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Poverty and disability


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Poverty and disability

  1. 1. byOYEWUMI, Adebomi (Ph.D)andADIGUN OlufemiDepartment of Special EducationUniversity of IbadanPOVERTYDISABILITYMDGs
  2. 2. The eight goals of the MDGs target to increase incomes;reduce hunger; achieve universal primary education;eliminate gender inequality; reduce maternal and childmortality; reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS,tuberculosis and malaria; reverse the loss of naturalresources and biodiversity; improve access to water,sanitation, and good housing; and establish effectiveglobal partnerships.Progress in some goals has been impressive; however,global targets fail to specifically target persons withdisability particularly sub-Saharan Africa and southAsia (World Bank, 2013).
  3. 3.  As a result, individuals with disability are among thepoorest of the poor with little or no means of survival,low income and unemployed.
  4. 4. Disability issuesDisability is a normal phenomenon in the sense that it existsin all societies, affecting predictable and identifiableproportions of each population. An estimated 10 percent ofthe world’s population – 650 million people – lives with adisability (WHO, 2009). Data from developing countries ishighly variable but generally the proportion of the disabledpopulation is much lower than in developed countries.Ademokoya and Oyewumi (2001) noted that Persons withdisabilities have the same needs as other people. Yet theyoften face barriers to information and social services(Adigun, 2012), stigma and prejudice (Shakespeare, 1994).
  5. 5. Due to social exclusion and discrimination in the labor market,World Bank (2013) noted that persons with disabilities may bedisproportionately affected by unemployment, leading to anincreased incidence of poverty. In addition, family membersacting as caretakers may be unemployed, healthcare costsrelated to having a disability may be high, and families whosehead of household is disabled are more likely to be poor.The physical, institutional and attitudinal obstacles that restrictthe exercising of basic rights and fundamental freedoms bydisabled people also affect their families.
  6. 6. There is a negative impact ofdisabilities on an individual,families and the society.DisabilityPovertysome persons with disabilitieslike all other sections ofsociety – do have medicalconcerns and need socialsupports, the most pressingconcern is poverty.Poverty is the state in which anindividual lacks a certainamount of material possessionor economic power to cater forhis or her immediate need. It isassociated with theundermining of a range of keyhuman attributes, includinghealth and quality of life.
  7. 7. Nigeria has one of the greatest development potentials inAfrica given the vastness of her resources and above allher rich human resource endowment. But regardless ofthese potentials, Aniekan (2011) regretted that Nigeriais still among the poorest countries of the world withher economy mired by multiple difficulties.According to Thomas (2005) poverty and disability arelinked in a vicious downward spiral. Poverty causesdisabling conditions and disability makes familiesvulnerable to economic, social and environmentalshocks. In other words, poverty is both a causeand consequence of disability
  8. 8. Persons with disabilities typically lackaccess to health and education, cleanwater and sanitation, have poorhousing and may live in over-crowded, unsanitary and unsafeareas.Direct costs oftreatmentForegone incomefrom disabilityIndirect costs toothers who providecareThe lives of persons withdisabilities are typicallyso much harderbecause of theirimpairments.Unfortunately, personswith disabilities aretypically actively andunwittingly excludedfrom developmentalactivities.
  9. 9. According to the UNDP (2010) report, the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs) represents the world’scommitments to deal with global poverty in its manydimensions.The very specific nature of many goals, reflecting theirdiverse, independent origins, leaves considerable gapsin coverage and fails to realize synergies that couldarise across their implementation. Apart from womenof reproductive age and children, the MillenniumDevelopment Goal (MDG) framework does not makeany reference to marginalized groups such as personsliving with disabilities. With the focus only onaggregate results, national progress can be madewithout any change in the situation of the poorest.
  10. 10. According to Thomas (2005), disability is not specificallymentioned in the MDGs, but disabled people are implicitlyincluded. Most development agencies acknowledge that thegoals cannot be achieved without addressing the needs andrights of disabled people. However, the relationship andrelevance of disability to the MDGs is not so wellarticulated and acknowledged. Attention only to averagesand ‘easier’ groups would jeopardize the ultimate goal ofpoverty eradication, and may result in even more intractablepoverty in 2015 (Chronic Poverty Research Centre, 2009).These partial targets mean the MDG framework isinherently flawed because it does not meet the needs of theworld’s poorest and most marginalized populations who areliving with disabilities.
  11. 11. Include theexcludedCollaborationReallocation andbroadermobilization ofresourcesWatchdogNationalanalysisEducationCommunity BasedRehabilitation(CBR)