership  at  the   Country  Level   VI.  Conclusion     32  
  17. 17. 17   VI. Conclusion   •  The  AWARD  Program  took  the  first  step   – by  inves)ng  in  the  African  women  scien)sts   mainstream  resilience  for  rural,  per-­‐urban,  or  urban   areas  communi)es.   •  NiWARD  is  taking  the  next  step  –  leadership  by   example   –   to  ensure  that  rural  women  and  communi)es  and   their  pivotal  role  in  eradica)ng  hunger  and  reducing   poverty  in  Africa,  is  engrained  in  the  dynamic  policy   and  ac)on  frameworks.     33   VI. Conclusion   •  Dis)nctly  including,  and  inser)ng  women   agricultural  researchers  and  rural  women  farmers   in  na)onal  agricultural  investment  strategies  is  the   lever  to  catalyze  transforma)on  of  the  structure  of   Africa’s  economies  to  deliver  robust  growth  for  the   rapidly  increasing,  and  youthful  popula)on.   34   The  rise  of  Africa  depends  on  it.    
  18. 18. 18   VI. Conclusion   •  AWARD  and  NiWARD  are  examples  of  very  much   needed  programs  in  the  increasing  investment   interest  in  Africa   •  Cross-­‐cuong  issue  of  gender  gaps,  between   opportuni)es  for:   –  women  and  men   –  girls  and  boys    is  shaping  decisions  to  scale-­‐up  the  results  of  pilot   and  mul)-­‐phase  projects   35   VI. Conclusion   •  Coordinated  frameworks  of  Na)onal  Agriculture  and   Food  Security  Investment  Plans  (NAFSIPs)  and  donor   coordina)on  at  the  na)onal  and  regional  levels  are   increasingly  the  vehicles  for  par)cipa)ng  in  Africa’s   growth     •  Closing  the  gender  gap  is  an  acute  challenge*     •  Defining  targets  on  a  gender  disaggregated  basis  in   the  Mutual  Accountability  Framework  (MAF)  of  the   Comprehensive  Africa  Agriculture  Development   Programme  (CAADP),  is  cri)cal  to…   36   *  in  many  parts  of  the  global  south,  there  is  a  structural  deficit  in  access  to  educaMon  by  girl  children.    Where  and    when   there  has  been  improved  access  to  primary  educaMon,  there  are  high  ariMon  rates  at  the  age  when  a  girl  matures  into  a   woman  -­‐-­‐  typically  at  the  high  school  age.  
  19. 19. 19   VI. Conclusion   •  …to  aprac)ng  the  quan)ty  and  quality  of  African   and  off-­‐con)nent  investment  capital  to  support   the  NAFSIPs*…in  a  way  that  should  translate  into   increased  investment  to:   –  increase  access  to  school,  and  at  at  the  same  )me,   –  reduce  girl  child  apri)on  rates  from  school;   –  improve  women’s  access  to  agricultural  input  markets  and   at  the  same  )me,  increase  the  number  of  women   entrepreneurs;  and,   –  for  the  youth  –  girl  and  boy  children  –  turnaround  the  trend   of  declining  interest  in  agricultural  sciences.     37   NAFSIPs  –  NaMonal  Agriculture  and  Food  Security  Investment  Plan.   VI. Conclusion   •  The  )me  is  now  to  close  the  gender  gap  in  agriculture   because,  it  is:   –  the  right  thing  to  do;  and,     –  a  major  lever  to  raise  the  plakorm  of  economic   performance  of  African  na)ons  so  that  they  are  more   resilient  and  generators  of  growth  for  con)nent-­‐wide   demand,  and  global  market  demand.     •  Achieving  Africa’s  current  food  and  nutri)on  security,   and  poverty  reduc)on  targets  is  the  basic   achievement  of  mainstreaming  gender  in  educa)on   in  STEM  areas.   38  
  20. 20. 20   VI. Conclusion   •  The  inter-­‐genera6onal  impact  of  robust  innova)on   systems:   –  from  cradle  to  grave;     –  from  farm  to  table;     –  from  households  to  communi)es   –  near  and  far    …by  linking  gender  outcomes  to  the  porkolio  of   investments  today,  is  the  bonus  achievement  when   we  close  the  gender  gap  -­‐-­‐  today.     39   VI. Conclusion   •  Data  based  advocacy,  public  affairs   communicaMon  and  formulaMon  of  a  legislaMve   agenda  by:   – all  par)cipants  at  the  CSW58,  UN  Women     – the  Africa  Union  Commission’s  (AUC’s)  Commissioner   Rhoda  Peace  Tumusiime  ,  Department  of  Rural   Economy  and  Agriculture  (DREA)  –  especially  in   celebra)ng  the  AUC  2014  Year  of  Agriculture  and  Food   Security    is  very  much  needed  to  achieve  the  goal  of…   40  
  21. 21. 21   VI. Conclusion   ..making  a  structural  break  with  the  past  by…   1.  Integra)ng  –  mainstreaming  –  the  girl  child  and   women  into  intensifying  the  iden)fica)on  of   solu)ons,  leading  ac)on  and  defining  processes   to  achieve  near  term  targets,  such  as  the  MDGs   and  CAADP  related  5  year  and  10  year  goals.   2.  Inves)ng  in  innova)on  processes  and  careers  for   women  in  STEM  professions  in  Africa.   41   42   EDUCATION  AND  CAPACITY  BUILDING:     WOMEN,  GIRL  CHILD     AND  SCIENCE  EDUCATION   Stella  Williams,  Joyce  Cacho,  Mojisola  Olayinka   Edema,  Viola  Williams  and  Olabukunola  Williams     Authors:   P  A  R  A  L  L  E  L          S  E  S  S  I  O  N   Sponsored  by   In  partnership  with   African  women  tackle  the   urgency  for  access  and   participation  of  women  and  girls   to  education  in  the  broad  areas   of  science,  technology,   engineering  and  mathematics   (STEM)   THANK  YOU!   አመሰግናለሁ   merci   o  ṣeun   ngiyabonga   asante   obrigado   ‫شكرا‬   na  gode   ¡gracias   na-­‐ekele  unu   mahadsanid   Natotela     Zikomo   Jai-­‐rruh-­‐jef   oh-­‐yeh-­‐rah-­‐don   may-­‐dah-­‐say   naa  goodee     kea  leboha   dankie  tangi   eio   Okuhepa   Murakoze   on  jaaraama  Enkosi   N'itumezi     ndatenda   Siyabonga   kea  leboga   oh-­‐yeh-­‐rah-­‐don  

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